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Effect of Age, Sex and Physiological Stages on Haematological Indices of Mehsana Goat (Capra hircus)

R. B. Parmar A. Lateef Hemen Das N. Haque M. J. Sanap V. S. Solanki
Vol 7(4), 236-243
DOI- http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20170324032039

A study was conducted to determine the physiological baseline values for hematological indices of Mehsana goat (Capra hircus) as well as to assess their alteration due to age, sex and physiological stages. A total of 42 clinically healthy Mehsana goats were divided into seven groups with 6 number of animal per group: T1 (male kids <1 year), T2 (bucks >1 year), T3 (female kids <1 year), T4 (pregnant lactating does), T5 (non-pregnant lactating does), T6 (pregnant dry does), and T7 (non-pregnant dry does). Blood samples were collected aseptically from all the experimental groups. The values for Hb concentration, MCV, MCH and TLC were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) higher in bucks than male kids; while, MCHC and PLT count were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in does than female kids. Lymphocyte and PLT count were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in bucks than female kids. Further, neutrophil count was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in does than male kids. The results of the present study demonstrate the normal haematological indices of Mehsana goat at different physiological stages. Present results stated some significant variation of parameters among groups whereas some shows no significant variation at all.


Keywords : Age Sex Pregnancy Lactation Mehsana Goat Erythrocytic Leukocytic

Introduction

There are total 570 goat breeds in the world (Devendra and Liang, 2012). Total goat population in the world is estimated at about 1005.60 million. India holds 1st rank in goat population of the world (FAOSTAT, 2013). Goat population of Gujarat state is about 46.40 lakhs contributing 19.72% of total livestock (Bulletin of Animal husbandry and Dairying Statistics, Gujarat, 2011-2012). Mehsana is the most popular breed in North Gujarat because of its prolificacy and adaptability to the arid and semi- arid climatic conditions (Aggarwal et al., 2007) which have greyish black skin colour, white ears with black spots, small beard, medium sized roman nose, long hairs on body (Prasad, 2010).

The significance of determining haematological indices in animals is well studied and changes in these parameters have also been observed in cattle, sheep as well as in some breeds of goats around the world (Piccione et al., 2010). It is also well documented that haematological profiles of animals also vary during different physiological stages (Ahmad et al., 2003). Determination of “normal values” for blood indices thus become imperative for any disease monitoring programme as it forms the very basis for clinical interpretation of laboratory data (Zvorc et al., 2006). Nonetheless, there is great variation in the haematological parameters observed between different goat breeds and in this regard it may be difficult to formulate a universal metabolic profile for goats (Daramola et al., 2005). These variations further underline the need to establish appropriate physiological baseline values for various goat breeds of Gujarat, which would help in the realistic evaluation of management practices, nutrition, health and the physiological status of the species.

In view of these, the present study was undertaken to determine the baseline values of different haematological profiles of clinically healthy Mehsana goat as well as to study the influence of age, sex, gestation, lactation and dry stage.

Materials and Methods

Place of Study

The present investigation was carried out from the month of August to December 2014 in the Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University (SDAU), Gujarat on Mehsana Goats, maintained at the Livestock Research Station (LRS), SDAU. Geographically LRS (Livestock research station) of SDAU is located 23.33to 24.450 north latitude and 71.030 to 73.020 east longitude at an elevation of 215.285 meters above the mean sea level. The climate of area is tropical and semi-arid.

Selection of Experimental Animals

A total of 42 (12 males and 30 females) clinically healthy Mehsana goats from LRS, were randomly selected and divided into seven groups with 6 number of animal per group: T1 (male kids <1 year), T2 (bucks >1 year), T3 (female kids <1 year), T4 (pregnant lactating does), T5(non-pregnant lactating does), T6 (pregnant dry does), and T7 (non-pregnant dry does). The goats were reared under standard feeding and management practices. All the animals given anthelmintics before study. The health status of animals was regularly evaluated.

Collection of Blood Samples and Analysis

About 10 ml of blood sample was collected aseptically from each animal of all the experimental groups from jugular vein puncture in EDTA (ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid) vials.

Haematological Analysis

Blood samples were analyzed for different hematological parameters viz. total erythrocyte count (TEC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), MCH concentration (MCHC), total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count (DLC), and platelet count (PLTs) using Automated Hematology Analyzer (Cell–Dyn 3700, Abbott Diagnostics, USA).

Statistical Analysis

Data collected were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and significant means where significant separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test (Gomez and Gomez, 1985). Statistical Analysis Software (SAS, 1999) computer package was used. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.

Results

The data regarding erythrocytic indices, leukocytic indices and platelet counts of the experimental groups are presented in Tables 1, 2 and 3.

It was observed that TEC was non-significantly higher in male kids as compared to that of bucks, unlike the female kids. However, there was apparently lower TEC in lactating non-pregnant and dry non-pregnant does than the pregnant does (both lactating and dry). Similarly, TEC found to be significantly (P < 0.05) higher in male kids than that of lactating and dry non-pregnant does. Conversely, the Hb concentration in bucks was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the male kids. Further, the PCV was non-significantly (P > 0.05) higher in male kids and bucks as compared to the female kids. The PCV in lactating pregnant and dry pregnant does were also numerically higher than their counterparts in non-pregnant does. The values of MCV and MCH in bucks were significantly (P < 0.05) higher as compared to the kids. However, there was no significant difference between MCHC values of male and female kids. Similarly, non-significant difference was also observed between MCHC values of does at different physiological stages. The TLC in male kids was significantly (P < 0.05) lower as compared to bucks.

Table 1: Total Erythrocyte Count, Hb concentration, Packed Cell Volume and erythrocytic indices of different experimental groups of Mehsana goats

Groups Male Goats Female Goats
Group I Group II
Parameters T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7
TEC(millions/µl) 11.52±0.09c 10.63±0.44abc 10.95±0.20bc 11.08±0.35bc 9.92±0.33ab 10.92±0.35bc 10.15±0.33ab
Hb (g/dl) 8.05±0.14a 9.62±0.38c 8.24±0.34ab 8.96±0.21abc 8.85±0.53abc 9.24±0.30bc 9.31±0.45bc
PCV (%) 27.87±0.27b 27.67±0.77b 25.87±0.74ab 26.48±0.48ab 24.85±0.90a 26.97±0.54ab 25.17±0.82a
MCV (fl) 24.19±0.30a 26.17±0.90b 23.61±0.33a 23.98±0.66a 25.06±0.28ab 24.74±0.41ab 24.87±0.87ab
MCH (pg/cell) 6.99±0.14a 9.12±0.44c 7.52±0.30ab 8.13±0.36abc 8.93±0.49c 8.46±0.13bc 9.26±0.68c
MCHC (g/dl) 28.89±0.59a 34.83±1.33bc 31.87±1.17ab 33.89±1.07bc 35.66±2.00bc 34.22±0.56bc 37.24±2.38c

a, b, c: Means along the same row with any identical superscripts are not significant (P > 0.05). No. of Observation (6) ; (Where: T1 – Male Kids, T– Bucks, T– Female Kids, T4 – Lactating pregnant does, T5 – Lactating non-pregnant does, T6 – Dry pregnant does and T7 – Dry non-pregnant does)

Conversely, the TLC values in non-pregnant does were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the pregnant does irrespective of their physiological status. It was further noticed that lymphocyte counts of female kids was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of male kids and bucks. Whereas, significantly (P < 0.05) higher lymphocyte count was observed in lactating non-pregnant and dry pregnant does as compared to the dry non-pregnant does. It was also found that female kids and does had significantly (P < 0.05) higher neutrophil counts than those of male kids and bucks.

Table 2: Total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count of different experimental groups of Mehsana goats

Groups Male Goats Female Goats
Group I Group II
Parameters T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7
TLC(thousands/µl) 13.28±0.24b 16.42±0.57c 12.34±0.56b 10.43±0.58a 12.77±0.82b 10.29±0.60a 13.70±0.61b
Lymphocyte (%) 70.18±0.86c 70.22±0.57c 64.38±0.52b 63.45±0.82ab 65.03±0.73b 64.47±1.16b 62.87±0.72a
Neutrophil (%) 26.05±0.85a 26.14±0.58a 30.62±0.48bc 31.21±0.84bc 29.68±0.73b 31.17±1.14bc 32.43±0.69c
Monocyte (%) 1.23±0.01a 1.26±0.04a 1.22±0.03a 1.44±0.03b 1.51±0.08c 1.41±0.04b 1.58±0.07c
Eosinophil (%) 2.31±0.01a 2.11±0.01a 3.41±0.10c 3.52±0.08c 3.37±0.10c 2.69±0.04b 2.65±0.03b
Basophil (%) 0.23±0.07a 0.27±0.09a 0.37±0.07abc 0.38±0.05bc 0.41±0.06bc 0.26±0.04a 0.47±0.04c

a, b, c: Means along the same row with any identical superscripts are not significant (P > 0.05). No of Observation (6); (Where: T1 – Male Kids, T– Bucks, T– Female Kids, T4 – Lactating pregnant does, T5 – Lactating non-pregnant does, T6 – Dry pregnant does and T7 – Dry non-pregnant does)

Current study also revealed that there was no significant difference in the values of monocyte among all experimental groups of Mehsana goat; while, the eosinophil counts in male and female kids were significantly (P < 0.05) lower as compared to bucks and does. It was observed that the lactating does had significantly higher (P < 0.05) eosinophil counts than dry stage. However, there was no significant difference between kids and the bucks, although numerically higher basophil count was found in female kids than male kids and bucks. Moreover, the basophil counts among all the groups of does did not differ significantly. The PLT count in female kids was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of does and bucks.

Table 3: Platelet count of different experimental groups of Mehsana goats

Groups Male Goats Female Goats
Group I Group II
Parameters T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7
PLT count (thousands/µl) 499.500±20.11ab 546.670±15.20bc 477.000±20.62a 544.670±13.62bc 551.500±7.13bc 548.000±21.12bc 581.170±20.28c

a, b, c: Means along the same row with any identical superscripts are not significant (P > 0.05). No of Observation (6); (Where: T1 – Male Kids, T– Bucks, T– Female Kids, T4 – Lactating pregnant does, T5 – Lactating non-pregnant does, T6 – Dry pregnant does and T7 – Dry non-pregnant does)

Discussion

The present study reveals lower TEC in adults than the kids which might be due to increased destruction of erythrocytes, maturational changes of lymphoid organs and environment induced adaptive changes with increasing age (Mohan et al., 2009). Conversely, the TEC in female kids was non-significantly lower than that of the male kids, which was similar to the findings of Bhat et al. (2011). A non-significantly (P > 0.05) lower TEC values were found in non-pregnant than the pregnant does. Similar to our findings, Mbassa and Poulsen (1991) also recorded higher TEC in pregnant lactating does than non-pregnant lactating and non-pregnant dry does and concluded that this might be due to maternal adaptation to pregnancy in order to meet the growing fetal requirements. Further the fetal growth that occurs during pregnancy results in greater oxygen demands. This greater need for oxygen is compensated by the endocrine system that stimulates the release of erythropoietin by renal tissue (Plaschka, 1997). The secretion of this circulating glycoprotein stimulates increased production of erythrocytes in the bone marrow resulting in hike of TEC during pregnancy (Lurie, 1993).

The Hb concentration in the bucks was significantly higher than that of the male kids, which was in line with the findings of Bhat et al. (2011) in Kashmiri goat. However, the difference in Hb content in female and male kids was non-significant, which was in agreement with findings of Kiran et al. (2012), although the Hb concentration in female kids was found to be apparently higher than the male kids. Similarly, Hb concentration between pregnant and non-pregnant does also did not vary significantly, which was in agreement with findings of Bamerny (2013). The mean haemoglobin value in dry non-pregnant does was slightly lower than findings of Piccione et al. (2010), which may be due to breed variation. PCV was non-significantly higher in male kids than the bucks which were in agreement with the findings of Bhat et al. (2011). However, these values of male kids and the bucks were non-significantly higher than female kids, which contradicted the findings of Bhat et al. (2011). Table 1 also showed that the PCV values in lactating pregnant and dry pregnant does were numerically higher than the lactating non-pregnant and dry non-pregnant does, which was in line as reported by Waziri et al. (2010).

The MCV values in bucks were significantly (P < 0.05) higher as compared to male and female kids, which are in contrary to the findings of Bhat et al. (2011). Nonetheless, no significant difference was observed in the levels of MCV between male kids and female kids which were similar with the findings of Zumbo et al. (2011). There was also no significant difference in the values of the MVC between pregnant and non-pregnant does, which corroborates the report of Waziri et al. (2010). The MCH concentration in the bucks was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the male kids, which contradicted the findings of Elitok (2012). However, non-significantly higher value of MCH was observed in female kids than the male kids who were differed from the findings of Bhat et al. (2011). Further, Table 1 also indicated non-significantly higher levels of MCH in non-pregnant does as compared to pregnant does, which was in agreement with finding of Waziri et al. (2010).

Statistical analysis indicated that the difference in the MCHC values between male and female kids was not significant which was similar with the findings of Bhat et al. (2011). However, no significant difference was noticed in MCHC values of does at different physiological stages like lactation, dry and gestation, which is in agreement with the findings of Zumbo et al. (2011). The data obtained in the present investigation indicated that the TLC in male kids was significantly (P < 0.05) lower as compared to bucks, but did not differ than female kids, which was similar to the findings of Bhat et al. (2011). Moreover, the TLC values in pregnant does were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the non-pregnant does irrespective of their physiological status which was contrary to the findings of Waziri et al. (2010).

It was noticed that lymphocyte counts in female kids was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than male kids and bucks. But, lymphocyte count did not vary significantly between male kids and bucks, which were in agreement with the findings of Bhat et al. (2011). Similarly, non-significant variation of lymphocyte counts was also observed between lactating pregnant, lactating non-pregnant and dry pregnant does, which was in line with the findings of Waziri et al. (2010). However, significantly (p < 0.05) higher lymphocyte count was observed in lactating non-pregnant and dry pregnant does as compared to the dry non-pregnant does.

The neutrophil counts in male kids and bucks were statistically at par with each other. It was also found that female kids and does had significantly (P < 0.05) higher neutrophil counts than male kids and bucks, which were in line with the values reported by Bhat et al. (2011). However, there was no significant difference between all four groups of does, which was similar as findings of Waziri et al. (2010). The monocyte count has shown no significant difference among all experimental groups of Mehsana goat, which was in corroboration with the findings of Bhat et al.(2011) and Waziri et al. (2010).

It was found that eosinophil count in male and female kids was significantly (P < 0.05) lower as compared to bucks and does, which was contrary with the findings of Bhat et al. (2011) who reported that adult goats and male kids had almost similar values while female goat had non-significantly higher values of eosinophil count than male kids and adult goats. It was also observed that the lactating does had significantly higher (P < 0.05) eosinophil count than their counterparts in dry stage. There was no significant difference between the kids and the bucks, moreover, the basophil counts among does also did not differ significantly (Piccione et al. 2010, Waziri et al. 2010). The PLT count in male kids was non-significantly lower than that of bucks; while PLT count in female kids was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than does and bucks. The PLT count among does didn’t differ statistically irrespective of their physiological status (Smith and Sherman, 2009).

Conclusion

The results of the present study demonstrate the normal haematological indices of Mehsana goat at different physiological stages. Present results stated some significant variation of parameters among groups whereas some shows no significant variation at all. However, further investigation is required to verify the values depending on season and other climatic conditions. Intensive studies on all the haematological parameters with some micro-minerals are needed to establish the final reference values.

Acknowledgement

We thank the Dean, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Sardarkrushinagar (Gujarat) for granting permission and providing necessary support to carry out the research work.

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