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A Study to Increase the Shelf Life of A2 Milk of Sahiwal Cows

Anil Kanaujia Anup Kalra Om Prakash Jat Mohan Saxena Akhilesh Chandra Varshney
Vol 7(7), 48-50
DOI- http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20170527073320

A2 milk is the milk that contains only the A2 type of beta-casein protein whereas A1 milk contains only A1 beta casein or A1A2 type variant. A1 protein variant is commonly found in milk from crossbred and European breeds of cattle. A2 milk is found basically in indigenous cows and buffaloes of India. The total indigenous cattle population in India is 151 million, however, 21 million are pure indigenous descript animals which are registered with statutory bodies. These pure indigenous descript produce A2 milk which is good for health. As one of the key components of 5F, the Sahiwal cows being reared by ARF at its premises at village Chidana, Sonepat, Haryana, are being fed with organic feed ( balanced mix of in house produced compound feed & fodder) under the supervision of experts to maintain the health and optimal lactation of cows which produces A2 milk.


Keywords : A2 Milk Sahiwal Cows Shelf Life MBRT

Introduction

Milk is abundantly used as a best single food and its exceptional value is due to the fact that it contains all essential food ingredients. The health benefits of milk include increased bone strength, smoother skin, stronger immune system, prevention of illnesses such as hypertension, dental decay, dehydration, respiratory problems, obesity, etc. Although buffalo and cow both are milk giving animals, but, cow’s milk benefits are innumerable like easy to digest, coolant effect, useful in debility and does rejuvenation. In USA, Australia, New Zealand and other developed countries, people use to consume milk according to their needs and use milk like A2 milk (Boro et al., 2016) which is harmless to health. Milk contains about 85% water and the remaining 15% is the milk sugar lactose, protein, fat and minerals. Beta-casein is about 30% of the total protein content in milk. A2 milk is the milk that contains only the A2 type of beta-casein protein whereas A1 milk contains only A1 beta casein or A1A2 type variant. A1 protein variant is commonly found in milk from crossbred and European breeds of cattle. A2 milk is found basically in indigenous cows and buffaloes of India (Boro et al., 2016). A2 beta-casein is the beta-casein from cows that have been produced since before they were first domesticated over 10,000 years ago. It has no known negative effects on human health. In the past few thousand years, a natural mutation occurred which has resulted in a proportion of cows of European breeds producing a casein variant called A1 beta-casein. Slowly, these protein variant became dominant in milk which producing A1 milk. Scientists have suggested that gene encoding beta-casein was changed in a way such that the 67th amino acid in the 209 amino proteins was switched from proline to histidine. This new kind of beta-casein that was created is known as A1 beta-casein which is found in the milk of many crossbred cows such as Holstein, Jersey and Friesian. So, our future breeding policies for dairy animals should be done in a systematic manner, keeping an eye on producing clean and healthy milk which is none other than A2 milk (Boro et al., 2016)..

In 19th Livestock Report (19th Livestock Census – 2012), out of total livestock population of India cattle accounts for 191 million which includes exotic and indigenous (descript & non descript) animals. The total indigenous cattle population in India is 151 million, however, 21 million are pure indigenous descript animals which are registered with statutory bodies. These pure indigenous descript produce A2 milk which is good for health.

Ayurvet Ltd, since its inception has been promoting the “sustainable agriculture and animal husbandry practices” and support technologies which are environment friendly and affordable. ARF’s (Ayurvet Research Foundation, a subsidiary of Ayurvet Ltd.) 5F (Food, Feed, Fodder, Fuel and Fertilizer) program is guiding principle which implies sustainable integration of livestock and agriculture. As one of the key components of 5F, the Sahiwal cows being reared by ARF at its premises at village Chidana, Sonepat, Haryana are being fed with organic feed (balanced mix of in house produced compound feed & fodder) under the supervision of experts to maintain the health and optimal lactation of cows which produces A2 milk (certified by NBAGR, Karnal, Haryana) , considered to be easily digestible and beneficial for human health than A1 milk. Proper hygienic conditions are maintained while milking, and storing the raw milk under chilled conditions. The pure milk is distributed to the nearby village customers with a purpose to improve their family health. The shelf life determination of raw milk was taken up as one of the objective to establish its quality on storage at 4°C at state-of-the art ARF R&D Centre (approved by DSIR, Ministry of Science & Technology, Government of India) at Chidana.

Material and Method

The Methylene Blue Reduction Test (MBRT) was carried out to assess the microbiological quality of raw milk (MBRT, IS 1479 part-3, 1977). Sahiwal cows’ pooled raw milk was collected immediately after milking, thorough mixed, poured 10 ml each in 14 sterile test tubes of 20-ml capacity and refrigerated at 4.00C. 1ml of methylene blue solution is added to each tube using pipette. Thoroughly mixed 1ml distilled water in 10 ml milk was used as control. The tubes were incubated on water bath for 5 hours with the observation after every 30 minutes. As per test specifications, the milk is considered to be of very good quality if blue color sustains for more than 5 hours, good if it sustains for 3-4 hours, fair if it sustains for 1-2 hours and poor below 1 hour (MBRT, IS 1479 part-3, 1977).

Result and Discussion

Analysis of fresh cow raw milk was carried out immediately after milking process i.e. “0” day, rest of the samples were analyzed consecutively each after the interval of 24 hours up to 13 days. Colour changes in the samples were observed after the addition of methylene blue reagent. If the blue color persists for 30 minutes to 5 hours and above then quality of milk is treated as very good as it is not infected by microbial organisms. Experiment was repeated for 9 more times on 9 more fresh samples and the quality of raw milk stored at 4°C was found to be very good up to 9 days of storage.

Conclusion

Sahiwal cows are being reared by ARF at its premises at village Chidana, Sonepat, under the supervision of experts. Proper hygienic conditions are maintained while milking, and storing the raw milk under refrigerated conditions. The pure raw A2 milk is distributed to the nearby village customers with a purpose to improve their family health. The milk can be stored for 9 days at 4°C.

Acknowledgement

We thank Mr. Mohan Ji Saxena, MD, Ayurvet Ltd., for providing necessary facilities, help and guidance.

References

  1. Boro, P.; Naha, B.C.; Saikia, D.P.; Prakas, C. 2016. A1 and A2 milk & its impact on human health. International Journal of Science & Nature, 7(1), 1-5.
  2. 19th Livestock Census – 2012, All India Report, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fishries, Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi, India.
  3. Methylene blue reduction test (MBRT), IS 1479 (part-3), 1977. Bacteriological analysis of milk.
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