India, being a mega biodiversity centre, ranks top in terms of livestock wealth in the world. Livestock sector plays important role not only to the income and employment but also in foreign exchange earnings of the country. Water buffalo population of Bubalus bubalis species particularly is widespread in tropical and subtropical countries with hot and humid climates. Among all the domestic animal species, buffalo alone contributes highest in milk as well as meat production making India top country in the world for milk and buffalo meat production. The buffalo therefore is one of the important livestock species with significant contribution to Indian economy. Besides the economic importance, buffalo population like Chilika of Odisha state also helps to maintain the natural ecosystem and germplasm of this population needs to be preserved. The Chilika breed, which recently has been registered, is reared under unique management conditions, having quality products, like curd. Here we present some interesting and distinctive features about Chilika buffalo breed of Odisha.