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Changes in Productive and Reproductive Performance of Indigenous Lactating Cattle Fed on Mustard Oil and Molasses Supplementation

Shiva Parihar G. P. Lakhani R. P. S. Baghel S. Ghosh B. Roy
Vol 8(1), 166-170
DOI- http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20170523105108

Eighteen lactating indigenous cattle were randomly divided into 3 groups of 6 animals (3 Gir and 3 Sahiwal) each on the basis of milk yield and lactation stage to see the effect of molasses and Mustard oil supplementation on production and reproduction performance. Cows were fed wheat straw, concentrate mixture and green fodder in the control group and additional 200 g of mustard oil and molasses was given in treatment groups. Experimental feeding was continued up to 90 days after 2 weeks of adaptation. Overall body weight change was higher in G2 (mustard oil supplemented) group and lowest in G1 (control) group. Statistically there was no significant difference in the average body weight change of indigenous lactating cattle between treatments. Overall BCS was higher in G2 (mustard oil supplemented) group and lowest in G1 (control) group however statistically there was no significant difference in the average BCS of indigenous lactating cow in between G2 and G3 though G1 differed significantly (P> 0.05) from G2 and G3 different treatment groups. Overall Dry Matter Intake (DMI) was higher for treatment group compared to control however; the values were statistically non-significant between the treatment groups of indigenous lactating cattle. Animals of G2 group had shorter postpartum estrus period followed by G3 group and G1 group respectively. The studied revealed that feeding of mustard oil and molasses had significant (P<0.01) effect on Post-partum estrus under the study. Based on cost of feed net profit from / animal / day was highest in G2 group and lowest in G3 group .The decrease in the total feed expenditure per Kg milk in G2 group is because of inclusion of mustard oil 200 ml/ day / animal in the ration which increases feed efficiency and as well as dry matter intake. Feeding of mustard oil resulted in a net profit of Rs. 127.49 per cow per day due to higher milk production suggesting that this technology is economically viable.


Keywords : Indigenous Lactating Cattle Economics and Molasses Supplementation Mustard Oil

Introduction

Demand for energy is very high during early stage of lactation but supply of energy is not commensurate with demand due physiological stage or limited intake which affects total production potential of animal in whole lactation length. So, supplementation of fat before parturition could reduce the detrimental effects of negative energy balance which could increase both lactation as well as metabolic performance (Duske et al., 2009). During the post-partum period, high yielding dairy animals loose body weight due to parturition stress, reduced feed intake and high milk yield. It is often difficult to meet early lactation energy demands of high producing cows. Higher production levels require the cow to consume more energy to support increased milk production and maintain body condition. The present study was done to evaluate effect of feeding of mustard oil and molasses on production and reproduction performance indigenous lactating dairy cows and compared their performance with normal ration.

Materials and Methods

Proposed work was conducted at Livestock farm, Adhartal, College of Veterinary Science & A.H., Nanaji Deshmukh Veterinary Science University, Jabalpur (M.P.) Eighteen early indigenous lactating cattle (9 Sahiwal and 9 Gir) of approximately the same age, lactation number (1st to 3rd lactation), lactation stage, body weight and milk yield were used for the present study .Selected animals were randomly divided into 3 groups of 6 animals (3 Gir and 3 Sahiwal) each as control (G1), supplemented group with mustard oil (G2) and supplemented with molasses (G3). The study was conducted during the months of October to January for 90 days after the adaptation period of 2 weeks. Three experimental  basal diet viz containing no added energy (control), molasses @ 200 ml/adult animal/day and Mustard oil @ 200 ml/adult animal/day were formulated and fed as total mixed ration according to nutrient requirement of lactating dairy animals (NRC, 2001).

Experimental animals were stall fed and managed in intensive system of housing. All The experimental animals were fed according to their body weight and production (NRC, 2001). The water was kept available to animals round the clock. All the animals were offered identical ration consisting of green fodders, wheat straw and concentrate. The chaffed green fodder (berseem / sorghum / maize), and wheat straw were offered ad libitum and concentrate, consisting of 16% crude protein plus 68% total digestible nutrients were offered at a scale of 1 kg per 2.5 kg milk production along with maintenance ration (Das, et al., 2007) . Measured quantity of Molasses and mustard oil was mixed daily in concentrate in morning at the time of feeding and fed individually to each animal. The body weight of each animal was measured with the help of Electronic weighing balance at fortnight interval. BCS was recorded by visual observing the fat deposition by five-point scale method with increments of 0.25 from date of calving to 90 days of lactation at fortnight interval. Representative samples of concentrate mixture and roughage were taken in previously weighed moisture cup/tin trays and kept in hot air oven at 100±2°C for 24 hrs dry matter was calculated. Cows were observed for one hour in early morning and evening to detect behavioural oestrus. Postpartum oestrus intervals were calculated as interval between the date of calving and the date of first observed oestrus. Economics of production were calculated based on only feed cost.

Result and Discussion

The change in body weight pattern in indigenous lactating cattle under different treatments or supplementation at fortnight interval post partum for 90 days is presented in Table 1.

Table 1: Productive and reproductive performance of indigenous lactating cattle

Particulars Group I (Control) Group II (Supplemented with mustard oil Group III (Supplemented with molasses
Initial BW (kg) 331.40±37.67 342.17±31.57 339.17±30.47
Final BW (kg) 327.40±20.27 330.00±28.66 335.00±22.65
Avg. BW (kg) 331.91±0.42 338.64±0.35 337.04±0.35
Average DMI (kg/d/animal) 7.05±0.21 7.08±0.28 7.01±0.29
Initial BCS 2.50 ±0.08 2.65 ±0.06 2.65 ±0.06
Final BCS 2.55 ±0.11 2.70 ±0.13 2.60 ±0.06
Avg. BCS 2.47a±0.20 2.65b±0.10 2.55b±0.15
Post-partum

estrus (Days)

63.64a±5.63 39.46b±5.46 52.80c±4.25

Mean with different superscript within rows differ significantly (P<0.05)

Overall body weight change was higher in G2 (mustard oil supplemented) group and lowest in G1 (control) group. Statistically there was no significant difference in the average body weight change of indigenous lactating cattle between treatments. The initial variation in body weights among the groups was not differed significantly and this was uniformly maintained during the trial. This indicates that the extra energy supplied through the feeding of fat and energy supplement was not utilized by the animal for body fat synthesis/ deposition, but it used the extra energy supplied to produce more milk. Similar findings were reported by Eroni and Argehore (2006) in cows, Shahi et al. (2006), Wadhwa et al. (2012) and Gowda et al. (2013) in cross bred cow. Overall BCS was higher in G2 (mustard oil supplemented) group and lowest in G1 (control) group however statistically there was no significant difference in the average BCS of indigenous lactating cow in between G2 and G3 though G1 differed significantly (P> 0.05) from G2 and G3 different treatment groups.

Overall Dry matter intake (DMI) was higher for treatment group compared to control however; the values were statistically non-significant between the treatment groups of indigenous lactating cattle. The higher DMI may be due to additional fat or energy supplementation, which resulted in slight enhancement of concentrate intake and also changed the roughage concentrate ratio slightly in treatment group. Kumar and Thakur (2007), Naik et al. (2007) and Garg et al. (2008) Patel et al. (2013) had also observed similar level of nutrient intake after addition of bypass fat to the experimental animals when compared with the control ones. This may be due to supplementation of mustard oil and molasses. Animals of G2 group had shorter postpartum estrus period followed by G3 group and G1 group respectively. The studied revealed that feeding of mustard oil and molasses had significant (P<0.01) effect on Post-partum estrus under the study. Delay in post partum estrus in G1 group may be due to low energy intake (Butler, 2003).

Bulter and Smith (1989) also observed that negative energy balance delayed ovarian activity by impinging on pulsatile secretion of LH. Staples et al. (1998) reported that feeding of bypass fat increases the blood cholesterol concentration which may affect plasma progesterone concentration and help in improving the fertility in lactating cows. Knegsel et al. (2005) reported that dietary energy source increase glucose and insulin concentrations and decrease NEFA plasma levels and increase reproductive performance. Shahi et al. (2006), Tyagi et al. (2010) and Gowda et al. (2013) reported superior reproductive performance in cows of fat supplemented group. This is because fat supplementation in early lactation reduces negative energy balance of the cow allowing them to resume estrus cyclicity earlier after calving.

Economics

The effect of feeding of mustard oil and molasses on average cost of milk production for experimental period of three months is presented in Table 2.

Table 2: Economics of mustard oil and molasses supplementation on performance of indigenous lactating cattle

Attributes Treatment Groups
G1 G2 G3
Cost of Concentrate/Animal/day(Rs) 64.76 76.99 73
Cost of Dry roughage/Animal/day(Rs.) 11.1 11.62 12
Cost of Green roughage/Animal/day(Rs.) 14.5 15.1 15.6
Cost of Mustard oil/Animal/day(Rs.) 20
Cost of Molasses/Animal/day(Rs.) 5.37
Total feed cost/Animal/day(Rs.) 90.31 123.71 105.97
Average milk yield/Animal/day (lit.) 4.92 5.71 5.23
Return from milk produced/Animal/day(Rs.) 216.48 251.24 230.12
Cost of feed/Kg milk Produced/Animal/day(Rs.) 18.35 21.66 20.26
Net profit/Animal/day(Rs.) 126.5 127.49 124.15

Cost of ingredients:  Concentrate- 17.99 Rs/kg, Dry roughage- 3.47 Rs/Kg, Green roughage- 2 Rs/Kg, Mustard oil- 10 Rs/100.ml, Molasses- 2.68 Rs/100ml, Milk – Rs 44 per lit

Based on cost of feed net profit from / animal / day was highest in G2 group  and lowest in G3 group .The decrease in the total feed expenditure per Kg milk in G2 group is because of inclusion of mustard oil 200 ml/ day / animal in the ration which increases feed efficiency and as well as dry matter intake. Similar findings were reported by Bernal-Santos et al. (2003) and Gowda et al. (2013) in crossbred (Holstein Frisian) dairy cow. Feeding of   mustard oil resulted in a net profit of Rs. 127.49 per cow per day due to higher milk production suggesting that this technology is economically viable.

Reference

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