The study involved the measurements of some clinically important landmarks for regional anesthesia in the mandibular and maxillary regions of blue bull. The mandibular parameters discussed with regard to their application in proper tracking of the infra-orbital, mental and mandibular nerves to aid in regional anesthetic procedures during treatment and manipulations of various clinical affections of this region. This study was designed to provide information on clinically important parameters and landmarks of the head region. This information may aid for performing regional anesthesia conducted in maxilla and the mandible of the Blue bull.
The Blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus) sometimes also called as Nilgai is the largest Asian antelope. It is the most commonly seen wild mammal of central and northern India, often seen in farmland or scrub forest, arid areas, dry deciduous forests and agricultural areas, but avoid dense forest and deserts. The Blue bull is categorized as of ”Least Concern” by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural resources (IUCN) and protected under Schedule “III” of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. The form and relationships of all organs located in a particular area are directly concerned with regional anatomy which helps the clinician as well as surgeon to visualize details of structures relevant to the case at hand and form one of the important foundations for clinical and surgical practice (Dyce et al., 1996).
Materials and Methods
The present study was conducted on the skulls of six adult Blue bulls (Boselaphus tragocamelus) of either sex. The skeletons were collected from graveyard located in the premises of Bikaner zoo after official approvals from Additional Principal Chief Conservator of Forest (APCCF), Rajasthan, vide approval letter No. F3 (04) TECH-II/CCF/2013, Dated 6th May 2016 with dispatch No.566 from Additional Principal Chief Conservator of Forest, Jaipur (Rajasthan).The skulls were macerated using the hot water maceration technique of Choudhary and Singh (2016). The gross study was carried out at Bikaner zoo under supervision of the zoo personnel’s. A total of 10 measurements were done in the maxilla and mandibles using metric rules and the results were presented as means ± SE. The various parameters measured in the maxilla and mandible bones of the blue bull are described below and shown in Fig. 1- 3.
Fig.1: Lateral view of mandible showing measurements; (a) Distance from lateral alveolar root to mental foramina, (b) Mental foramina to caudal mandibular margin and (c) Mandibular length
Fig.2: Medial view of mandible showing measurements; (d) distance from mandibular foramen to base of mandible, (e) Mandibular foramen to caudal mandibular margin, (f) condyloid fossa to height of mandible, (g) Condyloid fossa to base of mandible and (h) Maximum mandibular height .
Fig.3: Lateral view of Skull of blackbuck showing Facial tuberosity to infraorbital canal (A), infraorbital canal to root of alveolar tooth (B).
(a) Measurement of length from lateral alveolar root to mental foramen: Calculated by the shortest distance taken from the mental foramen to the lateral extent of the alveolar root of lower incisor.
(b) Measurement of length from mental foramen to the caudal mandibular border: Calculated from the level of the mental foramen to the extreme caudal border of the mandible.
(c) Measurement of mandibular length: Calculated by the distance taken from the level of length from the cranial extremity of the alveolar root of the incisor to the level of the caudal border of the mandible.
(d) Measurement of mandibular foramen to the base of mandible: Calculated by a vertical line from the ventral limit of the mandibular foramen to the base of the mandible.
(e) Caudal border of mandible to below mandibular foramen: Maximum length of the caudal most border of the mandible to the vertical line produced by a description of the measurement of the mandibular foramen to the base of the mandible.
(f) Condyloid fossa to the height of the mandible: Calculated as measurement taken from the maximum height of mandible to the condyloid fossa.
(g) Calculated as measurement taken from the condyloid fossa to the base of the mandible.
(h)Measurement of maximum mandibular height: Measurement taken from the basal level of the mandible to the highest level of the coronoid process.
(i) Facial tuberosity to the infra-orbital canal: Measurement taken from fromthe level of the most lateral bulging of the facial tuberosity to the mid level of the infra-orbital canal.
(j) Infra-orbital canal to the root of alveolar tooth: The measurement was taken vertically from the mid-level of the infra-orbital canal to the root of the alveolar tooth.
Results and Discussion
The distance between the lateral ends of the alveolus of the third incisor tooth to the mental foramen was 4.02±0.11. According to Olopade and Onwuka (2005) in West African Dwarf goat it was 1.6±0.22 cm. It was 2.0±0.3 cm, in Red Sokoto (Maradi) Goats (Olopade and Onwuka (2007), 2.07±0.45 cm, in Mehraban sheep (Karimi et al., 2012), 1.58±0.19 cm, in Gwembe Valley Dwarf goat (Kataba et al., 2014) and 2.45±0.008 in blackbuck (Choudhary et al., 2015). The distance from the mental foramen to the caudal mandibular border was 29.10±0.16 cm while according to Monfared (2013) in Iranian native cattle it was 23.8 cm, Kataba et al. (2014) in Gwembe Valley Dwarf goat it was 9.26±0.49 cm and it was 13.43±0.081 in blackbuck (Choudhary et al., 2015). The length and height of the mandible was 35.10±0.19 cm and 16.80±0.13cm, respectively. While in Red Sokoto (Maradi) Goats it was 12.7 cm and 7.7 cm, respectively (Olopade and Onwuka, 2007), in Mehraban sheep 15.76±2.25 cm and 9.57±2.71 cm, respectively (Karimi et al., 2012), in Gwembe Valley Dwarf goat 11.24±0.52 cm and 6.64±0.44 cm, respectively (Kataba et al., 2014), in adult Kuri cattle 41.3±2.35 cm and 22.6±1.40 cm, respectively (Gambia et al., 2014). According to Choudhary et al. (2015) in blackbuck it was 16.53±0.128 cm and 10.69±0.024 cm and according to Choudhary et al. (2016) in Indian wild pig the length and height of the mandible were 33.25±0.30 cm and 16.88±0.124 cm, respectively. The distance between the condyloid fossa in height of mandible, condyloid fossa to the base of the mandible, base of mandible to the mandibular foramen were 4.17±0.07 cm, 12.18±0.18 cm and 7.29±0.04 cm, respectively. However same were 43.09±0.005 cm, 7.57±0.009 cm and 4.18±0.007 cm respectively in blackbuck (Choudhary et al., 2015). The distances from the facial tuberosity to the infraorbital canal and from the root of the alveolar tooth to infraorbital canal were 5.31±0.16 cm and 2.33±0.16 cm respectively.
Table 1: The measurements of upper jaw and mandibles of Blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus)
|S. No. Different Parameters||Mean Value (cm)||S.E.|
|Lateral alveolar root to menta foramen||14.02||0.11|
|Mental foramen to the caudal mandibular border||29.1||0.16|
|Mandibular foramen to the base of mandible||7.29||0.04|
|Caudal border of mandible to below mandibular foramen||2.91||0.1|
|Condyloid fossa to the height of the mandible||4.17||0.07|
|Condyloid fossa to the base of the mandible||12.18||0.18|
|Maximum mandibular height||16.8||0.13|
|Facial tuberosity to the infra-orbital canal||8.06||0.34|
|Infra-orbital canal to the root of alveolar tooth||5.31||0.16|
In West African Dwarfs goats the distances from the facial tuberosity to the infraorbital canal and from the root of the alveolar tooth to infraorbital canal were found to be 1.6-1.8 cm and 1.3-1.6 cm (Olopade and Onwuka, 2005), in Gwembe Valley dwarf goat the distances were measured as 2.06±0.014 cm and 1.13±0.11 cm (Kataba et al., 2014) and in Iranian native cattle the above mentioned distances were found to be 2.8 cm and 2.5 cm (Monfared, 2013) respectively. The measurements were also observed by Uddin et al. (2009) for Black Bengal goat as 1.85±0.14 cm and 1.75±0.09 cm respectively. The same measurements were reported by Choudhary and Singh (2015) in blackbuck was 2.37±0.006 cm and 0.72±0.01 cm respectively. These data are of clinical importance because the facial tuberosity is very prominent even in live animals as a guide for tracking the infra-orbital nerve and necessary for its desensitization during the manipulations in the skin of the upper lip, nostril and face at the level of the foramen. The injection of local anesthetic agents within the canal via the infra-orbital foramen will also lead to analgesia of the incisor and first two premolar teeth. Moreover, the infra-orbital foramen was located directly dorsal to the second or the junction of the first and second upper premolar teeth.
The authors are grateful to the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), the Principle Chief Conservator of Forests (PCCF), Govt. of Rajasthan and Bikaner zoo for providing facilities and support for carrying out research on the bones of blue bull.
The present study highlighted the mandibular parameters with special reference to its application in proper tracking of the infra-orbital, mental and mandibular nerves as required for regional anaesthesia and manipulations of various clinical maladies. The study also provided a clue to the clinically important parameters of the head region. The generated knowledge will help in performing regional anaesthesia of maxillary and mandibular regions of Blue bull.