Schistosomus reflexus is a fetal and congenital anomaly of the trunk and rarely present in goats. In this case report, the dystocia was managed successfully. A one dead male foetus was delivered per-vaginum.
Schistosomus reflexus (SR) is a fatal and congenital anomaly of the trunk. Primarily observed in ruminants, characterized by spinal inversion, exposure of the abdominal viscera because of a fissure of the ventral abdominal wall, limb ankylosis, positioning of limbs adjacent to skull, lung hypoplasia, abnormal shape of liver and rumen is distended with fluid. Microscopic examination found necrotic and degenerative lesions only in the brain, liver, kidneys and lungs (Hashemnia et al., 2013). It has been observed most commonly in cattle (Jana and Ghosh, 2001), buffaloes, occasionally in horses and rarely in goats (Hashemnia et al., 2013; Kumar et al., 2016), sheep, camel and swine (Irwin and Pulley, 1996). In this case report a dead male SR fetus was delivered successfully by vaginal route.
A full term pregnant, nulliparous, non-descript doe aged about 2.5 years was presented to the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Navania, Rajasthan, India, with the history of straining from last night.
The respiration rate and rectal temperature was normal. Per-vaginal examination revealed that, the birth canal was sufficiently relaxed and all the limbs and head lying in birth canal. The fetus was died and confirmed by suckling reflex.
The genital tract was lubricated with Liquid paraffin. After that, the foetus was delivered per-vaginum by mild traction with hand on the forelimbs and head along with simultaneous adjustment of the other foetal parts. Afterwards, Four Furea bolus were placed intra-uterine. There was absence of any apparent injury to the genital tract of the dam. Parentally, the animal was treated with antibiotic and antihistaminic according to prescribed doses. Morphologically, there were ankylosed foetal limbs, angulated lumbar region. The diaphragm was intact and the lungs were atrophied. The congested abdominal viscera viz; stomach, intestines, liver etc. were protruded out of the abdominal cavity (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1: Schistosomus reflexus fetus with exposed abdominal viscera
Treatment and Discussion
These observations are in agreeable with the Suthar et al. (2011). In addition, most of the reports concerning SR in goats revealed extremities presentation (Balaswamy and Narasimha Rao, 1997; Kalita et al., 2004). as compared to the visceral presentation. The pathogenesis of SR is not well defined (Bezek and Frazer, 1994). Researches suggested that SR might be a result from a genetic defect (Roberts, 1998; Gutierrez et al., 1999). So, it can be managed by a suitable breeding strategy.