Adoption of scientific health technologies is one of the important pre-requisites to improve the quality and production performance of the goat husbandry. The constraints which hinder the goat farmers to adopt recommended scientific health technologies were assessed in different agro-climatic zones of Bihar by selecting two districts from each zone, with the sample size of 240 farmers (80 from each zone). Among economic constraints, high cost of medicine was ranked first with the total score of 138 by farmers of zone I followed by farmers of zone III (score-137) and farmers of zone II (score-133). Among social constraints, lack of preventive health management was ranked first with the total score of 119 by farmers of zone II followed by farmers of zone III (score118) and farmers of zone I (score-116). Among technological constraints lack of knowledge and importance of vaccination was ranked first with the total score of 119 by farmers of zone III followed by farmers of zone II (score-110). Door step availability of health care facility and regular organisation of health camp at village level may help to adopt goat health technologies as suggested by the farmers.
Goat, in true sense, is called as poor man’s cow due to its tremendous economic importance in contributing milk, meat, household nutrition security and livelihood to the poor people. Goat can consume a variety of vegetation, which are not useful for other species of livestock (Tanwar, 2011). Goat, a small ruminant are generally reared in rain fed areas by landless or the resource poor farmers whose average agricultural holding is either very less (marginal and small farmers) or is not sufficient to devote for cultivation of crops (Kumar and Pant , 2003 and Singh et al.,2005). It is ideally suited for the poorest of the poor because of short gestation period, low risk capital investment and low cost of maintenance (Gopala et al., 2010). India, with 135 million goats is one of the largest goats owning country in the world which plays a significant role in livelihood and nutritional security as well as providing supplementary income to nearly 70 million farmers of over 5, 00,000 remote villages (CIRG Annual Report 2015-16). Goat husbandry faces problems like low body weight gain, small holding size and mass mortality which hinders their production potentials. Many useful goat husbandry technologies have been evolved by research system and have been transferred to the field for improving the production and productivity of goat sector in all agro-climatic zones of the country. Adoption of scientific health technologies is one of the important pre-requisites to improve the quality and production performance of the goat husbandry which substantially improve the quality of farmer’s life. But, there are various constraints which hinders the adoption of health technology by farmers. Keeping above point in view, the study was planned to identify those constraints which hindrance the goat owners to adopt recommended scientific health technologies in different agro-climatic zones of Bihar.
Materials and Methods
The constraints which hindrance the goat farmers to adopt recommended scientific health technologies were assessed with the goat owners in Bihar. For the study, two districts were selected from each of the three zones of Bihar based on the highest density of goat population thus; comprising six districts from all three zones of Bihar. From each selected district, two blocks were randomly selected to make a total of 12 blocks. Subsequently, two villages were selected randomly from each block to constitute a total of 24 villages. Ten respondents (who owned at least 5 goats) from each village were selected randomly. Thus, the finally 240 goat rearing farmers were selected as respondents for the study. Data related to constraints were collected from the respondents by interviewing individually. The structured schedule containing possible constraints were administered to the respondents. The identified constraints were administered on a 3 point continuum as most serious constraint, least serious constraint and not a constraint with a score of 2, 1 and 0, respectively. The scores for each constraint were added and the total constraints score was obtained. Based on the total scores, the constraints were ranked. In order to get logical interpretation, the data were compiled, tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis methods like frequency and percentage by following standard statistical methods described by Snedecor and Cochran (1994).
Results and Discussion
Adoption of health technologies by the goat owner is one of the important pre-requisites to substantially improve the health status of goat and the level of production, but there are various constraints which hindrance its adoption.
The findings of the study indicated that 55 % of the farmers of zone-I felt preventive health management as the most serious constraint followed by low prestige associated with goat rearing (45 %) and traditional medicines preferred over modern medication technologies (45 %). For the farmers of zone II, preventive health management was the most serious constraint felt by majority of goat farmers (52.50 %) followed by social taboo associated with goat rearing (38.75 %) and traditional medicines preferred over modern medication technologies (45 %). The goat farmers of zone III also felt preventive health management (53.80 %) as the most serious constraint followed by traditional medicines preferred over modern medication technologies (45 %) and social taboo associated with goat rearing (36.70 %). This might be due to farmers were not focusing on preventive measures. Sharma and Arya (2005) reported in their study that high cost and distant location of community information centers were the main socio-economic constraints.
The results of economic constraints presented in Table 1 indicated that 80 % farmers of zone I felt, high cost of medicine as most serious constraint followed by high charge levied by veterinary staff (68.75 %) and lack of quality breed by 62.50 % of farmers. For 8.80 % of farmers of zone II, high cost of medicine was not a constraint in adoption of goat health technologies, while 75 % of farmers felt it as most serious constraint. The goat farmers of zone III also felt high cost of medicine (81.30 %) the most serious constraint followed by high charge levied by veterinary staff (70 %). Tiwari et al., 2003 reported that low level of socio-economic status, lack of appropriate feeding of animal and good management points were the inhibitors for the higher production of animal produce. Non-availability of improved breeding bucks as constraints (41.98%) reported by Mohan et al. (2009) and Wani et al. (2009).
Availability of input is considered as one of the important factor to influence the rate of adoption of technology. Results show that 70 % farmer of zone-I felt unavailability of vaccines as most serious input constraint followed by 67.50 % farmers of zone II and 65 % farmers of zone III. Lack of credit facility felt most serious input constraint by 55 % farmers of zone-I followed by 46.30 % farmers of zone II and 43.80 % farmers of zone III. More than 40 % farmers of all three selected zones felt lack of door step availability of veterinary services as most serious input constraint. Meganathan et al. (2010) reported that lack of capital/adequate credit facilities for sheep and goat rearing as the major constraint for tribal farmers. Kumar et al. (2003), Mohan et al. (2009) and Shah et al. (2015) reported almost similar findings.
Table 1: Constraints faced by the goat farmers in adoption of goat health technologies
|1. Social constraints|
|Traditional medicines preferred||22||22||36||94||III||22||22||36||94||III||20||24||36||96||II|
|Low prestige with goat rearing||12||32||36||104||II||15||34||31||96||II||16||36||28||92||III|
|Lack of preventive health management||8||28||44||116||I||4||35||42||119||I||5||32||43||118||I|
|2. Economic constraints|
|High cost of medicine||6||10||64||138||I||7||13||60||133||I||8||7||65||137||I|
|Lack of quality breed||13||17||50||117||III||13||19||48||115||III||10||24||46||116||III|
|High charge levied by veterinary staff||10||15||55||125||II||9||21||50||121||II||7||17||56||129||II|
|3. Input constraints|
|Lack of door step veterinary services||10||35||35||105||II||10||38||32||102||III||21||24||35||94||III|
|Unavailability of vaccines||10||14||56||126||I||8||18||54||126||I||12||16||52||120||I|
|Lack of credit facility||13||23||44||111||III||13||30||37||104||II||12||33||35||103||II|
|4. Institutional constraints|
|Poor infrastructure of marketing||14||35||31||97||I||12||32||36||104||I||15||32||33||98||I|
|Poor extension activity||24||25||31||87||II||15||33||32||97||II||30||26||24||74||III|
|Distance location of veterinary hospital||25||28||27||82||III||22||28||30||88||III||20||27||33||93||II|
|Lack of knowledge on diseases||10||28||42||112||I||15||28||37||102||III||13||29||38||105||II|
|Lack of knowledge on scientific kid care||8||34||38||110||II||11||34||35||104||II||6||34||40||104||III|
|Lack of knowledge of vaccination||11||32||37||106||III||9||32||39||110||I||7||30||43||119||I|
(Figures in parentheses indicates percentage to the corresponding frequency); MSC – Most Serious Constraint, LSC – Least Serious Constraint, NC – Not a Constraint
The institutional constraints revealed that 38.80 % of farmers of zone-I felt poor infrastructure of marketing as most serious institutional constraint followed by 45 % of farmers of zone II and 41.30 % of farmers of zone III. These results are in accordance with as reported by Kumar et al.(2014) and Rajkumar and Kavithaa (2014).
The technological constraint faced by the farmers of all the three zones revealed that out of three selected technical constraints, lack of knowledge on diseases was considered as most serious constraint by 52.50 % of farmers of zone I followed by 46.25 % farmers of zone II and 47.50 % farmers of zone III. This might be due to farmers were not aware about goat diseases.
Suggestions to Overcome the Constraints in Adoption of Goat Health Technologies
Door step availability of health care facility and regular organisation of health camp at village level may help to adopt goat health technologies as suggested by 100 % of the farmers. Small flock size of majority of farmers was a constraint which did not motivate them to adopt scientific health technologies and to overcome this constraint more than 89 % of farmers suggested that input resources should be provided to increase flock size. Training on health aspects should be available to local youth (66.67 %) and insurance facilities (58.33 %) were the other suggestions offered by the farmers to overcome the constraints in adoption of health technologies (Table 2).
Table 2: Suggestions to overcome the constraints faced by goat farmers
|Door step availability of health care facility||240||100|
|Regular vaccination camp||240||100|
|Credit facilities for health services||230||95.83|
|Developing new marketing channels and strengthening of existing one||220||91.66|
|Resources should be provided to increase flock size||215||89.58|
|Availability of medicines||210||87.85|
|Awareness related to preventive health management||210||87.5|
|High quality breed should be available||200||83.33|
|Combination of ITK along with modern medication technology||190||79.17|
|Establishment of mobile health clinic||190||79.17|
|Extension services should be strengthened||190||79.17|
|Training to use scientific management practices||185||77.08|
|Awareness about economic losses associated with diseases||180||75|
|Training on health aspects should be available to local youth||160||66.67|
Constraints faced by different zones of goat farmers in Bihar were more or less similar in nature with variation of their intensity. Economic constraints were ranked first by goat farmers which indicate that majority of the farmers faced economic barrier in adoption of goat health technologies. Preventive health management, high cost of medicine, unavailability of vaccines, poor infrastructure of marketing and lack of knowledge about goat diseases were other major constraints. Provision of good remunerative price for sale of goat, timely availability of health technologies, suitable extension interventions may overcome the constraints in adoption of goat health technologies and further improve the socio-economic status of goat farmers by generating more income and employment.
The author would like to give thanks to goat rearing farmers for their cordial cooperation during the survey period.