A 6 day metabolic trial was conducted during midway of 119 days feeding trial on twenty growing goat kids in a completely randomized design to evaluate the nutritive value of solvent extracted karanj seed cake (Pongamia glabra vent)(SKC) and alkali treated SKC (AKC) in basal concentrate mixtures. The T1 group was offered groundnut cake (GNC) as a sole source of nitrogen whereas T2 and T3 group were offered SKC @ 8.09% and 16.18% of concentrate mixtures, respectively to replace 25% and 50% of GNC nitrogen. Similarly T4 and T5 were fed AKC @ 8.09% and 16.18% of concentrate mixtures, respectively to replace the 25% and 50% of GNC nitrogen. No significant effect of either SKC or AKC was observed on the DCP and TDN of concentrate mixtures. The study concludes that long term supplementation of SKC or AKC up to 50% replacement of conventional nitrogen source have no affect on DCP and TDN value of concentrate mixtures.
The growth pattern of growing animals largely depends on the quality and quantity of protein feed supplements during growth phase. The optimum growth of animals depends on the nutritive value of the feed. Conventional protein rich sources such as ground nut cake and soyabean cake are costlier and are most affected by the seasonal variation in availability. Goat, the poor man’s cow, being a backbone of small and marginal farmers in rural economy, has been worst affected by the escalating cost and chronic shortage of quality feed resources. The situation has become worsened with the reduction in pasture land and increase in trend of stall feeding. An alternative approach to combat the situation is the increase in utilization of various unconventional protein rich sources.
Deoiled Karanj seed cake (Pongamia glabra vent) is one such potential unconventional protein source that is characterized by high in crude protein (CP) ~30% (Ravi et al., 2000) and possesses a suitable Ca: P ratio (Soren and Sastry, 2009) compared to soybean meal and cottonseed meal. Deoiled Karanj seed cake is agro-forest based industrial byproducts and is well known for its multipurpose benefits (Naik et al., 2008). The karanj seed cake is often blamed for low palatability, poor digestibility and presence of anti nutritional factors such as karanjin (Dinesh et al., 2013). However, Prabhu (2002) suggested that solvent extracted karanj seed cake (SKC) is safe for animals feeding. The level of SKC feeding could be enhanced through improvement in palatability and digestibility of crude protein after alkali processing of SKC (Prabhu et al., 2002; Panda et al., 2006). The unique adaptability of goat to variety of feed resources and higher tolerance to various toxins and anti-nutritional factors than any other livestock units makes them suitable units for inclusion of various nonconventional proteinous feed in their ration. The inclusion of 6-9% of SKC in concentrate mixtures of goat ration did not reveal any adverse effect on performance (Srivastava et al., 1990). The comprehensive studies in goats also confirmed the relevance of using SKC @ 8.09% in concentrate mixtures on iso-nitrogenous and iso-calorigenous basis without any negative impact on sero-biochemical, health and performance parameters (Thakur et al., 2014; Thakur et al., 2015 and Thakur et al., 2016).
The nutritive value of feed is the real indicator of its quality that depends on the variety of factors such as voluntary consumption and potential digestibility. Feeds of high nutritive value promote high levels of production and live weight gain. Scant information is available concerning the effect of inclusion of SKC on the nutritive value of concentrate mixtures containing variable quantities of SKC in goat, even though these are important parameters to assess the suitability of any unconventional feed for animal feeding. Thus the present study was undertaken in growing goat kids to observe the effect of inclusion of two different level of either SKC or alkali processed SKC (AKC), respectively on the nutritive value of concentrate mixtures.
Material and Methods
Twenty, 3-4 months old growing male goat kids were maintained under feeding trial of 119 days in Animal Experiment Unit of Department of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College, Bengaluru, India after approval from Institute Animal Ethical Committee. Five treatment groups, T1 (control) to T5, of four animals each, were formed through random allotment of kids in a completely randomized design to make initial body weight uniform and non significant between treatments. Standard feeding and managemental practices were adopted throughout the study with proper vaccination and regular deworming. AKC was prepared through treatment of solvent extracted karanj seed cake (SKC) with 2.5% solution of sodium hydroxide. The proximate analysis was done as per standard methods of analysis (AOAC, 1995) (Table 1). Five different isonitrogenous and isocaloric concentrate mixtures were prepared using groundnut cake alone or in combination with SKC or AKC in such a way to meet the crude protein requirement of individual kid to the extent of 80% level of NRC (1985) specified values.
Table 1: Percent chemical composition1 of concentrate mixtures and roughages (DM basis) used during feeding trial
|Particulars||Ragi Straw||Concentrate Mixtures|
|Proximate Principles (%)|
|Fibre Fractions (%)|
|Mineral Composition (%)|
1Average of the values determined on samples compounded on three occasions
The control group (T1) was fed groundnut cake as sole source of nitrogen while T2 and T3 groups and T4 and T5 groups fed with same type of feed with variable quantities of either SKC (T2 and T3) or AKC (T4 and T5) along with groundnut cake. 25% nitrogen of groundnut cake was replaced by SKC and AKC in T2 and T4 groups, respectively. Similarly 50% nitrogen of groundnut cake was replaced by SKC and AKC in T3 and T5 groups, respectively. The T1 group was offered groundnut cake (GNC) whereas T2 and T3 group were offered SKC @ 8.09% and 16.18% of concentrate mixtures respectively. Similarly T4 and T5 were fed AKC @ 8.09% and 16.18% of concentrate mixtures respectively. The kids were offered daily weighed quantities of the respective concentrate mixtures to meet their protein requirements (NRC, 1985) for maintenance and growth. Dry matter requirements were met through ad libitum supply of finger millet straw. A metabolic trial of six days was conducted after 51 days of experimental feeding. Daily intake of concentrates, ragi straw and napier grass on individual basis was calculated. The faeces from each animal were collected in faecal collection bags on daily basis and mixed thoroughly for sampling. The urine excreted by each animal was collected using urine collection bags on daily basis. The proximate analysis of feed, faeces and urine were carried out as per standard methods of analysis (AOAC, 1995). The experimental data were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance technique as described by Snedecor and Cochran (1989) and accordingly the results were interpreted.
Results and Discussion
The per cent DCP and TDN values of the five treatments are presented in Table 2. The DCP value of the total ration was observed to be 9.81, 9.19, 7.95, 8.57 and 8.69 percent, respectively in T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 diets. Nonsignificant (p0.05) difference in DCP values among ration was observed which suggest that karanj seed cake can be well incorporated in ration up to 50 per cent without affecting the digestibility of other nutrients.
Table 2: Per cent DCP and TDN (DM basis) of total ration under different treatments
|Treatment No.||Animal No.||DCPNS||TDNNS|
NS -Non significant
The kids group; T2 that were fed SKC to replace 25 per cent nitrogen of ground nut cake reported most similar performance to that of control. Comparatively better DCP values were obtained on concentrate mixtures having low (8.09 per cent) karanj seed cake (T2 and T4). The negative impact of higher level (16.18 per cent) of SKC inclusion was reflected in T3 group. The TDN value of the total ration was found to be 68.97, 71.35, 75.49, 69.59 and 70.59 per cent, respectively in T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 diets. There was no significant (p0.05) difference in the TDN values between rations indicating that the goats stall-fed with the SKC incorporated concentrate mix can digest all the nutrients quite optimally and that the SKC not only serve as a source of protein but also a valuable source of other organic nutrients as well.
Comparable digestibility of most of the nutrients in control and experimental diets fed animals resulted in similar nutritive value of the rations. Konwar et al. (1984) reported 26.09 and 42.50% DCP and TDN, respectively, for de-oiled karanj cake when de-oiled GNC and DKC were incorporated in the ratio of 70:30 in adult cattle diet. The DCP and TDN values of rations incorporated with 16.50% SKC or AKC as reported by Prabhu (2002) in growing lambs were lower than the values observed in the present study. Rao et al. (2016) in a study on inclusion of 5.85 per cent of detoxified karanj cake in the ration of dairy cattle, observed non significant DCP and TDN values of 7.25 and 57.3 per cent, respectively. The present study in goat however, revealed remarkably higher values of DCP and TDN than cattle that might be due to inherent unique feeding habits of goat and higher tolerance to toxic and antinutritional factors.
Similar studies in growing calves and adult cattle revealed no adverse effects on nutrient utilization when deoiled karanj seed cake was included in the ration up to 20 per cent level in concentrate (Konwar et al., 1987; Dutta et al., 1993). Soren and Sastry (2009) observed no deleterious effect on microbial protein synthesis in lambs fed processed SKC. Thakur et al. (2015) indicated that that long term supplementation of SKC or AKC up to 50% replacement of conventional nitrogen source have no adverse effect on health status of goats as revealed by various haematological values such as haemoglobin, blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen, serum total protein, serum albumin and serum globulin. The present study corroborated the findings of Thakur et al. (2014) and Thakur et al. (2016) who observed non significant effect of inclusion of karanj seed cake on dry matter intake and body weight gain.
Thus the present study indicates the in vivo suitability of karanj seed cake in growing goat kids. The study also supports the unique behavior of goats to tolerate anti- nutritional factors and perform in a similar manner without any adverse effect on digestibility of feed.
The authors are thankful to Dean, Veterinary College, KVAFSU, Bengaluru for providing infrastructure facilities.