Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most catastrophic diseases of poultry and has potential to cause enormous economic losses in the poultry industry. There were several outbreaks of ND recorded in India; however, the economic impact of ND on poultry industry remains unclear and demanded calculation of economic losses due to ND among the commercial layer in the India. This paper analyses the economic losses among a total of thirteen flocks of eleven layer farms were ND outbreak reported during the period January 2013 to July 2014. A new economic model was developed to calculate economic losses occurred due to mortality, vaccination, production lost, treatment and biosecurity measures of individual layer flocks. Total economic losses in all the layer flocks were 3719223 rupees. Loss from mortality was contributed 2998105 rupees out of total economic loss. Highest 80.61 percent and lowest 0.70 percent out of total economic loss was documented due to mortality and biosecurity measure respectively. In India, ND is leading to enormous economic loss among commercial poultry farmer inspite of stringent vaccination against ND. The generation of valuable data from this study will be useful to calculate global economic loss due to Newcastle disease in the poultry industry.
India is the second largest egg and third largest broiler chicken producer in the world — 65,000 million eggs in 2014 with per capita egg consumption is 55 eggs and 3.8 million tone of poultry meat a year. The market is predicted to be worth about 90,000 crores rupees (Yeskal, 2015). However, the considerable increase in poultry population along with the radical changes in the husbandry practices resulted in altered patterns of the poultry diseases. The outcome of any disease could lead to direct and indirect economic loses. With the high growing poultry industry, it faces many challenges particularly in the disease problems. All over the world, the poultry industry is facing severe economic losses with every passing year (Khan et al., 2010). Among the disease challenge the Newcastle disease is an economically influential disease causing huge production loss to the farmers besides high mortality and also a major threat to poultry industry (Narayanan et al., 2010). Newcastle disease (ND) is an OIE listed infection and considered as one of the destructive diseases of chickens (Aldous and Alexander 2001; Boynukara et al., 2013). The major burden of Newcastle disease outbreak is its dormant economic impact on the poultry industry. The global economic impact of NDV is enormous (Steneroden et al., 2011). Newcastle disease (ND) is worldwide problem with severe economic significance affecting chickens, turkeys and other birds. It is caused by virulent strains of paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) (Miller et al., 2010). No another poultry diseases comes close and it may serve a bigger drain on the world’s economy than any other animal virus. In developed countries, outbreaks of NDV are highly costly and control measures including vaccination are a chronic loss to the industry. Since its first report in India between 1928 and 1930 at Ranikhet (Edwards 1928) and Madras- Chennai (Kylasam, 1930), ND still remains endemic in India and outbreaks are reported regularly inspite of a stringent vaccination policy against ND. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis with the partial hypervariable nucleotide sequences of the F gene, NDVstrains have been classified into 18 genotypes (Class II, genotypes I-XVIII) (Susta, 2014). ND is major concerns of animal husbandry due to hazardous infections (Ge et al., 2012). During recent years outbreaks of Newcastle disease in commercial layer farms were observed inspite of the routine vaccination program in some of poultry farms around Anand, Gujarat state, India. No attempt has been made to estimate the economic losses due to ND among the commercial layer chickens in the India. Therefore in this publication, we have calculated economic losses due to Newcastle disease.
Materials and Methods
Newcastle disease was reported in layer farms around Anand inspite of the routine vaccination program. During the period January 2013 to July 2014, a total of thirteen flocks of eleven layer farms were reported with the condition. All the reported outbreaks were confirmed by clinical signs, gross and histopathological examination of visceral organs, cultivation of NDV in egg embryo, isolation of virus by Haemagglutination (HA) and Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and Intracerebral Pathogenicity Index (ICPI) to determine virulence of the virus. Based on F gene sequence and whole genome sequencing of NDV isolates, the Genome length found was 15192nt. The phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary distances placed these isolates in Genotype XIII (XIIIb) with the accessible latest sequences in the gene bank.
A new and modified economic model developed based on earlier model of Williams (1999) and used to calculate economic. The following approach was made to calculate estimated losses in layer farms occurred due to Newcastle disease around Anand District of Gujarat state, during the period January 2013 to July 2014. During study period following information collected to make out economic loss. All the information regarding name and location of farm, flock strength, Age of the flock when N.D first detected, total no. of bird died, overhead cost (included cost of electricity, management and labour) per chick per day (Rs), cost of day old chick (Rs), ND vaccination cost per chick (Rs), feed intake per chick (Rs), feed cost per kg (Rs), cost of medicine during outbreaks per chicks (Rs), other vaccination, medication and biosecurity measure cost per bird (Rs) and cost of per egg (Rs) described in Table 1.
Table 1: Information collected from different layer flocks during Newcastle disease outbreaks to calculate economic losses
|S. No.||Name and location of farm||Flock strength||Age of the flock when N.D first detected||Total no of bird died||Overhead cost per chick per day (Rs.)||Cost of chick (Rs)||ND vaccination cost per chick (Rs)||Feed intake per chick till day before mortality (kg)||Feed cost per kg (Rs)||Cost of medicine during the outbreak per chick (Rs)||Cost of other vaccination, medication and biosecurity measure cost per bird (Rs.)|
|1||Arpan Poultry Farm, Navli||8150||33||2518||0.15||28||0.5||0.6||20||3||4.5|
|2||Bhoomi Poultry Farm, Sarsa||33764||34||18194||0.15||27||0.5||0.6||20||2.6||4.7|
|3||Narayan Poultry Farm, Navli||6361||34||844||0.15||27||0.5||0.65||20||1||5|
|4||Samarpan Poultry Farm, Navli||15319||36||3912||0.15||28||0.5||0.7||20||3.2||4.72|
|5||Radhekrishna Poultry Farm , Verakhadi||15240||43||5880||0.15||27||0.5||0.9||20||1||5|
|6||J.K Poultry Farm , Sarsa||11229||60||2927||0.15||27||0.5||1.3||20||1.3||5|
|7||Shrdha Poultry Farm Flock No B, Sarsa||5283||60||1015||0.15||27||0.5||1.3||20||1.3||5.7|
|8||Yogi Poultry Farm, Sarsa||4320||68||395||0.15||27||0.8||1.8||21||2.12||4.7|
|9||Honest Poultry Farm Flock No B, Sarsa||11597||74||1640||0.15||27||0.8||2.2||20||2||5.6|
|10||Shradha Poultry Farm Flock No A, Sarsa||5335||88||2927||0.15||27||0.8||2.7||20||1||7.4|
|11||Adarsh Poultry Farm, Kasor||13911||97||2594||0.15||28||0.8||3||20||2.8||3.9|
|12||Honest Poultry Farm Flock A , Sarsa||10512||244||686||0.15||27||1.22||14.33||20||1||9.8|
|13||Keval Poultry Farm, Sarsa||12087||252||1166||0.15||27||1.22||15.12||20||3||8|
Market value of eggs during outbreaks was Rs 3.5. Total egg losses were reported in two flocks out of thirteen flocks due to ND. Total no of egg losses were 27237 and 39134 among Honest Poultry Farm Flock A, Sarsa and Keval Poultry Farm, Sarsa respectively.
Losses due to mortality were calculated using following formula-
LM = BD × (VD + CCF + OC)
LM = Loos due to Mortality
BD = No of bird died
VD = Value of day old chicks
CCF = Cost of cumulative feed consumed per bird upto day before mortality
OC = Overhead cost upto day before mortality
The cost of Newcastle disease vaccination: Losses due to vaccination did against NDV was calculated as follow-
LNV = NBV × CV
LNV = Losses due to Newcastle disease vaccination
NBV = No of birds vaccinated and died due to disease.
CV = Cost of vaccine per dose
Losses due to drop in egg production: These were calculated as follow-
TLEP = NETCL × CE
TLEP = Total loss due to reduced egg production
NETCL = No. of total egg loss during the outbreak
CE = Cost of egg
Loss due to biosecurity measures and other medication costs-
TCBVM = BD × (CM + CV)
TCBVM = Total cost of biosecurity, other vaccines and other medicines
BD = Total birds died
CM = Cost of medicine for prevention of other diseases
CV = Cost of vaccine for prevention of other diseases
Losses due to medication during outbreak-
TCM = NTB × CM
TCM = Cost of Medicine
NTB = No. of birds treated
CM = Cost of medicine per bird during outbreaks
No birds treated (NTB) = Total No. of birds in the farm – No. of bird died.
During the study period, various kind of information was collected to estimate economic losses and it was given in Table 1. The data utilized for the evaluation of loss due to Newcastle disease were obtained through personal communication with organized poultry farms, veterinary professionals engaged in poultry disease diagnosis and management. The costs have been expressed in Indian currency rupees (Rs) for a better realization in Indian perspectives. All the above parameter discussed separately for each farm and cost of above parameter consider for each farm upto day before mortality and parameters were variable as per different management practices. The cost of medicine during outbreaks of all different farms was variable as using different drug of the different company. Other vaccination cost, biosecurity measures cost and other medication costs upto day before mortality was variable as follow different management practices and using of a different formulation of drugs of the different company.
Results and Discussion
Loss from Mortality in Layers
Mortality due to Newcastle disease in all the thirteen flocks was ranged between 6.53 to 53.88 percent. Calculated economic loss for all thirteen layer flocks were described in Table 2.
Economic loss due to mortality was ranged from 29625 to 802355.4 rupees (Table 2). In present study mortality due to Newcastle disease are in agreement with earlier studies carried out by Khorajiya et al. (2015), who observed 8 to 80 percent mortality due to Newcastle disease in broiler farms. Overall mortality loss was 2998105 rupees. Loss from mortality was contributing 80.61 percent out of total economic loss. Major economic impact due to Newcastle disease was in form of mortality in layer farms. These findings are consistent with the results of other researchers (Antipas et al., 2012), who reported mortality due to Newcastle disease was found 55% with loss is estimated at more than 35 billion in Chand. In contrast to another study, Mishra (1991) stated that in Nepal, Newcastle disease causes great economic loss by mortality and morbidity, estimated 75 million rupees per year.
The Loss in Form of Vaccination for Prevention of Newcastle disease
Also evident in Table.2 thirteen different layer flocks were vaccinated routinely and following standard vaccination protocols. The loss in form of vaccination was ranged from 316 to 9097 rupees. Overall vaccination loss was 25949.24 rupees and it contributed only 0.68 percent out of total economic loss. Similar results have been observed by other researchers who have reported heavy economic losses to the tune of 200 million USD inspite of standard vaccination protocols and biosecurity measures among commercial poultry farms affected with Newcastle disease in Pakistan during 2011-2013 (Siddique et al., 2013). In present study all the outbreaks in layer farms were occurred due to highly virulent nature of Genotype XIII (XIIIb) pathotype of NDV.
Table 2: Economic losses in layer farms
|S. No.||Name and location of farm||Mortality loss (Rs)||Loss in form of vaccination (Rs)||Egg production lost (Rs)||Treatment cost (Rs)||Other vaccination Biosecurity measure and other medication cost (Rs)||Total lost (Rs)||Economic loss per bird (Rs)|
|1||Arpan Poultry Farm, Navli||113184.1||1259||0||16896||11331||142670.1||17.5|
|2||Bhoomi Poultry Farm, Sarsa||802355.4||9097||0||40482||85511.8||937446.2||27.76|
|3||Narayan Poultry Farm, Navli||38064.4||422||0||5517||4220||48223.4||7.58|
|4||Samarpan Poultry Farm, Navli||185428||1956||0||36502.4||18464.4||242350.8||15.82|
|5||Radhekrishna Poultry Farm , Verakhadi||302526||2940||0||9360||29400||344226||22.59|
|6||J.K Poultry Farm , Sarsa||181474||1463.5||0||10792.6||14635||208365.1||18.55|
|7||Shrdha Poultry Farm Flock No B, Sarsa||62930||507.5||0||6867.9||5785.5||76090.9||14.4|
|8||Yogi Poultry Farm, Sarsa||29625||316||0||11775||1856.5||43572.5||10.09|
|9||Honest Poultry Farm Flock No B, Sarsa||134644||1312||0||19914||9184||165054||14.23|
|10||Shradha Poultry Farm Flock No A, Sarsa||275723.4||2341.6||0||2408||21659.8||302132.8||56.63|
|11||Adarsh Poultry Farm, Kasor||203758.7||2075.2||0||31687.6||10116.6||247638.1||17.8|
|12||Honest Poultry Farm Flock No A, Sarsa||240237.2||836.92||95329.5||9826||6585.6||352815.2||33.56|
|13||Keval Poultry Farm, Sarsa||428155.2||1422.52||136969||32763||9328||608637.7||50.35|
|Total||2998105||25949.24||232298.5||234791.5||228078.2||Grand Total = 3719223||Average|
|Parameter wise economic loss in percentage||80.61||0.7||6.25||6.31||6.13||100|
All the commercial layer farms were vaccinated with Genotype-II strain of the NDV vaccine. Presently available live and attenuated vaccines which include Genotype-II NDV have failed in protecting the layer flocks against Genotype-XIII and resulted in outbreaks which lead to overall 25949.24 rupees losses in the form of vaccination. Our findings were in agreement with earlier studies carried out by Siddique et al. (2013) who reported outbreaks of Newcastle disease among commercial poultry farms in Pakistan during 2011-2013 occurred due to a new genotype VII-f of Newcastle disease virus.
Loss from Reduced Egg Production
Out of total thirteen flocks affected with the disease, only two farms were in laying phase. Total numbers of egg lost in Keval Poultry farm Sarsa, and in Honest Poultry Farm, Flock No-A, Sarsa were 39134 and 27237 respectively. Total economic loss due to reduced egg production was 232298.5 rupees. Which contribute only 6.25 percent out of total economic losses. Newcastle Diseases have negatively impacted on production. In present study both these laying flocks showed 20-30% drop in hen day egg production. There was a slow recovery after a month but failed to reach original production level. Our findings were in accordance to Savic (1999) who documented 15% egg production losses in layer flocks occurred due to Newcastle disease outbreaks.
Loss in Form of Treatment of Affected Flock
As seen in Table.2 thirteen different layer flocks were showed the economic loss in form of treatment cost from 2408 to 36502.4 rupees. Overall treatment cost was 234791.5 rupees in all affected flocks. Loss from treatment was contributed 6.31 percent out of total economic loss.
Loss from Other Vaccination, Biosecurity Measure and Other Medication Costs Before Newcastle Disease Outbreak
As seen in Table2 thirteen different layer flocks were showed an economic loss in form other vaccination, biosecurity measure and another medication cost was ranged from 4220 to 85511.8 rupees. Overall cost was 228078.2 rupees in all layer flocks. Loss due to these was contributed 6.31 percent out of total economic loss.
As per our study, loss in form of mortality share 80.61 percent (2998105 rupees), followed by 6.31 percent (234791.5 rupees) due to treatment of affected flocks, 6.25 percent (232298.5 rupees) due to reduced egg production, 6.13 percent (228078.2 rupees) due to other vaccination, biosecurity measure and other medication in flock and 0.70 (25949.24 rupees) due to ND vaccination. Previous studies showed that viral disease of poultry like Avian influenza, Newcastle disease and Infectious bursal disease have very negative economic impact on poultry industry (Fasina et al., 2008, Musa et al., 2012 and Siddique et al., 2015). Kumar et al. (2008) reported that avian influenza was contributed 316 lakh rupees financial loss to poultry farmers in Manipur state of India. Newcastle disease is second most destructive viral disease of poultry followed by avian influenza. The present study revealed that the commercial layer industry was highly affected and suffering 3719223 rupees (3.71 million) of its economic loss due to Newcastle disease and the most significant economic losses among ND occur due to mortality and our study was consistent with previous study of Musiime (1991) who documented mortality loses due to ND, around the Nairobi area mainly among the exotic chickens, were estimated at US$O.6 million in 1989. During these study per bird economic loss was carried out by using formula = Total economic loss in farm/ Initial strength of flock. Among layer as seen in Table 2 per bird economic loss ranged from 7.58 to 56.63 rupees. Overall per bird loss was 24.29 rupees. It gave clear idea that once ND outbreak occurred in farm it lead to very negative economic impact in poultry farmers throughout the lifespan of flock. Similar findings were reported earlier by Supramaniam (1988). Newcastle disease in India led to heavy economic losses among layer farmers and our study was consistent with previous study of Munir et al.(2012), who stated that heavy economic losses to commercial poultry in Southeast Asia due to Newcastle disease outbreaks.
Disease serve as a negative aid in the process of converting resources or production factors into products, goods and services accessible to people; it leads direct economic losses for the producer and a potential loss of profit in the view of the consumer. Certainly, ND has the potential to cause large economic losses in the poultry industry. In, India ND leads to negative economic impact and continuous heavy losses to poultry farmer inspite of stringent vaccination policy. Total economic losses were 3719223 rupees due to vaccine failure as evolved new genotype (Genotype-XIII). The problem of ND both as a cause of economic loss in India and the potential threat to poultry producers in India needs no stressing. The presently usable live and attenuated vaccines which include genotype-II NDV have break down to protect the flocks against genotype-XIII and demands comprehensive studies to genotyping of the large number of NDV isolates so as to update the NDV vaccines. This type of data, if generated from disparate geographical regions would be helpful to acquisition the global economic loss due to Newcastle in the poultry industry.
The authors express profound gratitude to Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat and Dean, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, A.A.U. for providing the infrastructure facilities as well as financial help to carry out the research work.