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Adaptation of Murrah Cross Buffalo towards Heat Stress by Nutritional and Managemental Interventions at Coastal Climate of Goa

Samir Kumar Das Sanjay Kumar Udhawar Narendra Pratap Singh
Vol 8(5), 167-171
DOI- http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20180102102043

Twenty Murrah cross buffaloes consisting of ten lactating buffaloes, two heifers, six buffalo calves and two buffalo bulls were taken for the study from KVK of the institute. All the animals were housed in semi - open RCC shed with east - west orientation having GI sheet roof. Buffaloes were maintained in semi intensive system of management. Effort was taken to reduce heat stress on milk production in buffalo by managemental intervention ie manual cooling of buffalo by splashing of water twice daily and by nutritional intervention ie supplementation of bypass fat to the feed @ 20 g / lit of milk. Other managemental conditions were remaining same. Analysis of data revealed that in Murrah cross buffalo highest daily milk yield was attained upto 9.412 lit with overall mean value of 7.786 ± 0.120 lit / head / day. Milk yield was reduced by 333 ml and 15 ml per unit increase of maximum temperature and minimum temperature respectively but the effects were non- significant due to nutritional and managemental intervention. It was noted that milk yield was increased 9.36 % and fat per cent of milk was enhanced by 0 .80 % by supplementation of bypass fat along with manual cooling. Study on physiological response of buffaloes revealed that all the values were reduced except skin temperature in buffalo of treated group than that of control group, indicating that nutritional and managemental intervention reduced heat stress on the animal. It was also noted that heat stress was overcome by 24.71 % by fortification of feed with the bypass fat along with manual cooling by splashing of cold water twice daily.


Keywords : Adaptation Buffalo Coastal Climate Intervention

Introduction

The state of Goa lies between 15048″ and 14053″ north latitude and between 74020′ and   730 40′ east longitudes. It is located on the slopes of the Western Ghats and stretches out to a length of 105 km from north to the south and is about 60 km wide from east to west. The maximum temperature is 35 0 C and minimum temperature is 18 0 C. The total average rainfall is 3750 mm. The soil is laterite and some areas in coastal region have sandy soils. The state of Goa has two districts with 12 talukas. The human population as per last census stands of 13.44 lakhs and being an important tourist spot in the Indian Subcontinent on an average every year 15.0 lakhs tourist visit the state. The state covers partly Western Ghats providing green fodder and natural resources. As per 19th livestock census (2012), the bovine livestock population of India is 300 m out of which cattle population is 191 m and buffalo population is 109 m. In respect of milk production around 50 % milk is produced from buffalo i.e. one third bovine population. Hence, buffalo is called “Black Gold” and plays crucial role in food security of India. As per 19th livestock census (2012) the bovine livestock population of Goa is 89,278 out of which cattle population is 57,480 and buffaloes population is 31,798. The breedable buffalo population is 17,333. There is a decrease in buffalo population by 14.51 % during inter censuses period (2007 – 2012). There are 13 recognized breeds of buffalo in India. Major buffalo breeds reared in Goa are Murrah, Surti, Pandharpuri, non descript (local) and Crossbred.

Buffaloes are maintained under stall-fed and semi intensive system. The average birth weights of calves in Surti and Murrah buffaloes are 23-24 kg and 30-31 kg respectively. Age at maturity under stall fed conditions ranges from 30-32 months whereas in semi – intensive conditions it is 35 – 36 months. The average milk production of Surti under stall fed condition ranges from 6 – 8 litres / day with 5.5 % fat and 6.9 % SNF. Average lactation yield of Surti breed is 1500 – 1800 litres. In case of Murrah under stall fed and semi-intensive rearing average daily milk yield is 9 -10 litres and 7 – 8 litres, respectively, containing 6.9 % fat and 7.0 % SNF. Average lactation yield is 2500 – 2700 litres under stall fed condition and 2000 – 2200 litres under semi-intensive rearing. Buffaloes are bred both naturally as well as by artificial insemination. Considering the local population and visiting tourists the total milk requirement of the state is about 4.50 lakh liters per day.  The Goa dairy produce and supplies 1.00 lakh liters of milk per day and there is supply from other sources of about 2.00 lakhs liters. Thus there is a shortfall of about 1.50 lakhs liters of milk. Considering the present scenario, dairy production has got a good potential in this state as a potential source of earning. Data on the performance of buffalo in coastal climate is scanty. So, an effort was made to study the performance of Murrah cross buffaloes under different interventions for enhancing milk production and reducing heat stress under coastal climate of Goa.

Materials and Methods

Twenty Murrah cross buffaloes consisting of ten lactating buffaloes of third lactation, two heifers, six buffalo calves and two breed able buffalo bulls were taken for the study. All the animals were housed in semi open RCC shed with east – west orientation having GI sheet roof. Buffaloes were maintained in semi intensive system of management and allowed for grazing in the morning everyday for a period of three to four hours. However kadwa kutty i.e. sorghum straw was provided as dry fodder @ 4 – 5 kg / head / day, CO3 variety of hybrid napier was provided @ 6 -7 kg and concentrate pelleted feed was provided @ 6 – 7 kg / head / day as per physiological condition and yield of the animal. Effort was taken to reduce heat stress on milk production in buffalo by managemental intervention i.e. manual cooling of buffalo by splashing of cold water twice daily morning and afternoon and by nutritional intervention i.e. supplementation of bypass fat to the feed @ 20 g / lit of milk once daily. Bypass fat was prepared in our institute indigenously by mixing technical grade calcium salt and palm oil fatty acid a byproduct of oil industry refinery. Other managemental conditions were remaining same. Deworming was done twice a year by broad spectrum anthelmentic before and after monsoon. Vaccination was done yearly against HS, BQ and FMD.

Milk yield was recorded twice daily. Daily intake of feed and fodder was recorded. All the microclimatological data such as maximum and minimum temperature, dry bulb and wet bulb temperature were recorded daily in the morning as per standard procedure (IMD, 1994). THI were calculated as per West (1994). Physiological responses such as rectal temperature, respiration rate and pulse rate were recorded in the morning bimonthly as per standard procedure. Study was continued for a period of one year. Data were analysed as per Snedecor and Cochran (1994) using SPSS package version 10.1.

Result and Discussion

Analysis of data revealed that in Murrah cross buffalo highest daily milk yield was attained upto 9.412 lit in the month February, with overall mean value of 7.786 ± 0.120 lit / head / day. There was highly significant (P < 0.01) differences of average daily milk yield between the months. Av daily intake of concentrate pellet feed was approximately 6.15 kg in dry pregnant buffalo and 6.90 kg in lactating buffaloes. Av daily intake of dry fodder was approximately 6.30 kg. Data analysis also revealed that milk yield of buffalo was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by 272 ml per unit increase of THI. Milk yield was not reduced due to increase of air temperature, but it was reduced by 8 ml per % increase of relative humidity. Milk yield was reduced by 333 ml and 15 ml per unit increase of maximum temperature and minimum temperature respectively however, all the effects were non- significant. This was due to the reason that buffaloes are sensitive to high temperature as they have few sweat glands and thickness of skin is very high (Aggarwal and Singh, 2008), so sweating rate is also less in buffalo (Das et al., 1997). Therefore, cutaneous evaporative loss of heat is lesser in buffalo, even after increasing respiratory rate five to six times, buffalo cannot dissipate heat generated metabolically as well as from feed intake. So ultimately it reflects in higher heat load and resulting into thermal stress of buffalo particularly during summer. It was noted that heat stress was overcome by 24.71 % and milk yield was increased substantially i.e. around 9.36 % by supplementation of bypass fat along with manual cooling.

Six pregnant buffaloes delivered during this period. One male and five female calves were born with a sex ratio of 1:5. Study on physiological response of buffaloes revealed that rectal temperature, skin temperature, respiration rate and pulse rate were 37.94 ± 0.14 0F, 36.40 ± 0.17 0C, 18.06 ± 0.95 numbers / minute and 60.29 ± 2.05 numbers / minute respectively. All the values were reduced except skin temperature in buffalo of treated group than that of control group, indicating that nutritional and managemental intervention reduced heat stress on the animal. Sex wise analysis revealed that rectal temperature, skin temperature, respiration rate, pulse rate were higher in female than those in male with non significant differences between the sexes. Vaidya et al. (2012) reported the range of rectal temperature in buffalo as 37.9 to 38.5 0C which was similar to the present findings. They reported that skin temperature varied from 25.3 to 33.0 0C in different seasons. So, skin temperature reported by them was lower than that of present findings.

During this period five buffalo calves suffered from diarrhoea, out of these four were cured by antibiotic therapy and other supportive therapy, but one calf did not response to treatment and died. One calf suffered due to eye infection which was cured by eye drop locally. One calf died due to liver abscess. No mortality was observed in adult buffalo.

Table 1: Microclimate in buffalo shed (Mean ± SE)

Month AT (0 C) RH (%) THI MAXT(0 C) MINT (0 C)
April, 14 30.73 ± 0.15 64.39 ± 1.16 81.21 ± 0.49 33.84 ± 0.14 27.61 ± 0.23
May 31.06 ± 0.17 66.55 ± 1.18 82.18 ± 0.20 33.86 ± 0.20 28.25 ± 0.22
June 29.61 ± 0.24 75.50 ± 0.99 81.68 ± .30 32.29  ± 0.26 26.93 ± 0.29
July 27.40 ± 0.22 88.73 ± 1.10 79.76 ± 0.25 29.15 ± 0.25 25.65 ± 0.21
Aug 27.35 ± 0.21 86.03 ± 1.31 79.36 ± 0.30 29.17 ± 0.27 25.52 ± 0.18
Sept 27.76 ± 0.13 85.67 ± 1.17 80.03 ± 0.18 29.88 ± 0.21 25.63 ± 0.13
Oct 29.13 ± 0.26 76.90 ± 1.61 80.92 ± 0.31 31.97 ± 0.33 26.29 ± 0.26
Nov 29.00 ± 0.20 65.07 ± 0.84 79.19 ± 0.32 32.60 ± 0.24 25.39 ± 0.25
Dec 28.42 ± 0.26 59.83 ± 2.14 77.58 ± 0.46 32.49 ± 0.43 24.36 ± 0.24
Jan 27.42 ± 0.20 55.22 ± 2.05 75.53 ± 0.37 31.82 ± 0.32 22.96 ± 0.37
Feb 28.32 ± 0.16 52.79 ± 2.09 76.52 ± 0.30 32.55 ± 0.24 24.09 ± 0.19
March, 15 29.37 ± 0.28 65.28 ± 1.81 79.73 ± 0.53 32.70 ± 0.20 26.15 ± 0.38
Overall 28.79 ± 0.09 70.50 ± 0.75 79.52 ± 0.14 31.83 ± 0.11 25.76 ± 0.10

Overall mean air temperature, relative humidity (RH), temperature humidity index (THI), maximum and minimum temperature in buffalo farm were recorded to be 28.79 0C, 70.50 %, 79.52, 31.83 0C and 25.76 0C respectively during this period (Table 1). Highest air temperature (31.06 0C), highest maximum temperature (33.86 0C), highest minimum temperature (28.25 0C), highest THI (82.18) were recorded in the month May. However highest RH (88.73 %) and was recorded in the month July. Highly significant (P < 0.01) differences of all the micro – climatological parameters were observed between the months.

Conclusion

So, heat stress would be reduced by 25 % in Murrah cross buffalo reared in semi open housing in semi intensive system of management due to supplementation of bypass fat @ 20 g per liter of milk yield along with manual cooling of buffalo twice daily by cold water. Even milk yield was enhanced by 10 % and fat percent of milk was increased by 0.80 % due to this nutritional and managemental intervention.

Acknowledgement

Authors acknowledge the contribution of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi for funding the institute project under which this experiment was carried out. Authors thank to Programme Coordinator, KVK and all the contractual staff for their assistance as and when required.

References

  1. 2012. 19th Livestock Census, Deptt. of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India, Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi.
  2. Aggarwal Anjali and Singh Mahendra. 2008. Changes in skin and rectal temperature in lactating buffaloes provided with showers and wallowing during hot-dry season. Anim. Health Prod., 40: 223 – 228.
  3. Das S. K., Upadhaya R. C. and Madan M. L. 1997. Changes in skin temperature and physiological reactions in Murrah buffalo during solar exposure in summer.Asian Australian J Anim. Sc., 10 (5): 478 – 83.
  4. 1994. Introduction Bulletin of Indian Meteorological Department, Pune,       Maharastra.
  5. Snedecor G. W. and Cochran W. G. 1994. Statistical Methods. 6 th Edition. Oxford and IBH Pub Co., New Delhi.
  6. Vaidya M. M., Singh S. V., Kumar Parveen, Singh A. K., Kushwaha Raju, Pathan M. M. and Balhara A. K. 2012. Effect of ambient temperature rise on heat storage in Murrah buffaloes during different seasons. Indian J. Anim. Res., 46 (1): 66 – 69.
  7. West J. W. 1994. Interaction of energy and bovine somatotropin with heat stress. Dairy Sci. 77: 2091 – 92.
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