NAAS Score 2019

                   5.36

Declaration Format

Please download DeclarationForm and submit along with manuscript.

UserOnline

Free counters!

Previous Next

Carcass Yield of Sahelian Goats in Guera Province at Central-Eastern, Chad

Mopate Logtene Youssouf Madjina Tellah Djalal Ardjoun Khalil Mahamat Seid Souleyman
Vol 9(9), 30-36
DOI- http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20190619074240

The purpose of the study is to estimate the carcass yield of Sahelian goats in Guera Province at Central-Eastern, Chad. The data were collected by weight gain: goats before slaughter and weight of hot and cold carcasses, three times a week from November 2016 to July 2017. The study involved 835 goats, of which 551 goats were slaughtered in Mangalme municipal slaughterhouse and 284 heads slaughtered in Mongo. These animals came mainly for 85% from transhumant breeding against 15% from sedentary breeding. Males (225 heads or 27%) were 26.3 ± 22.6 years old and females (610 goats, 73%) aged 40.6 ± 33.9 months. The majority of goats slaughtered (about 85%) in Mangalme and Mongo come from transhumant herds. More than 50% of slaughtered females were heavier and older than males. The carcass yield of the females was lower than that of the male carcasses. The slaughter of females resulted in losses of goat reproduction in the study area. However, the origin of slaughtered goats had no influence on carcass yield of goats. So, the slaughter of males is to be encouraged and that of females to be minimized. Goat farming should focus on raising kids to supply slaughterhouses. This will contribute to enhance the value of local food resources that can promote the sustained development of goat meat production, improve the quality of meat produced and master the goat breeding in the Sahelian zone of Chad.


Keywords : Carcass yield Central-East Chad Goat

Small ruminants and especially goats are the most breeded animal species in tropical and Sahelian zones. They play a very important role in food security and strongly contribute to the family economy and regional culture. Among the small ruminants, goats are exploited by the rural farmers to meet the daily treasures and consumption requirements of meat proteins and also to restore the herds (Gnanda et al., 2016; Alexandre et al., 2012).

In Chad, the number of goats from the last livestock census in 2015 was 30.8 million head (MERA, 2015). Goat breeding is the traditional extensive or semi-extensive type with a low level of inputs and embraces three major ecological zones (Saharan, Sahelian and Sudanian). Goats adapt to different agro-ecological breeding conditions. Most of them are maintained according to the regions and breeding methods, either by men or by women (Abdilatif et al., 2018). Food resources (fodder and water) dictate the adoption of the conduct modes. They also explain the output variables of these systems, particularly the weight performances (live weight and carcass yields) of animals that evolve in these areas. Studies on carcass yields of small ruminants related to rearing methods are rare in Chad. However, the goat herd structure of these areas is known (Mopate et al., 2014). This structure can help as a guide to project the output of herd animals by breeders. The prediction of live weight predicts goats is nowadays a valid strategy for improving livestock market management for rural producers in Africa (Chinchilla-Vargas et al., 2018).

For constraints on the productivity of small ruminants, the overall mortality rate varies between 29% and 35% (Dumas 1980, Lancelot et al. 1994). It is higher (41%) among young people between 0-1 year of age (Lancelot et al., 1993). To these constraints are added the reproductive losses resulting from the slaughter of pregnant females. This practice is due either to an increase in protein demand (Alade et al., 2011) or to producer ignorance (Garba et al., 1992). These significant losses are rarely evaluated by studies.

The purpose of the study was to estimate the carcass yields of goats slaughtered at slaughterhouses in Mongo and Mangalmé towns and to indirectly assess the importance of transhumance in the meat supply of these towns in the North-Guera, in Central-Eastern Chad.

Materials and Methods

The study was conducted in two cities including Mongo and Mangalme located in Guera Province. The locations by GPS (Global Positioning System) coordinates are: 12 ° 09 ’30’ ‘of latitude North and 18 ° 40′ 30 ” of longitude East for the city of Mongo and 12 ° 21 ’04’ ‘and 19 ° 36 ’01’ ‘for that of Mangalme.

Sampling and Data Collection Methods

The study targeted goats acquired by butchers on the market and slaughtered in slaughterhouses in these two localities. The information collected before goat slaughter concerned: sex, the animal origins (sedentary or transhumance), the age (in months estimated according to the dentition), their body condition, the live weight (after a 24-hour fast). After slaughter, bleeding, evisceration and butchering, the collected data was focused on the hot carcass weighing (immediately after bleeding, skinning), evisceration and removal of the head, legs, teats, genitals). The hot carcass weight was retained in order to quickly release the butchers for the market. The weighing’s were carried out using 50 kg load cells brand COFFIA, with a minimum of 1 kg and 500 g. The data was collected three times a week and durant eight months from November 2016 to July 2017.

Data Analysis

The collected information was entered with the “Access” database software and transferred to the “Winstat i.c” (CIRAD / IITCF) processing software. The analysis of variance was made and the significance of the differences in means was sought at the 5% threshold. The cold weight was deducted from hot weighing by applying a theoretical refraction of 2% for cattle, sheep and goats. The crude yield was evaluated by the formula (carcass weight / live weight) × 100. The empty live weight (EVV) was calculated as the difference between the live weight to fast before slaughter and the contents of the digestive tract; true carcass yield was calculated as the ratio of cold carcass weight (PCF) to empty live weight (PVV).

Results and Discussion

Number, Sex, Species and Origin of Slaughtered Goats

Overall, 835 goats were slaughtered, including 66% (551 goats) in Mangalme and 34% (284 goats) in Mongo. The males constituted 26.95% against 73.05% of goats (610 goats). Most of these animals are from transhumant farms (85%) and 15% from sedentary farms (Table 1).

Table 1: Goat numbers slaughtered at Mangalme and Mongo municipal slaughterhouses in central Chad by sex and animal origin (sedentary or transhumant)

Sex Sedentary Breeding Transhumant Breeding Total (n)
Male 51 174 225
Female 77 533 610
Total (N) 128 707 835

Of all goats slaughtered in the Guera during the study period, 84.67% of these animals come from transhumant livestock against 15.33% from sedentary livestock. Transhumant livestock rearing is the main source of meat supply in urban centers in the Guera region. Goats were the most slaughtered (73.05%) than goats (26.95%).

Depending on the origin of the goats slaughtered, it is safe to say that the supply of this area goat meat would be mainly provided by animals from transhumant farms. Indeed, the area is a transit point for transhumant herders from different provinces of Chad such as Batha, Biltine or Ouaddaï, en route to those of Salamat and Moyen-Chari. Many of these breeders sometimes spend the rainy season on the way home. It is therefore not excluded that they can sell goats for their livelihood.

 

 

Live Weight of Goats at Slaughter

Transhumant goats had a mean live weight of 22.4 ± 7.3 kg, significantly higher (P < 0.001) than sedentary animals with 20.0 ± 6.8 kg. The same was true for the average age of transhumant animals (28.5 ± 23.2 months) higher (P < 0.001) than for sedentary animals (21.3 ± 19.3 months). Mean live weight at goat slaughter in both towns (Malgamé and Mongo) was 24.32 ± 6.57 kg, corresponding to a mean age at slaughter of 35.49 ± 29.86 months or about 3 years. Goats were slower at slaughter (26.3 ± 22.6 kg) than goats (40.6 ± 33.9 kg). The heaviness of the goats is justified by the fact that they were older and most often pregnant at the time of slaughter (26.0 ± 6.5 months) while the goats (21.3 ± 6.7) were slaughtered in their growth phase (P < 0.05). The high average age of goats from transhumant animals suggests a reform of some breeders. These parameters varied according to the origin of the animals (Table 2).

Table 2: Goat weights (kg) and ages (months) at slaughter in the Mangalme and Mongo municipal slaughterhouses in Central-East, Chad

Origin of Breeding Male Female
Live Weight Age Live Weight Age
Sedentary 20.8 ± 6.8a 23.5 ± 21.1a 29.2 ± 6.5a 57.4 ± 37.9a
Transhumant 21.4 ± 6.7a 27.1 ± 23.1a 25.6 ± 6.3b 38.4 ± 32.7b

a, b- Means with different superscript vary significantly (P< 0.05).

Females were heavier at slaughter than males. Similarly, their average age at slaughter was higher than that of males (p < 0.05). The average weight of transhumant goats tends to be higher than sedentary goats, but without a significant difference (p > 0.05). On the other hand, goats from sedentary breeding were heavier at a later age than those from transhumant breeding. In general, culled goats are older than 45 months for sedentary and about 40 months for transhumant breeding (p < 0.05). The high age of females at slaughter is explained by the fact that breeder sells his female if it has age of reform or if it has a problem of reproduction. The average live weight of goats was close to 30 kg for sheep and 25 kg for goats reported in official statistics (DSPA, 2011).

Hot Carcass Weight

The carcass weight of Sahelian goats in Chad is likely to be influenced by the sex and origin of the slaughtered animals (Table 3). Mean carcass weight was higher in sedentary than in transhumant goats (p < 0.05). Although the carcasses of the females were lighter than those of the males but, the origin of the animals had no effect on it (p > 0.05). The heaviness of female carcasses explained by the fact that males are slaughtered younger than females. This difference in weight between the sex of slaughtered goats was consistent with observations reported in Nigeria (Idahor, 2013). This weight was not very different from that reported in official statistics (DSPA, 2011).

Table 3: Average carcass weight (kg) of goats slaughtered in the Mangalmé and Mongo municipal slaughterhouses in Central-East, Chad

Origin of Breeding Male Female
Sedentary 12.1 ± 4.8a 16.5 ± 5.5a
Transhumant 12.6 ± 5.3a 13.3 ± 5.3b
Mean 12.5 ± 5.2 13.7 ± 5.4

a, b- Means with different superscript vary significantly (P< 0.05)

However, it was less than 17.69 kg reported in the Sahelian goat in Nigeria (Jibir et al., 2012), 19.3 ± 7.74 kg (6.1 – 38.2 kg) reported in the tropics (Alexandre et al., 2012).

Cold Carcass Yield

The variation in cold carcass yield was studied according to the sex and origin of the animals slaughtered (Table 4) (sedentary or transhumant).

Table 4: Average carcass yield (%) of cold goats slaughtered in central-eastern, Chad

Origin of Breeding Male Female
Sedentary 57.6 ± 12.9a 55.2 ± 12.5a
Transhumant 57.7 ± 13.7a 50.2 ± 11.4b
Mean 57.7 ± 13.5 50.8 ± 11.6

a, b- Means with different superscript vary significantly (P< 0.05)

Carcass yield in females was higher than that of males (p < 0.05). It is beneficial for butchers to slaughter lighter goats than heavier goats to maximize their profit margin. Overall, this value was not significantly different from 53.96% reported in Nigeria in Sahelian goats (Jibir et al., 2012). This is contrary to the observation of Limea et al. (2006) who reported that carcass yield tends to increase with slaughter weight in Creole goats. It was also higher for sedentary goats than for transhumant animals (p < 0.05). This difference in yield in terms of the origin of goats can be explained by the care and attention given to sedentary goats compared with transhumant animals, which often lose weight in the hunt in search of pasture. This average yield was higher than that reported in the tropical area of 46.1 ± 5.7% by Alexandre et al. (2012).

Conclusion

Measurements of goat weights before and after slaughter in municipal slaughterhouses in Guera Province determined weight of live weight and age at slaughter, carcass weight and carcass yield. Slaughter weight and slaughter age were higher in females, but carcass yield was better for males. Thus, slaughter of males is the best indicated because for their better carcass yield and to avoid the loss in reproduction by slaughter of pregnant goats. Producers in this Sahelian area should therefore focus more their breeding activities on the production of butchering kids to supply slaughterhouses and make meat available to the population. In the future, this will contribute to enhance the value of local food resources that can promote the sustained development of goat meat production, improve the meat produced quality and control goat reproduction in the Sahelian zone of Chad.

Acknowledgements

The authors express their gratitude to all of butchers and the heads of slaughterhouses in the the Guera Province for their collaboration in this study realization.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare there is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abdilatif, M.H., Onono J.O., Mutua F.K. (2018). Analysis of pastoralists’ perception on challenges and opportunities for sheep and goat production in Northern Kenya. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 50:1701-1710. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-018-1613-8.
  2. Alade, N.K., Sadisu, M.A., and Gambo, M. (2011). Incidence of slaughtering pregnant cows, sheep, goats and camels in a Sahel Region of Nigeria. Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences, 1(8): 516 – 520.
  3. Alaku, S.O. and Moruppa, S.M. (1983). Dry season carcass and weight losses in Red Sokoto (Maradi) goats reared in the Sahel region of North–Eastern Nigeria. International Journal Biometior, 27:143-156.
  4. Aldoori, Z.T., Al-Obaidi, A.S.A., Abdulkareem, A.H., Abdullah, M.K. (2015). Effect of Dietary Replacement of Barley with Mushroom Cultivation on Carcass Characteristics of Awassi Lambs. Anim. Health Prod., 3: 94-98. https://doi.org/10.14737/journal.jahp/2015/3.4.94.98.
  5. Alexandre, G., Arquet, R., Fleury, J., Troupé, W., Boval, M., Archimède, H., Mahieu, M., Mandonnet, N. (2012). Systèmes d’élevage caprins en zone tropicale : analyse des fonctions et des performances. INRA Prod. Anim., 25 (3): 305-316.
  6. Chinchilla-Vargas, J., Woodward-Greene, M.J., Van-Tassell, C. P, Masiga, C. W., Rothschild, M. F. (2018). Predicting live weight of rural African goats using body measurements. Livestock Research for Rural Development 30 (7).
  7. DESPA (Direction des Études, des Statistiques, de la Programmation et des Archives), (2011). Rapport annuel des statistiques. Ministère du Développement Pastoral et des Productions Animales, 52 p.
  8. Dumas, R. (1980). Contribution à l’étude des petits ruminants du Tchad. Elev. Méd. Vét. Pays trop., 33 (2): 215-233.
  9. Garba, H.S., Hasan, W.A. and Akingbemi, B.T. (1992). Foetal wastage through slaughtering of pregnant cattle at the Sokoto abattoir. Tropical Veterinarian, 10:123- 126.
  10. Idahor, K.O. (2013). Sheep and goats slaughtered at Keffi abattoir health status, carcass yield and foetal deaths. Anim. Sci. Adv., 3(6): 276-283.
  11. Jibira, M., Hassana, W.A., Maigandia, S.A., Garbaa, S., Bellob, A., Henab, S.A., Umaruc, M.A., Adamu, Y.A. (2012). Yield characteristics of goat’s meat in the semi-arid zone of northwestern Nigeria. Scientific Journal of Agricultural, 1(4): 92-99.
  12. Lancelot, R., Imadine, M., Mopate, L.Y., Faye, B. (1993). L’enquête écopathologique sur les pneumopathies des chèvres en saison sèche froide au Tchad: Aspects méthodologiques. Revue Elev. Méd. vét. Pays trop. 46 (3): 485-494. https://doi.org/10.19182/remvt.9453.
  13. Lancelot, R., Imadine, M., Mopate, L. Y., Faye, B., 1994. Amélioration de la productivité des chèvres en zone périurbaine de N’Djaména (Tchad). Choix des mesures suite à une enquête écopathologique. Research. VEREEM/INRA, 25 (2-3): 337-343.
  14. Limea, L., Alexandre, G., Arquet, R., Gravillon, G., Bocage, B., 2006. Qualité des carcasses de caprins créoles abattus à poids différents. 11èmes JSMTV – Clermont Fd – 2006 – pp: 221 et 222.
  15. MERA (Ministère de l’Elevage et des Ressources Animales), 2015. Recensement Général de l’Elevage (RGE) 2012-2015: Présentation des principaux résultats. 20 p.
  16. Mopaté, L.Y., Zeuh, V., Adoum, I.Y., Nadjissara, D., 2014. Structure and Reproductive Performances of Sahelian Goats in the Guera Region, in Central Chad. Open Journal of Animal Sciences, 4: 175-181. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojas.2014.44022.
  17. Gnanda, B.I., Wereme N’Diaye, A., Snon, H.O., Somda, J., Nianogo, J.A. (2016). Rôles et places des chèvres des menages du sahel burkinabé. Tropicultura, 34 (1): 10-25.
  18. Sergent, D., Berbigier, P., Sophie, S.A., 1987. Influence du climat tropical humide et du niveau alimentaire sur la thermorégulation et les performances de croissance et d’abattage de jeunes boucs créoles en Guadeloupe. Zootech. 36, 121–138. https://doi.org/10.1051/animres:19870203.
Abstract Read : 40 Downloads : 17
Previous Next

Submit Case Reports for Special Issue (Dec’19)

Recommend IJLR to include in UGC-CARE list

Download Completed format here

IJLR_UGC CARE Recommendation

And

Recommendations of new journals should be routed by universities and colleges as follows:

  1. Universities: IQAC cell to respective regional CARE University
  2. Affiliated colleges: College IQAC cell to parent university’s IQAC cell. Parent university IQAC cell will forward to respective regional CARE University.

You can find Zonal UGC-CARE address here https://ugccare.unipune.ac.in/site/website/ugc-contact.aspx

Close