Ritesh Prasad Shah Vinod Kumar Paswan Sanjay Kumar Jha Satya Prakash Yadav Abdullah Mohammed Ali Alolofi Abdelrazeq Mohamed Abdelrazeq Vol 9(5), 40-45 DOI- http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20190316055943
The experiment was conducted on 195 unsexed Vencobb100 broiler chicks of similar weight in randomized block design (RBD). There were 5 treatments with 3 replications, 39 of 13 birds in each. The experimental diets were T1 (Basal ration), T2 (Basal ration + Antibiotic (Coltin -1 g/kg), T3 (Basal ration + Berberis aristata root powder @ 0.4 %), T4 (Basal ration + Berberis aristata root powder @ 0.5 %) and T5 (Basal ration + Berberis aristata root powder @ 0.6 %). There was no significant (>0.05) different among the average initial body weight, final body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed cost/Kg in dollar, and cost of feed to produce one Kg live body weight. But the mortality percent was found highest in control group whereas no mortality rate were recorded in rest of the group. Significant difference (P<0.05) in carcass trait was found with lungs, wing piece and abdominal fat of male carcasses whereas no significant differences were found in female carcass. Lowest cost of production for one kg live body weight was found with feed fed with T3 i.e., 0.4% of Berberis aristata root powder in a basal diet.
Berberis aristata called as chutro in Nepal, has been well documented as a useful medicinal plant using its stem and roots. Berberis lycium added to feed at 20 g per kg is effective in improving immunity against New castle and infectious bronchitis disease as well as liver function in broiler chicks Chand et al. (2011). Average body weights were significantly (P< 0.05) heavier when diet containing 1% root powder of B. vulgaris was compared with the birds without it Rajaian et al. (2006). In broiler feeding B. lycium at a level of 2% of total feed, has been reported to improve weight gain, feed efficiency and reduce mortality Chand (2005). Berberine extracts have significant antimicrobial activity against a different organisms i.e., bacteria, viruses, fungi, portozoans, and helminthes (Hong et al., 2000). Thus, this research was conducted with the aim to improve performance with economic production and to find an alternative of antibiotic because of its haphazard use, resistance of pathogens against it and its residual effect in humans as well as in poultry.
Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted for a period of 42 days after 9 days of brooding on 195 unsexed Vencobb 100 broiler chicks of similar weight. It was set on randomized block design (RBD). There were 5 treatments with 3 replications, 39 birds in each group i.e. total 195 chicks with 13 in each treatment. All the chicks were provided with uniform floor, standard management throughout the experimental period. Feed and water were provided ad libitum during the entire experimental period. Birds were fed in 2 phase, grower ration from 1st to 3rd week first phase and finisher ration from 4th to 5th week second phase.
The experimental diets were formulated according to the standard perceived by Vencobb broiler management guide. The B. aristata root was collected from nearby forest and was washed with water and dried in sun, chopped and made powder by grinding. Treatments were T1 (Basal ration), T2 (Basal ration + Antibiotic (Coltin -1 g/kg), T3 (Basal ration + B. aristata root powder @ 0.4 %), T4 (Basal ration + B. aristata root powder @ 0.5) and T5 (Basal ration + B. aristata root powder @ 0.6 %). Carcass characteristics were studied at the 6th weeks. Data on initial body weight, final body weight, body weight gain and feed consumption were recorded on weekly basis whereas morality at the end of experiment. Each male and female i.e. 30 broiler (2 male and 2 female form each treatment were slaughter after 9 hours of fasting by cutting jugular vein. Skin and feather were removed, dressing percent and their relative body parts were weight and recorded.
Table 1. Ingredient composition (% DM) of experimental diets
|Feed Ingredient in (kg)||Starter Ration||Grower Ration||Finisher Ration|
Salt 350 g/100kg of diet, each kg of concentrate contain Vit A, 100000 I.U; Vit D3, 33000 I.U.; Vit E, 100 mg; Vit K3 25 mg; Vit B1 10 mg; Vit B2 50 mg; Vit B6 15 mg; Vit B12 20 0µg; Niacin, 400 mg; Pantohenic acid, 100 mg; Folic acid 10 mg; Choline chloride, 8323 mg; Biotin 500 µg; Iodine 3mg, Iron 450 mg; Manganese 800 mg; Zinc 600mg, and selenium,1mg, Cobalt 1 mg and antioxidant 7.5 mg
Dry matter percent of meat from each treatment and replication was determined by keeping fresh sample in the oven dry at the temperature of 100 ºC till its constant weight. It was calculated by dividing oven dry sample by fresh sample and multiplying by 100. Analysis was done by using software IBM SPSS statistics 20.The ingredients and nutrient composition of the experimental broiler ration is presented in Table 1.
Results and Discussion
Live weight gain, average daily gain, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality percentage and cost at 42 days is presented in Table 2.
Table 2: Effect of feeding (Berberis aristata) root powder supplemented diet on live weight gain, average daily gain, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality percentage and cost at 42 days
|Initial body weight||161.54||163.08||163.33||161.03||160.26||2.391||0.996|
|Final body weight||2348.76||2388.02||2395.6||2386.79||2374.97||24.826||0.987|
|Total weight gain||2187.22||2224.94||2232.27||2225.76||2214.72||23.778||0.986|
|Total feed intake||3956.66||3949.02||3941.83||3962.95||3994.07||29.688||0.99|
|Feed conversion ratio||1.82||1.78||1.77||1.78||1.81||0.028||0.984|
|Feed cost /Kg $||0.5||0.525||0.515||0.519||0.523|
|Cost to produce/kg Live weight in $||0.91||0.93||0.91||0.92||0.94||0.015||0.139|
There was no significant (P>0.05) different among the average initial body weight, final body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, feed cost/kg in dollar and cost of feed to produce one Kg live body weight. But the mortality percent was found highest in T1 23% whereas no mortality rate were recorded in rest of the treatment. Thus, results different with Rajaian et al. (2006) who reported average body weights were significantly (P< 0.05) heavier when diet containing 1% root powder of B. vulgaris was compared with the birds without it. Chand (2005) reported that reduced mortality with treated group when compared with control which was similar with present finding in case of mortality.
The average body weight , dress weight with giblet and without giblet, their body parts i.e. heart, liver, gizzard, intestine, lungs, kidney, head, shank, neck, chest, back, blood, feather and skin, gall bladder, leg piece and wing piece, abdominal fat and dry matter percent of female and male broiler chickens are presented respectively in Table 3 and Table 4.
Table 3: Effect of feeding (Berberis aristata) root powder supplemented diet on mean dressing percentage and relative organ weight of female broiler chickens at 42 days
|Body Wt. (g/bird)||2740||3150||2597||2887||2737||73.278||0.14|
|Dressed Wt. with giblet (%)||74||72.9||70.8||72.8||73.5||0.448||0.196|
|Dressed Wt without giblet (%)||68.9||68.4||65.1||67.6||68.4||0.511||0.113|
|Weight of Giblet|
|Heart (g kg-1)||3.7||4.3||5.3||3.5||4.9||0.444||0.72|
|Liver (g kg-1)||17||15.9||20.3||16.1||17||0.599||0.115|
|Gizzard (g kg-1)||30.6||24.6||31.2||31.9||29.2||1.711||0.7|
|Weight of Offal|
|Intestine (g kg-1)||53.3||46.8||67.7||53.5||64.6||2.907||0.102|
|Lungs (g kg-1)||3.7||3.5||3.4||2.9||3.9||0.195||0.592|
|Kidney (g kg-1)||4.3||4.5||3||4.2||3.8||0.207||0.142|
|Head (g kg-1)||19.5||18||20.6||18.3||18.2||0.559||0.611|
|Shank (g kg-1)||31.9||30.8||35.2||32.8||30.4||1.232||0.808|
|Weight of Body|
|Neck (g kg-1)||34||25.5||33.3||29.1||27.9||1.348||0.21|
|Chest (g kg-1)||273.7||281.1||216.5||263.6||268.2||8.964||0.147|
|Back (g kg-1)||108.3||105||118.5||112.8||121.8||2.496||0.171|
|Wt. of blood (g kg-1)||70.4||49.1||29.6||20.7||23.7||7.169||0.124|
|Wt. of feather and skin (g kg-1)||98.4||100.6||102.9||102.9||102||1.368||0.865|
|Wt. of gall bladder (g kg-1)||1.2||1||1.9||1.2||1.6||0.129||0.147|
|Leg piece (g kg-1)||191.6||189.7||191.3||177.6||180.3||2.383||0.642|
|Wing piece (g kg-1)||69.4||64.5||73.1||66||65.9||1.51||0.411|
|Abdominal fat (g kg-1)||1.8||2.8||3||4.2||2.9||0.345||0.311|
|Spleen (g kg-1)||1.2||1||1.3||0.9||1.2||0.091||0.697|
|Dry matter (%)||30.74||29.26||34.58||32.42||30.85||0.744||0.202|
No significant effect were found in heart, liver, gizzard, intestine, lungs, head, shank, blood, feather and skin, gall bladder, leg piece, wing piece, abdominal fat and dry matter percent of female broiler meat.
Table 4: Effect of feeding (Berberis aristata) root powder supplemented diet on mean dressing percentage and relative organ weight of male broiler chickens at 42 days
|Body Wt. (g/bird)||3000||2980||2597||3563||3183||114.911||0.081|
|Dressed Wt. with giblet (%)||70.9||72.5||70.8||73.7||72||0.641||0.654|
|Dressed Wt without giblet (%)||65.5||67.2||65.1||68.6||66.6||0.724||0.622|
|Weight of Giblet|
|Heart (g kg-1)||5.5||4||5.3||5.6||4.1||0.44||0.681|
|Liver (g kg-1)||19||19.2||20.3||15.8||17.8||0.674||0.294|
|Gizzard (g kg-1)||29.5||30.6||31.2||29.1||31.4||1.001||0.953|
|Wt. of offal|
|Intestine (g kg-1)||76.7||62.9||67.7||54.5||60.8||3.507||0.376|
|Lungs (g kg-1)||4.4ab||4.5ab||3.4c||5.2a||4.0bc||0.189||0.011|
|Kidney (g kg-1)||4.1||4.3||3||4.1||3.2||0.31||0.634|
|Head (g kg-1)||21.2||24.7||20.6||26||25.1||1.049||0.381|
|Shank (g kg-1)||40.3||41.5||35.2||38.5||36.7||1.1||0.396|
|Weight of Body|
|Neck (g kg-1)||29.9||32.6||33.3||33.6||27.2||1.228||0.466|
|Chest (g kg-1)||239.3||232.9||216.5||255||253.3||7.824||0.571|
|Back (g kg-1)||112.2||127.3||118.5||115.2||118.4||2.323||0.341|
|Wt. of blood (g kg-1)||31.1||31.6||29.6||27.4||34.6||1.091||0.334|
|Wt. of feather and skin (g kg-1)||106.6||105||117.2||96.4||103.7||2.803||0.223|
|Wt. of gall bladder (g kg-1)||2.1||1.7||1.9||2.5||2||0.103||0.093|
|Leg piece (g kg-1)||199.9||197||191.3||206.6||193.7||3.128||0.641|
|Wing piece (g kg-1)||65.5bc||66.2bc||73.1a||70.9ab||64.9c||1.076||0.021|
|Spleen (g kg-1)||1||0.9||1.3||1.3||1||0.091||0.72|
|Testicles (g kg-1)||0.4||0.8||0.8||0.7||0.4||0.086||0.517|
Mean within in each row with no common superscript are significantly different (P<0.05)
Significant difference (P<0.05) was found in lungs, wing piece and abdominal fat of male broiler. Mean lungs weight of T4 5.2 g was found significantly higher (P<0.05) than T3 3.4 g and T5 4.0 g but at par with T2 4.5 g and T1 4.4 g. Mean weight of wing piece of treatment T3 73.1 g was recorded significantly (P<0.05) higher over T1 65.5 g, T2 66.2 g and T5 64.9 g whereas similar with T4 70.9 g. Mean abdominal fat percentage was recorded lowest with T4 0.7% whereas highest recorded in T3 3.0% followed by T2 2.4%, T5 1.3% and T1 1.2%. No significant difference were found among average body weight , dress weight with giblet and without giblet, liver, gizzard, intestine, kidney, head, shank, neck, chest, back, blood, feather and skin, gall bladder, leg piece, testicles and dry matter of male broiler.
Lowest body weight gain, poor feed conversion ratio and highest mortality percentage was found in T1 group when compared with diet supplemented with antibiotics and B. aristata root powder in spite of non-significant differences. Furthermore, cost of feed to produce 1kg live body weight was higher with T2 antibiotics group due to its high cost when compared with diet supplemented with 0.4% of B. aristata root powder. Thus, there is no need to add 0.5% and 0.6% B. aristata root powder in the basal diet because with the addition of 0.4% we can found better result for economic cost and no mortality as in the T2 group.