Free counters!

Previous Next

Assessment of Quality of Chicken Nuggets Treated with Mango Peel Extract

Pavankumar Kadakadiyavar Rajhans Krishnarao Ambadkar Kishor Sheshrao Rathod
Vol 7(2), 71-77

The antioxidant potential of mango peel aqueous extract was studied on chicken nuggets. 4 treatments viz, I, (Control), II. (MPeE 0.25%+Emulsion) III. (MPeE 0.50% + Emulsion) IV. (MPeE 0.75%+Emulsion). Average total phenolic content of mango peel was 590mgGAE/g, pH and cooking yield, showed non-significant difference. Moisture and Fat showed non-significant difference. Total phenolic content in MPeE incorporated nuggets was significantly (p<0.05) higher with respect to control. The average phenolics content was found to be in the following order: MPeE (0.75 %) >MPeE (0.50%)>MPeE (0.25%)> control. Therefore, it was concluded that aqueous extracts obtained MPeE could be explored as natural antioxidants in poultry meat and meat products. Sensory scores of appearance and juiciness of the chicken nuggets was affected non- significantly (p<0.05) by the level of incorporation of MPeE, the sensory scores of other attributes were significantly higher for 0.50% MPeE.

Keywords : Mango Peel Extract Total Phenolics Chicken Nuggets


The importance of dietary polyphenols has been underlined because of their antioxidative activities (Fresco et al., 2006) and anticarcinogenic effects; they inhibit cancer cell proliferation in vitro (Scalbert et al., 2005). Fruits and vegetables contain many antioxidant compounds such as phenolic compounds, carotenoids, anthocyanins and tocopherols (Naczk and Shahidi 2006). Specially, fruit peels are rich in polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and many other biologically active components having positive influences on health (Leontowicz et al., 2003).

The mango plant has been the focus of attention of many researchers for potent antioxidants. Parts of the mango, such as stem bark, leaves and pulp are known for various biomedical applications, including antioxidative and free radical scavenging (Ajila et al., 2007a; Ribeiro et al., 2007), anti-inflammatory (Hernandez et al., 2007), and anticancer (Percival et al., 2006) activities. In a recent study, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of mango leaves were reported to be ideal antioxidants (Ling et al., 2009). Despite these reports, few scientific investigations have examined the importance of mango peels in terms of antioxidant and anticancer activities. However, mango is a seasonal fruit approximately 20% of fruits are processed for products, such as puree, nectar, pickles and canned slices that are popular worldwide (Loelillet, 1994). The polyphenol was reported in Irvin mango variety and this was higher in ripe peel compared to raw peel (Ueda et al., 2000). Peel is a major by-product of such processing, mango peels are not currently used commercially but are discarded as waste and are becoming a source of pollution (Ajila et al., 2007b). Peel has been found to be a good source of phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamin E and vitamin C (Ajila et al., 2007a) and it exhibited good antioxidant properties (Ajila et al., 2007b). Polyphenol content of peel was reported to be more than that of flesh (Lakshminarayana et al., 1979). As it has been reported that different antioxidant compounds exhibit differential scavenging activity on various reactive oxygen species (Wang and Jiao, 2000) and that reaction with hydroxyl radicals is non-specific, while reaction with other radicals is more specific (Singh et al., 2009). Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of mango peel as an antioxidant on chicken meat products. The quality and acceptability of the products were determined.

Materials and Methods

Fresh Broilers of six week old was procured from the local market were slaughtered and dressed following traditional halal method. The body fat, tendons and separable connective tissues as well as skin were trimmed off. Skin was utilized for this study. The dressed meat was packed in LDPE pouches and kept in refrigerator at 4+1oC over night which was then subsequently used for product formulation. Mango peel powder was prepared from dried peels of mango which were procured from local market. The fruits were washed with distilled water, it was peeled and their edible portions of mango were carefully separated. The peels were dried separately in a hot air oven at 50°C for 48 h and ground to a fine powder and passed through a 24-mesh sieve. For estimation of antioxidant potential of MPeE extract, 5 gm of powder were taken separately and added in 100 ml each distilled water after boiling at 100oC. After 1hr, the extract was obtained by filtering through Whatman filter paper No.1 and extract were added according to the level emulsion.

Preparation of Chicken Nuggets

Chicken nuggets were prepared from the following procedure of Verma et al., 2013.

Estimation of Total Phenolics, Proximate Analysis, pH and Cooking Yield

The concentration of phenolic compounds in the mango peel powder extract was determined by the F-C method as described by Singleton and Rossi (1965). The pH and proximate compositions (moisture and fat) of chicken nuggets was measured using digital pH meter (Systronics Digital pH meter 802) as suggested by (AOAC, 1995). The cooking yield of the product was calculated on the basis of Weight of cooked loaf and emulsion.

Sensory Evaluation

The nuggets samples were then arranged on a white porcelain dish and immediately subjected to sensory evaluation by a panel comprising of semi-trained members (Keeton 1983).

Statistical Analysis

The data obtained during the experiment were analyzed as per following the procedure described by Snedecor and Cochran (1989).

Results and Discussion

The total phenolic contents (TPC) of the mango peel powder obtained from fruit are presented in Table 1.

Table 1: Effect of Different Levels of Mango Peel Extract on Certain Quality Characteristics of Chicken Nuggets (Mean ± S.E)



Title Parameter MPeE(mg/kg) C.D.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75
1 Physico-



pH 6.34









Yield (%)



















2 Proximate


Moisture (%) 64.28








Fat (%) 16.55








3 Antioxidant properties Total phenolic content 0.09a±0.001 0.120b±0.002 0.143c±0.001 0.161d±0.003 0.009

Mean ± SE with different superscripts in a row differ significantly (P<0.05)

The TPC of the mango peel powder, expressed as gallic acid equivalent, 590 mg/100 g, in the aqueous extractions. These values are within the broad range reported in the literature for peels of exotic fruit such as banana passion fruit (Passiflora mollissima) (246 mg GAE/ 100 g), cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum) (87.4 mg GAE/100 g), cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum) (252 mg GAE/100 g) (Calderon et al., 2011) and in whole fruit such as zapote (Calocarpum zapota) (258 mg GAE/100 g), cherimoya (Annona cherimolia) (323 mg GAE/100 g), or strawberry (Fragaria ananasa) (238 mg GAE/100 g), (Vasco et al.,2008). The concentration and type of phenolic substances in fruit and fruit co-products depend on several factors; differences in varieties, ripeness and season; environmental factors, such as soil type and climate; genetic factors and processing and extraction methods (Rashid et al., 2016). The recovery of polyphenols from plant materials is influenced by the solubility of the phenolic compounds in the solvent used for the extraction process (Martinz et al., 2012).

Proximate Analysis, pH, Cooking Yield and Total Phenolics of the Product

No effect (p >0.05) on moisture or fat content was observed in cooked chicken nuggets containing mango peel extract. There were no significant differences (p<0.05) in the pH values between treated samples and control, indicating that the pH of the extracts did not affect the pH of the chicken product. No effect was observed from the interaction (p<0.05). Similar results were seen in cooked and refrigerated ground chicken meat (Brannan, 2009) and cooked and refrigerated chicken breast (Rababah et al., 2006), who also demonstrated no change in pH values of samples to which grape seed extract was added. The cooking yield was not significantly different in any of the formulations tested. Total phenolic content in MPeE incorporated nuggets was significantly (p<0.05) higher with respect to control. The average phenolics content was found to be in the following order- (0.75 %)> (0.50%)> (0.25%)> control. In the present study, the higher content of phenolics in chicken nuggets incorporated with mango peel extract might be due to proportionately higher content of phenolics present in mango fruit. Banerjee et al., 2012 and Kumar et al., 2013 also documented significantly higher total phenolics content with the increasing levels of incorporation of broccoli powder in nuggets prepared from chevon and emu respectively.Total phenolics (0.040±0.002) in control samples might have been contributed by incorporation of STPP, garlic, ginger and spices used during nuggets preparation (Tangkanakul et al., 2009).

Sensory Analysis

The appearance and juiciness of the products is not affected by the incorporation of different levels of MPeE (p<0.05) as compared to control (Table 2). Appearance scores of all products containing different levels of MPeE with control varied non-significantly (p<0.05). Similar trend was also recorded by Narkhede (2012), who reported non-significant (p<0.05) variations in appearance scores of chicken nuggets containing natural antioxidants as compared to control the decrease in appearance scores might be due to pigment and lipid oxidation. Juiciness of the product of product did not show any significant difference (p<0.05) between control and treatment. This could be due to the moisture retention (Sharma et al., 2014). Sensory scores of others attributes i.e., juiciness and appearance of the product treated with various levels of MPeE were found to be non significant (p<0.05) with control.

Table 2: Effect of Different Levels of Mango Peel Extract On Sensory Attributes of Chicken Nuggets (Mean ± S.E)




Sensory Attributes
Appearance Flavour Juiciness Texture Overall




0 6.64










0.25 6.63










0.5 6.8










0.75 6.72










CD NS 0.18 NS 0.26 0.38

Mean ± SE with different superscripts in a column differ significantly (P<0.05).Mean values are scores on 8 point descriptive hedonic scale where 1=extremely poor and 8 extremely=desirable

The highest score for texture was evident for product containing MPeE 0.50% whereas the lowest score was recorded in control. Moreover, flavor and overall palatability scores of the products treated levels of MPeE 0.50% show significant (p<0.05) variations. Similar observations were also recorded by Pachpor (2014).Though the sensory scores of appearance and juiciness of the chicken nuggets was affected non- significantly (P<0.05) by the level of incorporation of MPeE, the scores of other attributes viz. proximate analysis and sensory scores were higher for treated with 0.50% MPeE.


The present study showed that Incorporation of MPeE 0.50% has substantial amounts of phenolic compounds with significant free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. The eating quality of chicken nuggets was unaffected by addition of MPeE. These results suggest that phytochemicals extracted from Mango peel may be used as a potential source of antioxidants to protect meat products against oxidative rancidity without any adverse effects on sensory attributes.


Authors are thankful to the Dean, Nagpur Veterinary College, MAFSU for providing necessary facilities.


  1. Ajila CM, Bhat SG and Prasada Rao UJS (2007a). Valuable components of raw and ripe peels from two Indian mango varieties. Food Chem, 102: 1006–1011.
  2. Ajila CM, Naidu KA, Bhat SG.and Prasada Rao, UJS (2007b). Bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential of mango peel extract. Food Chem, 105: 982–988.
  3. AOAC (1995) Official methods of analysis, 16th ed. Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, Washington, W. C.
  4. Banerjee R, Verma AK, Das AK, Rajkumar V, Shewalkar AA and Narkhede HP (2012). Antioxidant effects of broccoli powder extract in goat meat nuggets. Meat Sci. 91: 179–18.
  5. Brannan RG (2009). Effect of grape seed extract on descriptive sensory analysis of ground chicken during refrigerated storage. Meat Sci. 81(4): 589-95.
  6. Calderón, J, Hernández, GE. and García VB. (2011). Antioxidant capacity, phenolic content and vitamin C in pulp, peel and seed from 24 exotic fruits from Colombia. Food Res. Int. 44: 2047–2053.
  7. Fresco P, Borges F, Diniz C and Marques MPM. (2006). New insights on the anticancer properties of dietary polyphenols. Med. Res. Reviews, 22: 747–766.
  8. Hernandez P, Rodriguez PC, Delgado R and Walczak H (2007). Protective effect of Mangifera indica L. Polyphenols on human T lymphocytes against activation induced cell death. Pharma. Res, 55: 167–173.
  9. Kumar P, Chatli MK, Mehta N, Kumar D and Sahoo J (2013). Oxidative stability and quality attributes of emu meat nuggets incorporated with selected levels of broccoli (Brassica oleracea) powder. J. of Meat Sci. and Technol. 1(3): 83-90.
  10. Keeton JT (1983). Effect of fat and NaCl/phosphate levels on the chemical and sensory properties of pork patties. J. Food Sci. 48: 878 – 881.
  11. Ling LT, Yap S, Radhakrishnan AK, Subramaniam T, Cheng HM and Palanisamy UD. (2009). Standardised mangifera indica extract is an ideal antioxidant. Food Chem, 113: 1154–1159.
  12. Loelillet D. (1994). The European mango market: A promising tropical fruit. 49: 332–334.
  13. Leontowicz M, Gorinstein S, Leontowicz H, Krzeminski R, Lojek A and Katrich E (2003). Apple and pear peel and pulp and their influence on plasma lipids and antioxidant potentials in rats fed cholesterol-containing diets. J. of Agri. and Food Chem, 51; 5780 –5785.
  14. Lakshminarayana S, Subhadra NV and Subramanyam N (1979). Some aspects of developmental physiology of mango fruit. J. of Horti. Sci. 45:133–142.
  15. Martinez-Correa HA, Magalhaes PM, Queiroga CL, Peixoto CA, Oliveira AL and Cabral FA (2011) Extracts from pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) leaves: influence of extraction process on antioxidant properties and yield of phenolic compounds. J. Supercrit Fluids. 55, 998–1006.
  16. Naczk M and Shahidi F (2006). Phenolics in cereals, fruits and vegetables:Occurrence, extraction and analysis. J. of Pharma. and Biomed. Analysis, 41: 1523–1542.
  17. Narkhede HK. (2012) Effects of addition of grape seed extract and dried holy basil powder as natural antioxidants in the chicken nuggets. M.V.Sc. thesis submitted to Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences University, Nagpur
  18. Percival SS, Talcott ST, Chin, MAC, Lounds-Singleton A and Pettit- Moore J. (2006). Neoplastic transformation of BALB/3T3 cells and cell cycle of HL-60 cells are inhibited by mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice and mango juice extracts. J. of Nutri. 136: 1300–1304.
  19. Ribeiro SM, Queiroz JH, Ribeiro L, de Queiro, ME, Campos FM and Pinheiro Sant’ana, HM. (2007). Antioxidant in mango (Mangifera indica L.) pulp. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 62: 13–17.
  20. Rashad MM, Mahmoud AE, Mamdouh Mi, Nooman MU and Al-Kashef AS (2016). Antioxidant and anticancer agents produced from pineapple waste by solid state fermentation. Int. J. of Toxicol. and Pharma.7(6): 287-296.
  21. Rababah TM, Ereifej KI, Mahasneh AA, and Rababah AA. (2006). Effect of plant extracts on physicochemical properties of chicken breast meat cooked using conventional electric oven or microwave. Poultry Sci. 85(1): 148−154.
  22. Scalbert A, Johnson IT, and Saltmarsh M. (2005). Polyphenols: Antioxidants and beyond. American. J. of Clinical Nutri. 81: 215–217.
  23. Singh U, Kunwar A, Srinjivasan R, Nanjan MJ and Priyadarsini KI (2009). Differential free radical scavenging activity and radioprotection of Caesalpinia Digyna extracts and its active constituent. J. of Rad. Res. 50: 425–433.
  24. Singleton V and Rossi JA (1965). Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic phosphotungstic acid reagents. American J. of Eno. and Viti. 16(3): 144–158.
  25. Snedecor GW and Cochra WJ (1989). Statistical methods, 8th edition. Iowa State University Press, Amer., Iowa, USA.
  26. Sharma H, Sharma BD, Talukder S, Mendiratta SK and Kumar RR (2014). Effect of gum acacia on the product characteristics of extended restructured mutton chops. Ind. J. Anim. Res., 48 (5): 504-508.
  27. Tangkanakul P, Auttaviboonkul P, Niyomwit B, Lowvitoon N, Chareothamawat P and Trakoontivakorn G (2009) Antioxidant capacity, total phenoloic content and nutritional composition of Asian foods after thermal processing. Int. Food Res. 16: 571-850.
  28. Ueda M, Sasaki KS, Utsunimiya N, Inaba K and Bayashi YS (2000).Variation of total polyphenol and polyphenol oxidase activity during maturation of mango fruit (Mangifera Indica L. Irwin) cultured in plastic green house. Food Sci. Technol. Res., 6: 299-305.
  29. Verma AK, Rajkumar V, Banerjee R, Biswas S and Das AK (2013). Guava (Psidium guajava L.) powder as an antioxidant dietary fibre in sheep meat nuggets. J. Anim. Sci.26(6) : 886-895.
  30. Vasco C, Ruales J and Kamal-Eldin A. (2008). Total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of major fruits from Ecuador. Food Chem. 111: 816–823.
  31. Wang SY and Jiao H (2000). Scavenging capacity of berry crops on superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and singlet oxygen. J. of Agri. and Food Chem. 48: 5677–568.
Full Text Read : 2628 Downloads : 483
Previous Next

Open Access Policy