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Carcass and Blood Indices of Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Fed Diets containing Different Nutrient Quality

Letorn A. F. Akinola Boma M. Oruwari
Vol 8(2), 106-115
DOI- http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20171005081347

The carcass and blood indices of 180 Japanese quails fed diet containing different nutrient quality were examined. The quails were randomly assigned to five treatment groups. Each treatment had two male and two female replicates consisting of nine birds each in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The feed consisted of a normal diet (2600 Kcal/kg metabolizable energy, ME, 24% crude protein, 5% fat, 6% crude fibre) for treatment one (T1) which was the control while the other diets were deficient or high in one of the nutrients. At the end of the five weeks feed trial, two birds were randomly selected from each replicate for carcass analysis while the blood from the jugular vein was collected for serum studies. The result obtained showed that the diets significantly (P < 0.05) influenced the dressed weight, breast, neck, shank weight and shank length such that the weights were highest in the birds fed the high fat diet and similar to others except in the low energy group which had the poorest weights. The birds fed the high fibre diet had the highest gizzard weight. The birds fed the low energy diet had the lowest packed cell volume and haemoglobin level which was significantly (P < 0.05) different from the others but recorded the highest MCV. The serum total protein, albumin, uric acid, and creatinine were better in T1, T3 and T5 while these parameters were poor in the birds fed the low energy and low crude protein diets. The red blood cells, white blood cells, MCH, MCHC, serum glucose, AST, ALP and ALP were not affected across the treatment groups. It was therefore concluded that low energy and low crude protein diets should not be fed to quails as they were detrimental to the health and carcass production of the birds.


Keywords : Carcass Diets Haematology Japanese Quails Serum Indices

Introduction

In order to widen the scope of meat and egg supply from chicken, relatively underutilized poultry species are now coming into focus. These include the Japanese quail, guinea fowl, duck and ostrich (NVRI, 1996, Edache et al., 2007; Akinola and Sese, 2012). The Japanese quail which was introduced into Nigeria in 1992 is gradually gaining awareness among the populace, especially because of its high prolific nature, short generation interval, fast growth rate and less susceptibility to common poultry diseases (Haruna et al., 1995; Jadhav and Saddiqui, 2010).

Nutrition plays an important role in maintaining birds in good physical condition for growth and egg production. Although information on nutritional requirement of quail in Nigeria is limited, Olubamiwa et al. (1999) recommended metabolizable energy (ME) level of 2500 – 2800 kcal/kg ME in one single diet for Japanese quail while Edache et al. (2007) recommended 24-25% crude protein (CP) level for good performance of Japanese quail in the first 6 weeks of life for easy quail production. According to NRC (1994), meat type quails require 24% CP and 2900Kcal ME/kg diet.  But there is no commercial feed specially formulated for quail production in Nigeria. Thus, farmers feed their quails with chicken feed or turkey feed. Others depend on NRC (1994) feed requirement for poultry which was drafted based on temperate environment to compound their own feed.  The high cost, and sometimes scarcity of energy and protein feed ingredients also compel quail and other poultry farmers as well as toll-millers (quack animal feed manufacturers in Nigeria) to compound their own feed. Such feeds are sometimes deficient or high in one or more major nutrients because of the high cost of feed ingredients, ignorance and scarcity of the ingredients and the use of non-conventional feed ingredients.

Blood indices, on the other hand, are related to the health status of animals. They are important physiological and nutritional indicators of the body. The total protein and albumin are indicators of the protein status of the blood (Yang et al., 2016).  The packed cell volume (PCV) gives useful health information especially when the animal has not shown any clinical signs of ill health (Eze et al., 2010).  The red cell indices (mean corpuscular volume, MCV, the mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCH, and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, MCHC) are helpful in diagnosing anaemic conditions (Njidda et al., 2006) while the classification of anemia’s have been achieved using the MCV and red cell distribution width, RDW (Mark and Glader, 2009; Ryan 2010). Generally, the absence of differences in various hematologic parameters, especially, when they are within their normal range implies that there is no infection, inflammation or stress (Kuttappan et al., 2013). Thus, there is need to provide concrete information on the consequences of using nutrient deficient feed for poultry meat and egg production. It is against this background that this study was conducted to evaluate the carcass and blood indices of Japanese quails fed diets containing various nutrient qualities.

Materials and Methods

Location

This study was carried out at the Animal Science Unit of the Rivers State University Teaching and Research Farm in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The Farm is located within the humid tropics with a mean daily temperature of 21 – 230C (minimum) and 32 – 340C (maximum) and an annual rainfall of 2500mm.

Treatment and Preparation of Feed

The study had five treatments (T1 – T5), with T1 as the control group consisting of the normal dietary nutrient (24% crude protein, CP, 5% fat, 6% crude fibre, CF, and 2600Kcal/kg metabolizable energy, ME). The other treatments contained low energy for T2 (2200Kcal/kg ME), low crude protein diet for T3 (17% CP), high fat for T4 (10% fat) and high fibre for T5 (10% CF) as shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Composition of experimental diets

Ingredients (%) T1 T2 T3 T4 T5
(Control) (LED) (LCPD) (HFD) (HFID)
Corn 30 0 30 10 25
Palm kernel cake 14 23 30 23 20
Soya beans meal 20 17 0 15 0
Fishmeal (72 % CP) 0. 00 0 0 0 5
Wheat bran 16.15 39.15 25.15 25.15 15.15
Palm oil 0. 00 0 0 4 0
GNC 15 16 10 18 20
Maize cob 0 0 0 0 10
1Premix 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Limestone 2 2 2 2 2
Bone meal 2 2 2 2 2
D-L meth 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Salt 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
Lysine 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Total 100 100 100 100 100
Nutrient Composition
CP (Calculated) 24 24 17.1 24.1 21.1
CP (Analyzed) 23.8 24 16.9 23.9 22.4
ME(Kcal/kg) 2616.7 2247.3 2603.4 2633.9 2598
CF (Calculated) 5.8 7.1 5.9 5.8 9.5
CF (Analyzed) 5.9 6.1 6 6 10.1
Fat (Calculated) 5.1 5.2 5 9.6 4.5
Fat (analyzed) 4.9 4.8 4.8 9.7 4.6

1Vitamin and Trace mineral for each kg contained: Mn 40g, Fe 20g, Zn 18g, Cu 0.8g, I 0.62g, Co 0.09g and Se 0.04g, pantothenic acid 1,000,000 I.U, cholecalciferol 1,100,000 I.U, quinones 0.8g, thiamin 0.6g and riboflavin 2.4g, folic acid 0.4g, biotin 0.02g, ascorbic acid 10.0g, Choline chloride 120.0g, zinc bacitracin 80.0g, avatec 30.0g; LED ꞊ Low energy diet, LCPD ꞊ Low crude protein diet, HFD ꞊ High fat diet, HFID ꞊ High fibre diet

 

Experimental Birds and Management

One hundred and eighty (180), four weeks old Japanese quails with similar weight were carefully selected from a flock of quails raised in the farm. Ninety of the quails were males while 90 were females selected based on the breast plumage differences which was reddish brown with speckled pattern (spots) in the males. Each set of the 90 quails were randomly assigned to the five dietary treatments which had four replicates each (2 male replicates and 2 female replicates per treatment). Thus, 9 quails of the same sex were housed in each unit of the cage, with sex as the blocking factor in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Feed and water were given ad libitum throughout the study.

Data Collection

At the end of the fifth week (9 weeks old), two quails were randomly selected from each replicate for carcass and blood analysis. The birds were weighed, slaughtered and the blood collected into heparinized tubes containing ethylene diamine tetra acetic (for haematology) and non-heparinized tubes for serum analysis. The carcasses were scalded, the feathers plucked, eviscerated and washed. They were weighed before cutting into primal parts which were also weighed. The weights of the organs were also recorded. Packed cell volume (PCV) was obtained using the haematocrit method according to Dacie and Lewis (1991). The method of Jain (1986) was used to determine the red blood cell (RBC) while the haemoglobin (Hb) was determined by the cyanmethemoglobin method. The Hb, PCV and RBC were used to obtain the mean corpuscular volume (MCV ꞊ PCV ÷ RBC x 10), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH ꞊ Hb ÷ RBC x 10) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC ꞊ Hb ÷ PCV x 100). Serum biochemical indices such as total protein was not determined using the biuret method. Albumin was obtained using the method described by Peter et al. (1982). Serum creatinine, glucose and the serum enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALP) were also analyzed. The modified Jaffe method (Blass et al., 1974) was used to determine the creatinine levels of the serum while the glucose oxidase method (Christensen, 1967) was used to analyze the glucose content. AST and ALT were determined using the method of Reitman and Frankel (1957) while the ALP was obtained using the method of Babson et al. (1966).

Statistics

All data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance using SAS software (SAS, 1990). The influence of the diets on both sexes was analyzed while the effect on the individual sex was also analyzed. Significant differences were determined accordingly.

 

Results and Discussion

The result of the influence of feeding various dietary nutrient qualities to quail (for both sexes and the individual sex) is presented in Table 2.

Table 2:  Influence of diets on carcass and organ yield

Parameters (g) T1 T2 T3 T4 T5  
Breast weight 25.36ab ±1.42 22.26b ± 1.29 26.12a ± 1.21 26.43a ± 0.91 24.25ab ± 1.24  
Neck weight 3.97ab ± 0.15 3.72b ± 0.13 3.79b ± 0.13 4.39a ± 0.21 3.87b ± 0.1  
Shank weight (cm) 2.43a ± 0.06 2.22b ± 0.06 2.43a ± 0.04 2.53a ± 0.06 2.61a ± 0.10  
Shank length 1.90a ± 0.04 1.79ab ± 0.03 1.76b ± 0.03 1.79ab ± 0.04 1.87ab ± 0.05  
Back weight 10.03 ± 0.37 9.19 ± 0.49 9.38 ± 0.59 10.33 ± 0.34 10.06 ± 0.28  
Heart weight 1.09a±0.06 0.91b ± 0.04 1.22a ± 0.07 1.10a ± 0.06 1.06a ± 0.06  
Gizzard weight 3.26c± 0.07 3.34c ± 0.14 3.45c ± 0.12 3.84b ± 0.07 4.50a ± 0.17  
Liver weight 3.67 ± 0.15 3.28 ± 0.15 3.45 ± 0.21 3.48 ± 0.17 3.41 ± 0.37  
Kidney weight 0.06 ± 0.01 0.05 ± 0.00 0.06 ± 0.01 0.06 ± 0.00 0.05 ± 0.01  
  F M F M F M F M F M
  Breast weight 29.31±2.05 21.41 ±0.96 21.07 ±1.99 23.45±1.64 25.28 ± 2.18 26.95±1.45 25.99±1.60 26.86±0.94 26.41±1.09 20.09±1.24
  Neck weight 3.83 ± 0.24 4.11 ± 0.19 3.51 ± 0.13 3.92 ± 0.22 3.85 ± 0.26 3.74 ± 0.07 4.58 ± 0.35 4.19 ± 0.23 4.39 ± 0.22 3.35 ± 0.37
  Shank weight 2.46 ± 0.64 2.40 ± 0.10 2.15 ± 0.09 2.29 ± 0.07 2.36 ± 0.05 2.50 ± 0.07 2.47 ± 0.07 2.59 ± 0.09 2.80 ± 0.13 2.42 ± 0.19
  SL (cm) 1.91 ± 0.07 1.89 ± 0.05 1.77 ± 0.06 1.81 ± 0.02 1.82 ± 0.05 1.70 ± 0.02 1.89 ± 0.06 1.70 ± 0.04 1.94 ± 0.09 1.80 ±0.03
  Back weight 11.00±0.32 9.06 ± 0.51 8.56 ± 0.77 9.82 ± 0.61 9.67 ± 1.13 9.09 ± 0.43 10.51±0.53 10.16±0.46 10.44±0.51 9.68 ±0.32
  Heart Weight 1.24 ± 0.08 0.95 ± 0.05 0.85 ±0.06 0.98 ± 0.06 1.10 ± 0.09 1.34 ± 0.10 1.05 ± 0.09 1.15 ± 0.10 1.17 ± 0.11 0.96 ± 0.03
  Gizzard Weight 3.38± 0.03 3.15 ± 0.12 3.52 ± 0.25 3.15 ± 0.15 3.75 ± 0.21 3.15 ± 0.06 3.88 ± 0.09 3.81 ±0.11 4.68 ± 0.22 4.32 ± 0.27
  Liver weight 3.77 ± 0.15 3.56 ± 0.27 3.39 ± 0.22 3.17 ± 0.14 4.06 ± 0.17 2.83 ± 0.26 4.04 ± 0.16 2.93 ± 0.19 3.92 ± 0.44 2.89 ± 0.29
  Kidney weight 0.06 ± 0.00 0.07 ± 0.01 0.04 ± 0.01 0.06 ± 0.00 0.07 ± 0.02 0.05 ± 0.01 0.06 ± 0.01 0.06 ± 0.00 0.05 ± 0.00 0.05 ± 0.01

F ꞊ Females, M ꞊ Males, SL ꞊ Shank length, a,b,c ꞊ Means within the same row bearing different superscript differ significantly

The diets significantly (P < 0.05) affected the dressed weight, breast, neck, shank weights and shank length. These weights were significantly higher in birds that were fed the high fat diet, though not different from those fed the control diet and low crude protein diet. The birds fed the high fibre diet had intermediate values while those fed the low energy diet had the least value. The back weight was not affected by the diets. The result obtained from the dressed weight, breast and neck weight were in line with Akinola and Sese (2012) who stated that quails that were fed high fat diet had significantly higher final body weight, which was similar to those fed the normal diet and low crude protein diet.  The lowest weights recorded in this study by birds fed the low energy diet imply that there was poor conversion of nutrients by the birds. This result is similar to the report by Dairo et al. (2010) who stated that the live weight, neck, wings, back, breast, thigh, and drumstick of broilers fed low energy and high protein diets were significantly different from those fed the other diets at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age. On the other hand, the highest dressed weight, breast and neck weight attained by the birds fed the high fat diet supported the finding of Mateos and Sell (1980) who stated that the consumption of fat helped to increase the utilization of other nutrients contained in the feed by slowing down the rate of passage of the feed through the gastro-intestinal tract.

The heart and gizzard weights were however significantly influenced across the treatment groups while the liver and kidney weights were not affected. The heart weight of the birds was higher in all the treatments except the low energy dietary group. Although all the values obtained were within the normal values stated for birds, it was obvious that the low energy diet did not support optimum development of the heart. The gizzard weight was significantly higher in birds fed the high fibre diet, followed by the birds fed the high fat diet and least in the birds fed the control, low energy and low crude protein diet. The increase in size of the gizzard could be attributed to the changes in the smooth muscle cells (hyperplasia), caused by the quality of the diet and the length of time the birds had been consuming the diet (Starck, 1999). This result (4.50g) obtained from birds fed the high fibre diet, was similar to the values of 4.80g (Starck and Rahmaan, 2003) and 5.30g (Starck, 1999) obtained when quails were fed with high fibre diets. The non-significant values obtained from the liver and kidney of the birds fed the different diets were similar to those reported by Dairo et al. (2010) who fed broiler birds with different combinations of high and low energy and protein diets. The influence of the diets on individual sex did not show any significant differences. The result obtained from the influence of diet containing different nutrient quality on blood (haematology and serum) of the quails is presented in Table 3.

Table 3:  Influence of diets on haematology and serum indices of both sexes of quails

Parameters T1 T2 T3 T4 T5
Haematology
PCV (%) 43.88a ± 1.13 42.64b ± 1.21 42.28ab ± 1.06 43.47a ± 1.07 43.10a ± 1.04
Hb (g/dl) 12.52a ± 1.06 10.61b ± 1.14 11.42ab ± 1.16 12.79a ± 1.21 12.44a ± 1.12
RBC (X 106/mm) 3.21 ± 0.08 2.90 ± 0.03 3.04 ± 0.07 3.24 ± 0.07 3.20 ± 0.06
WBC (x103/mm) 21.43 ± 0.01 19.41 ± 0.03 19.87 ± 0.02 21.22 ± 0.03 21.08 ± 0.04
MCV (fl) 136.69b ± 0.67 143.59a ± 0.94 138.75b ± 0.85 134.17b ± 0.54 134.69b ± 0.68
MCH (pg) 39.00 ±0.09 36.59 ± 0.06 37.57 ± 0.05 39.48 ± 0.05 38.88 ± 0.06
MCHC (%) 28.53 ± 0.12 25.48 ± 0.11 27.07 ± 0.13 29.42 ± 0.14 28.86 ± 0.12
Serum Biochemistry
Total protein (g/100ml) 5.29a ± 0.04 4.26b ± 0.01 4.10b ± 0.02 5.20a ± 0.02 4.85a ± 0.01
Albumin(g/100ml) 1.95a ± 0.68 1.74b ± 0.57 1.78b ± 0.59 1.87a ± 0.77 1.88a ± 0.81
Uric acid (µmol/l) 245.29a ± 0.27 209.90b ± 0.31 204.71b ± 0.32 242.74a ± 0.29 5.29a ± 0.25
Creatinine (mg/dl) 0.54a ± 0.34 0.39b ± 0.21 0.39b ± 0.25 0.52a ± 0.41 0.48a ± 0.30
Glucose (mmol/l) 7.82 ± 1.33 7.31 ± 1.21 7.62 ± 1.50 7.87 ± 1.43 7.61 ± 1.29
AST (UI/L) 231.16 ± 2.37 219.82 ± 1.98 227.23 ± 1.96 234.24 ± 2.31 239.11 ± 2.05
ALT (UI/L) 26.68 ± 1.72 24.16 ± 1.55 25.82 ± 1.31 26.55 ± 1.37 25.93 ± 1.08
ALP (IU/L) 42.16 ± 0.76 40.13 ± 0.61 41.61 ± 0.66 41.87 ± 0.64 41.08 ± 0.57

a,b – Means within the same row bearing different superscript differ significantly. PCV – Packed cell volume, Hb – Haemoglobin, RBC – Red blood cell, WBC – White blood cell, MCV –  mean corpuscular volume MCH – Mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCHC – Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, AST – Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT – Alanine aminotransferase and ALP – Alkaline phosphatase

The PCV, haemoglobin and MCV were significantly (P< 0.05) affected by the diets. The red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), MCH and MCHC were not affected (P < 0.05) by the dietary treatments. The serum total protein, albumin, uric acid and creatinine were also significantly influenced (P < 0.05) while the glucose; AST, ALT and ALP were not. The PCV and haemoglobin were significantly higher in the control, high fat and high fibre diets, although they were not different from the low protein diet. The PCV and Hb of the birds fed the low energy diet were the least. Although all the values obtained were within the normal range of 42 – 45% and 7 – 13g/dl for PCV and Hb (Banerjee, 2009) and 31 – 50% for PCV (Schalm et al., 1975), it was obvious that the PCV of the birds fed the low energy diet was not correlated with their nutritional status and was capable of having adverse effect on their blood formation. It, therefore, implied that the energy and protein in the diet were not readily available to the birds. This must have affected the performance of the birds according to Cary et al. (2002). It therefore supported the findings that the quails fed a low energy diet (2200Kcal/kg ME) had the lowest final body weight (Akinola and Sese, 2012), did not lay eggs during a 63-days study (Akinola et al., 2012) and had the lowest hormone values and high cost of fed per dozen egg (Akinola and Igwe, 2018). Significantly low values of PVC and Hb were also reported by Dairo et al. (2010) when broilers were fed with low energy and high protein diet.

The MCV of the quails fed the low energy diet was significantly (P < 0.05) higher (143.59fl) than the values obtained from the other treatments (134.17 – 136.69fl). This implied that the quails have been slightly anaemic without showing visible signs since the normal value for MCV in birds had been reported to be 90 – 140fl (Banerjee, 2009), 133.5fl (Kuttappan et al., 2013) and 92 – 122fl (Akinola and Etuk, 2015). MCV defines the size or volume of the red blood cells. It has been found to be a useful parameter in classifying anaemia along with the red cell distribution width, RDW, (Ryan, 2010). The uniform values of the RBC, WBC, MCH and MCHC obtained in this study across the treatments which were within the normal range for birds indicated that there were normal bone marrow functions, no macrocytic (unusually large red blood cells associated with anaemia), hypochromic (lower than normal amount of Hb in RBC) and autoimmune hemolytic anaemia (in which the red blood cells were destroyed). The values of PCV, Hb and MCHC obtained in this study were similar to those reported by Sagi (2017) who observed levels of 41.83 – 45.46%, 12.65 – 18.80g/dl and 26.98 – 29.73% for PCV, Hb and MCHC when hematological parameters of three indigenous chicken breeds were studied during the summer season.

The significantly lower (P < 0.05) values of the total protein, albumin, uric acid and creatinine recorded from the low energy and low protein treatments compared to the others showed that there was abnormal protein metabolism in the birds in these treatments. This showed that the diets did not have good nutritional quality and did not possess the required amino acid balance, implying that there may have been muscle degeneration of the birds. Total protein and albumin concentrations are indicators of the state of protein in the blood while the uric acid level directly reflects the catabolism of the protein. The significantly higher values of uric acid in the control, high fat and high fibre diets therefore reflected the availability of energy which was used in the metabolism of the proteins according to Yang et al. (2016). The values of creatinine obtained which were not significantly different (P > 0.05) implied that there was normal activity of the muscle and possible absence of renal injury. The uniform values of the serum glucose, AST, ALT and ALP across the treatment which were within the normal values suggested that the imbalances in the amino acid metabolism may not have been severe. It also suggested that there may not have been any liver or muscle disease and cell damages in the birds (or very mild if it exists) since the feed had no toxic ingredient. The diets however did not influence the individual sexes (Table 4).

Table 4: Influence of diets on haematology and serum indices of female and male quails

Parameters (g) T1 T2 T3 T4 T5
F M F M F M F M F M
Haematology
PCV (%) 45.51 ± 1.15 42.25 ± 1.11 42.18 ± 1.20 41.10 ± 1.22 43.10 ± 1.05 41.26 ± 1.07 43.54 ± 1.06 43.40 ± 1.08 43.20 ± 1.03 43.00 ± 1.05
Hb (g/dl) 13.00 ± 1.07 12.04 ± 1.05 11.12 ± 1.13 10.10 ± 1.15 11.64 ± 1.15 11.20 ± 1.17 13.26 ± 1.20 12.32 ± 1.22 12.60 ± 1.11 12.28 ± 1.11
RBC(x106/mm) 3.32 ± 0.08 3.10 ± 0.08 3.00 ± 0.04 2.80 ± 0.02 3.02 ± 0.06 3.00 ± 0.08 3.33 ± 0.08 3.18 ± 0.07 3.30 ± 0.07 3.10 ± 0.05
WBC (103mm) 22.46 ± 0.01 20.40 ± 0.01 20.52 ± 0.02 20.30 ± 0.04 21.51 ± 0.02 20.23 ± 0.02 22.32 ± 0.03 20.10 ± 0.03 22.00 ± 0.04 20.16 ± 0.04
MCV (fl) 137.71 ± 0.65 135.67 ±0.69 144.58 ± 0.5 142.60 ±0.93 139.67 ±0.75 137.83 ±0.95 135.27 ±0.52 133.07 ±0.56 139.81 ± 0.67 129.57 ± 0.69
MCH (pg) 39.41 ± 0.08 38.59 ± 0.10 37.41 ± 0.05 35.77 ± 0.07 37.92 ± 0.04 37.22 ± 0.06 39.83 ±0.04 39.13 ± 0.06 39.02 ± 0.05 38.74 ± 0.07
MCHC (%) 28.87± 0.11 28.19 ± 0.13 26.07 ± 0.10 24.87±0.12 28.01 ± 0.12 26.13 ± 0.16 29.82 ± 0.15 29.02 ± 0.13 28.96 ± 0.11 28.76 ± 0.13
Serum biochemistry
TP (g/100ml) 5.36 ± 0.05 5.22 ± 0.03 4.31 ± 0.01 4.21 ± 0.01 4.20 ± 0.03 4.10 ± 0.01 5.30 ± 0.02 5.10 ± 0.02 5.01 ± 0.02 4.69 ± 0.00
Alb. (g/100ml) 2.00 ± 0.70 1.90 ± 0.66 1.81 ± 0.78 1.67 ± 0.72 1.79 ± 0.60 1.77 ± 0.58 1.82 ± 0.78 1.92 ± 0.76 1.90 ± 0.83 1.86 ± 0.79
UA (µmol/l) 247.24 ± 0.28 249.00 ±0.26 207.80 ±0.32 212.00 ±0.30 203.92 ±0.33 205.50 ±0.31 238.67 ±0.30 246.81 ±0.28 229.67 ±0.25 231.75 ± 0.25
Cr. (g/dl) 0.52 ± 0.35 0.58 ± 0.33 0.38 ± 0.20 0.40 ± 0.22 0.39 ± 0.26 0.39 ± 0.24 0.51 ± 0.42 0.53 ± 0.40 0.46 ± 0.30 0.50 ± 0.30
Glu. (mmol./l) 7.91 ± 1.31 7.73 ± 1.35 7.28 ± 1.20 7.34 ± 1.22 7.59 ± 1.61 7.65 ± 1.39 7.79 ± 1.42 7.95 ± 1.44 7.68 ± 1.30 7.54 ± 1.28
AST (UI/L) 232.61 ± 2.31 229.71 ± 2.15 220.79 ± 1.99 218.85 ± 1.97 230.01 ± 1.98 224.45 ± 1.94 235.19 ± 2.29 229.29 ± 2.33 238.79 ± 2.07 239.43 ± 2.03
ALT (UI/L) 26.75 ± 1.73 26.61 ± 1.71 24.57 ± 1.57 23.71 ± 1.53 25.79 ± 1.31 25.85 ± 1.31 26.57 ± 1.35 26.53 ± 1.39 25.89 ± 1.07 25.97 ± 1.09
ALP (UI/L 42.48 ± 0.74 41.84 ± 0.78 40.16 ± 0.60 40.10 ± 0.62 41.74 ± 0.65 41.48 ± 0.67 41.91 ± 0.65 41.83 ± 0.63 41.11 ± 0.56 41.05 ± 0.58

F – Females, M – Males, PVC – Packed cell volume, Hb – Haemoglobin, RBC – White blood cell, WBC – White blood cell, MCV –  mean corpuscular volume MCH – Mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCHC – Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, TP – Total protein, Alb. – Albumin, UA – Uric acid, Cr. – Creatinine, Glu. – Glucose, AST – Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT – Alanine aminotransferase and ALP – Alkaline phosphatase

Conclusion

The result obtained in this study showed that the high fat diet along with the control and high fibre diets were adequate for feeding quails in the humid tropics on the basis of their carcass yield and blood analysis. The adequate carcass yield coupled with the normal functioning of the internal organs and absence of anaemia, stress, toxic related diseases and muscle degeneration have proved that these feeds are useful for quail production. The significantly higher gizzard weight obtained from the quails fed the high fibre diet could be of importance since this organ, is usually regarded as ‘delicacy’ in some African countries.

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