Career aspiration is an important notion which encompasses all recognitions on the future and entire experience of individual. Career aspiration can be influenced by self-concept, social and environmental factors. Effective and efficient planning is important in every endeavor including one’s career. Thus, to succeed in choosing a career, it behooves the students plan carefully considering the impact of career aspiration in their income, standard of living, social status and contacts, emotional health and feeling of self-actualization. It will also affect one’s use of time, general satisfaction with life, and spiritual well-being. Keeping this notion in mind, the study on career aspiration of undergraduates in Telangana state was carried out by using interview schedule through personal interview method. Results revealed that maximum percentage of undergraduates’ (30.8%) career aspiration was service in government organization related to their major field, followed by group-I officer (state sector) (10.8%), researcher or scientist (10.0%), consultant (9.1%), entrepreneur (8.4%), academician (7.6%), farmer (5.8%), civil servant (5.8%), defense officer (5.0%), work in abroad (3.3%) and social worker (3.3%).
Career aspiration means how much a person incline and desire the success and achievement through the career which he has chosen. Such career aspirations are conceived by interaction between personal characteristics, social and environmental factors with cognitive factors. Thus, career aspirations can be described as the most reasonable and realistic alternative for choosing the career alternatives. It is assumed that the students during the course of their studies have some plan to pursue a career after getting their degree. They aspire in terms of their choice of some job avenues open to them.
Today, career choices are quite difficult because of many alternative career option are available, staggering array of jobs and continuous changes in the economy and job market. Also more chances for making mistakes and the misery that is likely to happen when people get into the wrong work make career choice difficult (Collins, 2007). An important impact of globalization is that, there is increase in education and employment opportunities with increased specialization based on education. Privatization, one of the effects of globalization, increased large scale industrial organizations to produce goods and deliver services to customers. As a result, there is an increase in employment opportunities for graduates with specialized skills. India has signed the GATT treaty agreeing to remove barriers international livestock and livestock products trade. It is clear by evident that the future of India’s agricultural foreign trade rests predominantly on livestock products (Birthal et al., 2002). This in turn presents employment opportunities for veterinarians in the private sector and livestock and livestock products businesses (Sasidhar and Van Den Ban, 2006).
Effective and efficient planning is important in every endeavor including one’s career. Thus, to succeed in choosing a career, it behooves the student’s plan carefully considering the impact of career aspiration in their income, standard of living, social status and contacts, emotional health and feeling of self-actualization. It will also affect one’s use of time, general satisfaction with life, and spiritual well-being. Students have their own ambitions and career aspirations. As a result, students has to plan their career by considering all available options in consultation with career counsellor and factors that are ideal to their occupational lives. They do also explore various career opportunities and choose matching their competency that can help them to reach their career goal (Samuel et al., 2015). A wrong career choice would not only affect one ‘self but productivity as well. A right career choice at right time enables graduates to perform well and do the intended contribution to betterment of society and thereby the country.
A job is a source of energy to anyone in performing social role after completeing formal education. It can comfort an individual by providing income and self-esteem which pave way for broadening the social relationships. A career can includes sequences of preoccupation, occupation and post occupation positions that a person can achieve during the course of life time (Yun, S., & Min, S. 2015). Hence, it is essential to study the career aspirations of undergraduates of agriculture and animal science it can be of practical significance for planners and administrators of agriculture and animal sciences education. The present study is an attempt to develop an insight on career aspirations of agricultural and animal science graduates.
Results and Discussion
It is reflected from the table1that maximum percentage of undergraduates (30.8%) career aspiration was service in government organization related to their major field, followed by group-I officer (state) (10.8%), researcher or scientist (10.0%), consultant (9.1%), entrepreneur (8.4%), academician (7.6%), farmer (5.8%), civil servant (5.8%), defense officer (5.0%), work in abroad (3.3%) and social worker (3.3%). Table 1 reveals that more than one-third (36.7%) of the agriculture students aspire to get service in government organization related to their major field, while 13.3 per cent prefer working as researcher/scientist and each 10 percent aspire to become group-I officer and academician. Becoming consultant, entrepreneur, farmer and civil servant are the fourth preferred career aspirations while only 3.3 percent eyed on defence career. None of these students had aspiration of working in abroad and becoming social worker.
Table1: Career aspirations of undergraduates of Agriculture and Animal Sciences undergraduates
|S. No.||Career Aspiration||B.Sc.(Agri) n=30||B.Sc.(Horti.) n=30||B.V.Sc & A.H n=30||B.tech (Dairy) n=30||Pooled (N=120)|
|1||Service in Government. organization(in major field)||11||36.7||6||20||13||43.3||7||23.3||37||30.8|
|8||Work in abroad||–||–||1||3.3||–||–||3||10||4||3.3|
|9||Group-I Officer (state)||3||10||4||13.3||2||6.7||4||13.3||13||10.8|
|10||Consultant (in major field)||2||6.7||2||6.7||3||10||4||13.3||11||9.1|
It would be inferred from Table 1 that horticulture graduates are in lines with agriculture graduates in their aspiration of having government job (20%). Equal preference (13.3%) was observed for entrepreneur, researcher/scientist and group-I officer as career. Least career aspiration were found among students for abroad employment and career as social worker. Career in defence, civil service, farming, academic and consultancy equally attracted 6.7% of the total students. Table 1 further, reveals that 43.3 percent of veterinary undergraduates set eyed on service in government organization in major field, with an each 10% equally vying for academic and consultancy career. None of these students showed interest in abroad career opportunity. 6.7% students aspired to become as an entrepreneur, researcher/scientist, social worker and group-I officer. While only 3.3% of students opted defence service, civil servant, and farming. It could also be inferred that 10.0 percent of dairy technology student’s aspired a career abroad while each 13.3 percent aspired to become as a group-I officer and consultant. Academic and social work were the least preferred careers, while 6.7 percent equally set career goal in defence, civil service, faming, entrepreneurship and research/scientist.
Recently ICAR initiated Student READY (Rural Entrepreneurship Awareness Development Yojana) programme aims to provide rural entrepreneurship awareness, practical experience in real-life situation in rural agriculture and certain awareness to undergraduate students about practical agriculture and allied sciences. The programme will help in building confidence, skill and acquire Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITK) of the locality and thereby, preparing the pass-out for self-employment. It also aims to provide opportunities to acquire hands-on-experience and entrepreneurial skills. Experiential learning is an opportunity for the students to develop high quality professional competence, skill development and confidence to start their own enterprise. This is a step towards “Earn while learn”. Experiential learning aims towards practical work experience in real life situation among the undergraduate students and therefore it helps student become “Job Providers rather than Job Seekers”. Rural awareness works experience enable the students to gain rural experience, give them confidence and enhance on farm problem solving abilities in real life situations, especially in contact with farmers, growers, etc. (ICAR, 2016).
The results of the study clearly showed that irrespective of their undergraduate stream majority undergraduates aspire their careers in government organization despite the dwindling employment opportunities in public sector. It may be because of majority of undergraduates hailing from rural areas where low income is a common backwardness, might have developed a dream to get government job which is considered as an elevator in their social status. Another reason is that our agriculture and allied education prepares undergraduates to cater the needs of state agriculture and allied departments. Undergraduates have less aspiration on civil service and defense career which might be due to lack of orientation towards these professions. Becoming an academician and researcher/scientist career are less attractive due to the need of specialization which delays the accomplishment of career goal. Due to lack of guidance, undergraduates had less aspiration to work in abroad. Undergraduates showed less interest in social work. Entrepreneurship and agriculture framing are very least career aspiration of undergraduates. The policy-makers in agriculture and allied education and government should formulate and implement suitable strategies to improve the competency of students and motivate/guide to develop an appropriate career aspiration. Such efforts will help the undergraduates of agriculture and allied streams to develop their self and contribute to the betterment of society.