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Dairy Farmers Satisfaction towards Livestock Service Delivery of NGOs in Bihar

Shashi Ranjan Sanjay Kumar Rewani Vijendra Kumar Pal Lalhumliana Tochhawng Debasis Ganguli
Vol 8(5), 136-142
DOI- http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20170612053712

The present study was undertaken in Saharsa and Vaishali districts of Bihar to know the satisfaction level of dairy farmers towards the livestock service delivery of two Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) viz. J.K. Trust and BAIF (Bharatiya Agro Industries Foundation). Data were collected through structured interview schedule from 120 randomly selected dairy farmers of different villages belonging to Saharsa and Vaishali districts. The study revealed that majority of the dairy farmers (91.67%) was highly satisfied with the production function of J. K. Trust. The percentage of respondents satisfied with their information, training and awareness camp services were 100.00, 86.67 and 83.33 per cent respectively, while 100.00, 91.67, 75.00 and 60.00 per cent respondents were dissatisfied with their group formation, product marketing, treatment facilities and preventive health care services respectively. The study further revealed that in the working area of BAIF, about 70.00, 68.33 and 63.33 per cent dairy farmers were highly satisfied with their training, awareness camp and production function respectively whereas, the percentage of respondents satisfied with their information and group formation services were 100.00 and 83.33 per cent respectively. About 91.67, 73.33 and 50.00 per cent respondents were dissatisfied with their preventive health care, product marketing and treatment facilities respectively.


Keywords : BAIF Dairy Farmers J. K. Trust Livestock Service Delivery NGOs Satisfaction

Introduction

In India, State Departments of Animal Husbandry are the main and primary providers of livestock services apart from other private and cooperative service providers (Rajashree, 2000; Jagadeeshwary, 2003 and Ravikumar et al., 2007). But from the early 1990s, government livestock services are facing some formidable challenges in terms of operation in a continually changing policy & institutional and commercial environment under liberalization. While the demand for these services is expanding rapidly, widening fiscal deficits and the increasing proportion of departmental budget spent on salaries contributes to the deterioration in the availability and quality of publicly provided livestock services. Added to this, the state governments are unable to meet the need of increased livestock population and diversified demand for the livestock services.

In recent years the participation of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in livestock sector has increased. On their own many NGOs have started to participate in this sector. These organizations engage in developing community based animal health workers; organize livestock farmers’ co-operatives and so on. They organize and mobilize the latent market demand for animal health services (Ahuja, 2004). Two leading NGOs viz. J.K. Trust and BAIF (Bharatiya Agro Industries Foundation) are acting as subcontract for various animal husbandry activities in Bihar. This article describes the satisfaction level of the dairy farmers towards the role of these two NGOs in delivery of livestock services.

Materials and Methods

The present study was conducted in the year 2012 in purposively selected Saharsa and Vaishali districts of Bihar, as J. K. Trust and BAIF were working in the respective districts. From each district two blocks viz. Simri Bakhtiyarpur and Salkhua from Saharsa and Patepur and Bidupur from Vaishali were selected purposively. Three villages from each block and 10 dairy farmers from each village were selected by simple random sampling technique, thus constituting a total sample size of 60 from each district. Data were collected by personal interview techniques through a pre-designed interview schedule. Total eight livestock services were selected for study based on discussion with experts and NGO personnel. The satisfaction level of the dairy farmers was measured on a four point continuum viz. highly satisfied, satisfied, dissatisfied and very much dissatisfied by assigning scores 4, 3, 2 and 1 respectively and results were expressed in percentages. Correlation coefficient was used to study the relationship between independent variables and dairy farmers’ satisfaction level towards livestock services of NGOs.

Results and Discussion

 

Socio-Economic Profile of Dairy Farmers

Table 1: Socio-economic profile of dairy farmers

S. No. Variables Category J.K. Trust (n=60) BAIF(n=60)
Frequency (%) Frequency (%)
1 Age Young (up to 30 years) 2 (3.33) 2 (3.33)
Middle (31 to 50 years) 41 (68.33) 22 (36.66)
Old (51 years and above) 17 (28.33) 36 (60.00)
2 Education Illiterate 8 (13.33) 15 (25.00)
Can read 0 (0.00) 1 (1.67)
Can read & write 9 (15.00) 16 (26.67)
Primary school 1 (1.66) 11 (18.33)
Middle school 16 (26.67) 8 (13.33)
High school 13 (21.67) 6 (10.00)
Intermediate 10 (16.67) 2 (3.33)
Graduate and above 3 (5.00) 1 (1.67)
3 Farming experience 1-5 years 9 (15.00) 1 (1.67)
6-10 years 18 (30.00) 6 (10.00)
Above 10 years 33 (55.00) 53 (88.33)
4 Land holding Landless (No land) 5 (8.33) 15 (25.00)
Marginal (up to 2.5 acres) 28 (46.67) 43 (71.67)
Small (2.51 to 5.00 acres) 20 (33.33) 2 (3.33)
Medium (5.01 to 10.00 acres) 6 (10.00) 0 (0.00)
Large (above 10 acres) 1 (1.67) 0 (0.00)
5 Income per month Rs. 1,000-5,000 31 (51.67) 21 (35.00)
Rs. 5,001- 10,000 23 (38.33) 35 (58.33)
Rs. 10,001-15,000 3 (5.00) 4 (6.67)
Rs. 15,001- 20,000 1 (1.67) 0 (0.00)
Above Rs. 20,000 2 (3.33) 0 (0.00)
6 Herd size of dairy animals Small (Below 4) 6 (10.00) 13 (21.67)
Medium (4 to 8) 46 (76.67) 43 (71.67)
Large (Above 8) 8 (13.33) 4 (6.66)
7 Milk production Low (Below 2 ltr.) 0 (0.00) 3 (5.00)
Medium (2 to 12 ltrs.) 55 (91.67) 51 (85.00)
High (Above 12 ltrs.) 5 (8.33) 6 (10.00)
8 Milk consumption Low (Below 1 ltr.) 1 (1.67) 0 (0.00)
Medium (1 to 3 ltrs.) 50 (83.33) 56 (93.33)
High (Above 3 ltrs.) 9 (15.00) 4 (6.67)
9 Milk sale Low (Below 1 ltr.) 4 (6.67) 2 (3.33)
Medium (1 to 9 ltrs.) 50 (83.33) 52 (86.67)
High (Above 9 ltrs.) 6 (10.00) 6 (10.00)
10 Extension agency contact Low (Below 4) 1 (1.67) 7 (11.67)
Medium (Between 4 – 6) 57 (95.00) 52 (86.67)
High (Above 6) 2 (3.33) 1 (1.66)
11 Mass media exposure Low (Below 4) 13 (21.67) 5 (8.33)
Medium ( 4 to 8) 44 (73.33) 45 (75.00)
High (Above 8) 3 (5.00) 10 (16.67)
12 Economic motivation Low (Below 20) 3 (5.00) 1 (1.67)
Medium (20 to 24) 47 (78.33) 52 (86.66)
High (Above 24) 10 (16.67) 7 (11.67)

The data presented in Table 1 revealed that majority of the dairy farmers in the working area of J. K. Trust were from middle age category, educated upto middle school and having monthly income of Rs. 1000-5000, whereas in the working area of BAIF, majority of the dairy farmers were from old age category, can read and write and having monthly income of Rs. 5001-10000. Majority of the respondents were having more than 10 years of farming experience and marginal land holding (upto 2.5 acres) in the working area of both the NGOs. It is also evident from Table 1 that in the working area of both the NGOs, majority of the dairy farmers fall in the medium category in terms of herd size of dairy animals, milk production, milk consumption, milk sale, extension agency contact, mass media exposure and economic motivation.

Dairy Farmers’ Satisfaction towards the Performance of J. K. Trust and BAIF

It is evident from Table 2 that majority of the dairy farmers (75.00%) were dissatisfied whereas 25.00 per cent were very much dissatisfied with the treatment facilities provided by J.K. Trust.

Table 2: Dairy Farmers’ Satisfaction Level towards the Performance of J. K. Trust and BAIF

S. No. Services Highly Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Very much -Dissatisfied
1 Providing treatment facilities        
a. J. K. Trust 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 45 (75.00) 15 (25.00)
b. BAIF 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 30 (50.00) 30 (50.00)
2 As source of information        
a. J. K. Trust 0 (0.00) 60 (100.00) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00)
b. BAIF 0 (0.00) 60 (100.00) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00)
3 Training        
a. J. K. Trust 8 (13.33) 52 (86.67) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00)
b. BAIF 42 (70.00) 18 (30.00) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00)
4 Awareness camp        
a. J. K. Trust 10 (16.67) 50 (83.33) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00)
b. BAIF 41 (68.33) 19 (31.67) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00)
5 Preventive health care        
a. J. K. Trust 0 (0.00) 11 (18.33) 36 (60.00) 13 (21.67)
b. BAIF 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 55 (91.67) 5 (8.33)
6 Production function        
a. J. K. Trust 55 (91.67) 5 (8.33) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00)
b. BAIF 38 (63.33) 22 (36.67) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00)
7 Marketing of products        
a. J. K. Trust 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 55 (91.67) 5 (8.33)
b. BAIF 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 44 (73.33) 16 (26.67)
8 Group formation        
a. J. K. Trust 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 60 (100.00) 0 (0.00)
b. BAIF 10 (16.67) 50 (83.33) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00)

(Figures in parenthesis indicate percentage)

Further, it could be observed that an equal number of dairy farmers (50.00%) were dissatisfied and very much dissatisfied with the treatment facilities provided by BAIF. The possible reason for dissatisfaction of dairy farmers could be due to the fact that the treatment of animals is time-sensitive, which both the NGOs were not able to deliver in time. All the dairy farmers were satisfied with their role as source of information. About 86.67 per cent and 83.33 per cent respondents were satisfied and 13.33 per cent and 16.67 per cent were highly satisfied with the trainings and awareness camps organized by J. K. Trust respectively. Whereas, majority of the respondents (70.00% and 68.33%) were highly satisfied while 30.00 per cent and 31.67 per cent were satisfied with the trainings and awareness camps organized by BAIF respectively. Similar findings were reported by Saravanan and Veerabhadraiah (2003) who found that more than two-fifths (46.67%) of clientele of NGOs had high level of satisfaction.

Regarding preventive health care services of J.K. Trust, about 60.00 per cent dairy farmers were dissatisfied whereas 21.67 per cent and 18.33 per cent were very much dissatisfied and satisfied respectively. A great majority of the dairy farmers (91.67%) were also dissatisfied with preventive health care services provided by BAIF. An equal number of dairy farmers (91.67%) were highly satisfied and dissatisfied with the production and marketing functions rendered by J. K. Trust respectively. Regarding production function of BAIF, 63.33 per cent respondents were highly satisfied and remaining 36.67 per cent were satisfied. The possible reason for this could be due to availability of good quality semen for Artificial Insemination (A.I.) at their doorsteps. This finding is in conformity with the findings of Shweta (2014) who reported a higher satisfaction of dairy farmers with A.I. performance of BAIF. Majority of the dairy farmers (73.33%) were dissatisfied whereas 26.67 per cent were very much dissatisfied with the marketing activities of BAIF. All the respondents were dissatisfied with group forming activities of J. K. Trust whereas majority of the dairy farmers (83.33%) were satisfied and 16.67 per cent were highly satisfied with the group forming activities of BAIF.

Correlation between Selected Independent Variables and Dairy Farmers’ Satisfaction Level

Relational analysis of the selected independent variables with satisfaction level of the dairy farmers (Table 3) indicated that age, farming experience, herd size of dairy animals, milk production, milk consumption and milk sale were negatively and non-significantly associated with the farmers’ satisfaction level towards the performance of J. K. Trust. This might be due to the fact that as age and farming experience of farmers increased, their expectations from J. K. Trust also increased. Also, farmers with larger herd size and more milk production, consumption and sale were expecting more prompt services from J. K. Trust which the NGO was not able to provide. Variables like education, land holding, monthly income, mass media exposure and economic motivation were positively and non-significantly associated with the farmers’ satisfaction level towards the performance of J.K. trust. This might be due to the fact that as education and mass media exposure of farmers increased, their awareness level also increased. Extension agency contact was significantly associated with the satisfaction level of the respondents at 1 per cent level which might be due to increased awareness about the services of the NGO due to more extension contact.

Table 3: Correlation between selected independent variables and dairy farmers’ satisfaction level

S. No. Variables Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient (rs)
J. K. Trust BAIF
1. Age – 0.033 – 0.074
2. Education 0.003 0.169
3. Farming experience – 0.032 – 0.219
4. Land holding 0.176 0.132
5. Income per month 0.114 0.177
6. Herd size of dairy animal – 0.191 0.200
7. Milk production – 0.108 0.084
8. Milk consumption – 0.112 0.161
9. Milk sale – 0.254 0.011
10. Extension agency contact 0.392** 0.050
11. Mass media exposure 0.058 – 0.050
12. Economic motivation 0.168 0.132

** Significant at 1 per cent level of significance

In case of BAIF, variables like age, farming experience and mass media exposure were negatively and non-significantly associated with the satisfaction level of the dairy farmers. This might be due to the fact that as age and farming experience of farmers increased, their expectations from BAIF also increased. Variables like education, land holding, monthly income, herd size of dairy animals, milk production, milk consumption, milk sale, extension agency contact and economic motivation were positively and non-significantly associated with the satisfaction level of the dairy farmers. This might be due to the fact that as education and extension agency contact of farmers increased, their awareness about the services of the NGO also increased. Also, farmers with larger land holding and herd size and more milk production, consumption, sale and monthly income were expecting more prompt services from BAIF which the NGO was providing to the farmers.

Conclusion

Thus it can be inferred from the present study that the dairy farmers in the working areas of both the NGOs viz. J.K. Trust and BAIF were satisfied with their information, trainings, awareness camps and production functions. However, both the NGOs were unable to satisfy the respondents in the areas of providing preventive health care and treatment facilities and marketing of their products. Hence, both the NGOs should improve their activities in these areas to satisfy the farmers. It can also be concluded that if nurtured further, they can become effective means of providing affordable livestock services to remote areas and disadvantaged communities.

References

  1. Ahuja V. 2004. The economic rationale of public and private sector roles in the provision of animal health services. Rev. Sci. Tech. 23: 33-45.
  2. Jagadeeswary V. 2003. Establishing private veterinary clinics in Andhra Pradesh – An opinion study. M.V.Sc. thesis. Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad.
  3. 2000. Farmers perception on privatizing animal husbandry extension services. M. V. Sc. thesis. Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai.
  4. Ravikumar S, Reddy KVR and Sudhakar Rao B. 2007. Farmers’ choice for cost recovery of veterinary services in different livestock holding systems – A case study of India. Livestock Research for Rural Development. http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd19/kuma19066.htm.
  5. Saravanan R and Veerabhadraiah V. 2003. Clientele satisfaction and their willingness to pay for public and private agricultural extension services. Tropical Agricultural Research. 15: 87-97.
  6. Shweta K. 2014. Artificial Insemination for dairy development in Ranchi district of Jharkhand. Indian Research Journal of Extension Education. 14 (1): 90-92.
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