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Effect of Non-Genetic Factors on Production and Reproduction Traits in Deoni Cattle

Vilas B Dongre Laxikant S Kokate Vishwas M Salunke Prajakta V Jadhav Vivek N Khandait Sharad M Durge Prafull V Patil
Vol 7(9), 220-225
DOI- http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20170615051642

The present investigation was carried out in Deoni cattle maintained at cattle breeding farm, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Udgir Dist- Latur to see the influence of various non-genetic factors on production and reproduction traits. The breeding tract of Deoni breed is the Marathwada region which is considered as a most drought prone regions of the country. Therefore, the present research has an importance to investigate the change in the performance of production and reproduction traits in this changing environment. The study revealed that there is no significant effect of season of calving, period of calving and parity on total milk yield as well as on dry period, lactation length, service period, gestation period and calving interval. The overall least squares mean for total lactation milk yield, service period, dry period, calving interval, lactation length and gestation period were 714.26±69.72 litres, 214.52±43.25 days, 204.77±32.86 days, 489.23±36.83 days, 284.89±31.92 days and 288.83±10.29 days, respectively. Service period had highly significant (p<0.01) correlation with lactation length, dry period and calving interval. The highest correlation (0.876) was observed between lactation length and service period followed by calving interval and lactation length.


Keywords : Calving Interval Deoni Breed Lactation Length Milk Yield Service Period

Introduction

There are forty well recognized indigenous breeds of cattle present in India which are well adapted to the local climate/harsh climate in their breeding tract and which can sustain on low quality of fodder with good disease resistance power. Deoni breed is one of the important dual-purpose breeds of the southern region of India, having specific qualities like disease resistance, heat tolerance, the ability to survive and reproduce under stress, low feed input, and the potential for improvement in dairy traits. It is one of the best milch breeds of Maharashtra and well adapted to the local climatic condition of the hot and drought prone region of the state. Deoni breed is present in five different states like Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra. However, the native breeding tract of this breed is Latur district of Maharashtra. A recent study in Deoni cattle revealed polymorphisms in the heat shock protein (HSPA1A) gene which is responsible for heat tolerance (Rao et al., 2013). The information is scanty on non-genetic factors influencing production and reproduction traits in this priced cattle breed. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of non-genetic factors on different production and reproduction traits in Deoni cattle and to study the correlations amongst production and reproduction traits.

Material and Methods

The data for present study pertained to various production and reproduction traits were collected from daily milk yield register and history cum pedigree sheets records of 46 Deoni cattle with 175 lactations from 2008 to 2016 were collected from Cattle Breeding Farm of College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Udgir. The following information was collected-

  1. Animal number
  2. Date of birth
  3. Date of first and consecutive calvings
  4. Date of first successful service
  5. Total lactation milk yield
  6. Date of drying

The traits considered in the present study were as follows-

  1. Total milk yield (TMY)
  2. Service period or days open (SP)
  3. Calving interval (CI)
  4. Gestation period (GP)
  5. Dry period (DP)
  6. Lactation length (LL)

The records of the animals with known pedigree and normal lactation were considered for this study. Culling, disposal in middle of lactation, abortion, stillbirth and other pathological conditions which affected the lactation yield were considered as abnormalities and hence such records were excluded from analysis. To ensure the normal distribution, the outliers were removed and data within the range of mean ± 1SD were only considered for the present study. The data were classified according to the season of calving, period of calving and parity. Each year was divided into three seasons i.e. winter (November to February), summer (March to June) and Rainy (July to October) on the basis of rainfall, temperature and humidity. Further, the data were divided into four parities i.e. 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th. The period was classified according to the year of calving into four group’s i.e. 1st (2000 to 2004), 2nd (2005 to 2006), 3rd (2007 to 2008) and 4th (2008 onwards). In order to examine the effect of various non-genetic factors on production and reproduction traits, mixed model least square procedure (Harvey 1990) was used for analysis of data. Analysis was carried out by least squares analysis method for non-orthogonal data as described by Harvey (1990) using following model-

 

Where,

 = Observation on the lth individual calved in ith season, jth period and kth parity

µ = Overall population mean

Si = Effect of ith season

Pj = Effect of jth period

Ak = Effect of kth parity

 = Random error, NID (0, σ2e)

The Spearman’s correlation was carried out to examine the correlation amongst different production and reproduction traits.

Results and Discussions

Overall least squares mean in different order of parities, periods and seasons along with standard error are presented in Table 2 and analysis of variance in Table 1.

Table 1: Least square analysis of variance (mean square values) of production and reproduction traits in Deoni cattle

Traits Parity Season Period Error R2 – value (%)
TMY 178993.90NS 75126.17 NS 37964.12 NS 92547.40 19.5
SP 9715.73 NS 30017.38 NS 23037.87 NS 35619.33 9.0
DP 13708.15 NS 10538.20 NS 17045.20 NS 20559.88 10.9
CI 11389.40 NS 21809.40 NS 33719.64 NS 25833.18 15.8
LL 25727.90 NS 4173.93 NS 8242.11 NS 19401.36 12.6
GP 2129.13 NS 897.00 NS 2513.19 NS 2017.83 12.6

TMY= total milk yield; DP: dry period; CI= calving interval; LL= lactation Length; GP= gestation Period; SP= Service period

Production Trait

The overall least squares mean for total lactation milk yield in the present study was 714.26±69.72 litres. The variation in total lactation milk yield among different season, period and parities was found to be statistically non- significant (p>0.05). Amongst different parities, higher milk yield (932.03±96.67 litr) was observed in 4th and onward parities. Deoni cow are heat resistance breed, it could be observed from the fact that highest milk yield (801.13±90.52 lits) was observed during summer season. However, across different periods, there were nearly similar milk production was found. In accordance with the present finding, Dhumal et al. (1993) lactation milk yield averaged 605±25.0 kg and lactation length 277.0±9.23 days. However, Chakravarthi et al. (2002) found lactation milk yield as 238.86+or-76.00 kg.

Table 2: Least square means of production and reproduction traits in Deoni cattle

Effect Traits
TMY SP DP CI LL GP
Overall (57) 714.26 ±69.72 214.52±43.25 204.77±32.86 489.23±36.83 284.89±31.92 288.83±10.29
Order of Parity
1st 595.93±119.50 199.82±74.13 167.20±56.32 495.46±63.13 312.10±54.71 300.44±17.64
2nd 572.79±115.86 173.46±71.88 241.04±54.61 473.98±61.21 228.11±53.05 286.31±17.10
3rd 756.29±112.00 231.16±69.48 201.40±52.79 452.23±59.17 269.27±51.28 302.04±16.53
4th & above 932.03±96.67 253.67±59.97 209.42±45.56 535.23±51.07 330.09±44.26 266.53±14.27
Season of Calving
Winter 675.98±112.96 166.95±70.08 174.49±53.24 441.85±59.68 274.18±51.72 298.63±16.67
Summer 801.13±90.52 223.19±56.16 236.16±42.66 513.64±47.82 278.35±41.44 282.67±13.36
Rainy 665.66±83.69 253.43±51.92 203.65±39.45 512.19±44.22 302.14±38.32 285.19±12.35
Period of Calving (Years)
2000 to 04 767.30±80.83 301.01±50.15 275.75±38.10 588.03±42.70 324.61±37.01 270.96±11.93
2005 to 06 766.55±72.01 232.13±44.67 201.94±33.94 486.53±38.04 285.53±32.97 298.99±10.63
2007 to 08 582.45±153.43 147.19±95.18 188.59±72.31 433.62±81.06 235.34±70.25 280.76±22.65
> 2008 740.74±209.32 177.77±129.86 152.78±98.66 448.72±110.59 294.08±95.84 304.62±30.90

TMY= total milk yield; DP: dry period; CI= calving interval; LL= lactation Length; GP= gestation Period; SP= Service period

Reproduction Traits

The overall least squares mean for service period, dry period, calving interval, lactation length and gestation period were 214.52±43.25 days, 204.77±32.86 days, 489.23±36.83 days, 284.89±31.92 days and 288.83±10.29 days. All the non genetic factors studied under the present investigation have non-significant effect on all the reproduction traits (p>0.05). Highest service period (253.67±59.97days) was observed in 4th & above parities and in rainy season it was observed to be highest (253.43±51.92 days) while highest service (301.01±50.15 days) was found in cow calved during the years 2000 to 2004, similarly for dry period also. Animals with 4 and above parities were found highest calving interval (535.23±51.07 days) and was lowest (441.85±59.68 days) in animals calved in winter season. Cow calved during 2000 to 2004 has highest (588.03±42.70 days) calving interval. Highest lactation length (330.09±44.26 days) was observed in the cow with 4 and above parities. While it was found highest (324.61±37.01 days) in cow calved during the year 2000 to 2004. Nearly similar gestation period was observed in 1nd and 3rd parities. Similar finding were observed by Dhumal et al. (1993) that total milk yield and lactation length were not significantly affected by parity or season. The findings were in agreement with Raheja (1982) in Hariana cattle, Nanavati and Qureshi (1996) in Gir cattle, Salunkhe (2007) in Deoni cattle and Khadda et al. (2012) in Tharparkar cattle. Chakravarthi et al. (2002) found calving interval as 452.55+ or -19.88 days, dry period as 103.66+or-19.78 days and service period as 152.14+or-15.08 days. However, Bhutkar et al. (2014) reported that the period of calving had significant effect on lactation milk yield, peak milk yield and dry period, whereas non significantly affected on days to reach peak milk yield and lactation period. Similarly, Mruttu (2013) found significantly effect of period of calving on dry period in Deoni cattle.

Spearman’s Correlation

The Spearman’s correlation was carried out using SPSS 16.0 software to examine the correlation amongst different production and reproduction traits. It was observed that calving interval had highly significant (p<0.01) correlation with total milk yield while lactation length had significant correlation (p<0.05) with the total milk yield. Service period had highly significant (p<0.01) correlation with lactation length, dry period and calving interval. The highest correlation (0.876) was observed between lactation length and service period followed by calving interval and lactation length as shown in Table 3.

Table 3: Correlation amongst different production and reproduction traits

Total MY SP DP LL CI GP
Total MY 1.00 0.22 -0.11 0.302* 0.444** 0.18
SP 0.22 1.00 0.520** 0.876** 0.454** -0.04
DP -0.11 0.520** 1.00 0.459** -0.319* -0.08
LL 0.302* 0.876** 0.459** 1.00 0.618** -0.04
CI 0.444** 0.454** -0.319* 0.618** 1.00 0.05
GP 0.18 -0.04 -0.08 -0.04 0.05 1.00

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level; *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level; TMY= total milk yield; DP: dry period; CI= calving interval; LL= lactation Length; GP= gestation Period; SP= Service period

Conclusions

The overall least squares mean for total lactation milk yield, service period, dry period, calving interval, lactation Length and gestation period were 714.26±69.72 litres, 214.52±43.25 days, 204.77±32.86 days, 489.23±36.83 days, 284.89±31.92 days and 288.83±10.29 days, respectively. Effect of season of calving, period of calving and parity were found non-significant on production and reproduction traits in Deoni cattle. The highest correlation (0.876) was observed between lactation length and service period followed by calving interval and lactation length. It is therefore recommended that Deoni breed is more heat resistance and could sustain the high temperature of Marathwada without any change in milk production and reproduction performance.

References

  1. Bhutkar SS, Thombre BM and Bainwad DV. 2014. Effect of Non- Genetic Factors on Production Traits in Deoni Cows. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. Vol. 7(12): 09-14.
  2. Dhumal MV, Butte SV, Rautmare SS and Auradkar SK. 1993. Milk yield per day of lactation length and milk yield per day of calving interval in Deoni cows. Indian Journal of Dairy Science, 46(9): 448-449.
  3. Chakravarthi MK, Sasidhar PVK and Reddy YR. 2002. Productive and reproductive performance of Deoni cattle. Indian Journal of Dairy Science, 55(1): 56-57.
  4. Khadda BS, Pathodia OP, Taparia AL and Choudhary JL. 2012. Production and Reproduction Performance of Tharparkar Cattle. Indian Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 70(5):1066-1068.
  5. Harvey WR. 1990. User’s Guide for LSMLMW and MIXMSL, Mixed Model Least Squares and Maximum Likely hood Computer Programe. PC-2 version. The Ohio state University, Columbus, USA.
  6. Mruttu HA. 2013. Studies on Performance of Deoni Cattle at MAU Dairy Farm, Parbhani, doctoral diss., Marathwada Agriculture University, Parbhani (MS).
  7. Nanavati S and Qureshi MI. 1996. Study of Peak Yield and Peak Days in Gir Cattle. Indian Veterinary Journal, Vol. 73(4): 762-765.
  8. Raheja K L. 1982. Note on Days to Attain Peak Yield in Hariana and its Halfbreds. Indian Journal of Animal Science. 52 (7): 565-566.
  9. Rao TVLN, Ramesha KP, Barani A, Chauhan SS and Basavaraju M. 2013. Association of GSTP1 gene polymorphisms with performance traits in Deoni cattle. African Journal of Biotechnology. Vol. 12(24): 3768-3773.
  10. Salunkhe M S. 2007. Study on Productive and Reproductive Performance of Deoni Cattle., Masteral diss Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani. (MS).
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