NAAS Score 2019

                   5.36

Declaration Format

Please download DeclarationForm and submit along with manuscript.

UserOnline

Free counters!

Previous Next

Effect of Body Condition Score on Milk Composition and Reproductive Performance of Sahiwal Cattle

V. Sharma A. K. Jhirwal S. C. Goswami V. K. Choudhary V. Singh B. P. Meena
Vol 9(12), 59-67
DOI- http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20191002033120

The present study was carried out with the total of 18 Sahiwal cattle of 1st to 4th parity were selected for the study and distributed into three different groups based on their pre calving BCS (before 15 days of predicated date of calving) namely G1 (2.50 - 3.00), G2 (3.25 - 3.75) and G3 (4.00 and above) with six animals in each group. Highest average fortnightly fat percent in the milk was observed in group G3 (3.95±0.03%) followed by group G2 (3.90±0.02%) and G1 (3.63±0.02%). The highest average protein per cent 3.61±0.01 was observed in G3 group followed by 3.33±0.01% and 3.18±0.004%, respectively in G2 and G1 group. The highest average lactose per cent 4.41±0.02 was observed in G3 group followed by in G2 and G1 group 4.28±0.10 and 4.20±0.012, respectively. The highest average total solid per cent 12.67±0.03 was observed in G3 group animals followed by in G2 and G1 group with 12.57±0.02 % and 12.26±0.02 %, respectively. The Sahiwal cattle of G2 group had shorter post-partum estrus period, fewer services per conception, higher first service conception rate and shorter service period and the values for corresponding parameter were 63.67±1.17 days, 1.34±0.21, 66.67 per cent and 89.84±3.79 days, respectively. The study revealed that BCS had significant (P<0.05) effect on fat, SNF, lactose, protein, total solid percent, post-partum estrus and service period under the study.


Keywords : Solid not Fat Lactose Service Period Conception Sahiwal Fortnightly

The cattle contribute around 37.28% of the total livestock population as per 19th livestock census 2012. The total number of cattle in the country is 190.90 million in numbers. The female cattle (cows) population has increased by 6.52% over the previous census (2007) and the total number of female cattle in 2012 is 122.9 million numbers. Cattle produce high quality of milk in term of fat and SNF which is more profitable to farmers, but still unscientific managemental practices are followed in cattle production. Sometimes, the animals are overfed or under fed and both the conditions are unfavourable for the optimum productive and reproductive performance of animal. Therefore, suitable strategies should be followed to monitor the nutritional status of the animals so as to make it measurable, understandable and applicable.

The dairy animals use their body reserves as an energy source in early lactation to support high milk yield that is why adequate amount of nutrients must be stored in body tissues during late lactation. In early lactation the energy intake does not keep pace with continuously rising milk yield as a result energy deficit increase. This leads to a competitive situation among milk yield, fertility and health of the dairy cow because these traits are linked with energy requirement (Coenen and Peter, 2014).

The various blood metabolites are used to measures the energy balance (EB) status in dairy animals, which has been reported to be strongly correlated with energy balance (Konigsson et al., 2000 and Clark et al., 2005). However, analyses of these blood metabolites are only feasible on experimental farms. Therefore, there is interest in other traits, which could serve as indicators of EB and may subsequently be related to the production and fertility status of an animal. Body condition score (BCS) is one of those measures which are widely used in many species to assess body composition and energy status of animals (De Vries and Veerkamp, 2000 and Veerkamp et al., 2001).

Materials and Methods

A total of 18 Sahiwal cattle of 1st to 4th parity was selected for the study. The study was conducted for a period of 6 month at Livestock Research Station, Kodamdesar.                                                      

Experimental Design

Eighteen Sahiwal cattle were distributed into three separate groups based on their pre-calving BCS (15 days before expected date of calving) namely G1, G2 and G3 with six animals in each group as shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Grouping of the cattle based on their pre-calving BCS

Grouping of the cattle based on their pre-calving BCS Groups No. of Animals BCS
G1 6 2.50 – 3.00
G2 6 3.25 – 3.75
G3 6 4.00 and above

(As a total of 18 Sahiwal cattle of 1st to 4th parity was selected for the study. So, in different i.e. G1, G2 and G3, how these animals were distributed on the basis of parity. Means in each treatment how many animals were from 1st or 2nd or 3rd or 4th parity? Average of parity in each treatment needs to be mention.)

Parameters to be Studied

 

 

Milk Components

The milk components, including fat, protein, lactose, total solids and Solid Not Fat (SNF), were studied in relation to BCS from calving to12 weeks post-partum at weekly intervals. The representative milk samples were collected from the milking bucket after complete milking of the individual animal. The milk samples were analyzed by auto milk analyzer.

Reproductive Parameter

Post-Partum Estrus

Post-partum estrus was observed by the acceptance of a male by the female, which is the most prominent and reliable symptoms of estrus.

Service Period

The service period was calculated from the date of calving to date of successful service.

Number of Service per Conception

The data regarding number of service per conception was obtained from the record of the farm.

First Service Conception Rate

The first service conception rate was calculated by the percentage of experimental cattle conceived out of the total cattle at first service.

Analysis of Data

The collected and tabulated data was analyzed by using SPSS 20.0.

Facilities Existing

All the facilities exist at College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Bikaner and well-equipped laboratory for analytical work is available in the Department of Livestock Production and Management, College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Bikaner and LRS, Kodamdesar.

Results and Discussion

Milk Composition

Fat (%) 

The average fortnightly fat per cent in milk of animals of each group are presented in the Table 2. The average fortnightly fat per cent in milk decreased up to 60th day and thereafter increased up to 90th day in G1 and G3 group of animals. The difference in average fortnightly fat per cent in milk was found to be significant from 15th to 30th day in G1 group, thereafter non-significant up to 90th day, whereas, in G3, significant difference was observed from 15th to 45th day and thereafter non-significant up to 90th day. The average fortnightly fat per cent in milk of G2 group of animals decreased up to 60th day and this decrease in fat per cent was significant (P<0.05) up to 45th day. An increase in fat per cent was observed up to 75th day and it again decreased non-significantly up to 90th day. The average fortnightly fat per cent significantly (P<0.05) differed between the G1, G2 and G3 groups throughout the study period. Highest average fortnightly fat percent in the milk was observed in group G3 (3.95±0.03%) followed by group G2 (3.90±0.02%) and G3 (3.63±0.02%).

Table 2: Average fortnightly fat (%) in milk of Sahiwal cattle with different BCS groups

Fortnight Average Fat (%) in milk of Sahiwal cattle in BCS groups
Intervals (days) G1 G2 G3
15 3.80±0.010bX 4.06±0.030dY 4.15±0.007eZ
30 3.63±0.025aX 3.92±0.010bcY 4.08±0.016deZ
45 3.59±0.025aX 3.86±0.020abY 3.94±0.010cZ
60 3.56±0.022aX 3.82±0.017aY 3.80±0.020aY
75 3.57±0.025aX 3.84±0.020aY 3.81±0.030aY
90 3.59±0.022aX 3.81±0.015aY 3.85±0.050abY
Total (Average) 3.63±0.020a 3.90±0.020b 3.95±0.030c

Different superscript in a column (Small letter a,b,c,d,e,) differ significantly (p<0.05); Different superscript in a row (Capital letter X, Y, Z) differ significantly (p<0.05)

Similar finding were reported by Prasad and Tomar (1996), Berry et al. (2007), Musthaq (2010) in Nili Ravi buffalo, Janus and Borkowska (2012) in H.F. cow, Singh et al. (2015) in H.F. cows and Meena et al. (2019) in Kankrej cow.

Solid Not Fat (SNF %) 

The average fortnightly Solid Not Fat per cent in milk of Sahiwal cattle with different BCS groups are presented in Table 3.

Table 3: Average fortnightly Solid Not Fat (%) in milk of Sahiwal cattle with different BCS groups

Fortnight Average SNF (%) in milk of Sahiwal cattle in BCS groups
Intervals (days) G1 G2 G3
15 8.59±0.011aX 8.70±0.010bY 8.77±0.006bZ
30 8.60±0.014aX 8.71±0.023bY 8.75±0.008bY
45 8.58±0.011aX 8.67±0.017abY 8.73±0.007abZ
60 8.64±0.008bX 8.66±0.015aX 8.72±0.004aY
75 8.65±0.011bX 8.65±0.020aX 8.71±0.007aY
90 8.66±0.013bX 8.65±0.017aX 8.69±0.007aX
Total (Average) 8.63±0.010a 8.68±0.010b 8.74±0.010c

Different superscript in a column (Small letter a,b,) differ significantly (p<0.05); Different superscript in a row (Capital letter X, Y, Z) differ significantly (p<0.05)

 

A significant increase in the average fortnightly SNF per cent in the milk of G1 group animals was observed between 45th to 60th day while in G2 and G3 group of animals were found to be non-significant throughout the study period except 45th days. The fortnightly average SNF per cent was found to be significant between the groups in 15th and 45th days of lactation. There was significant (P<0.05) difference in fortnight average SNF per cent between the three groups throughout the study period.  In G3 group of animals the SNF per cent was 8.74±0.01 which was highest among all the groups and in the G2 and G1 group of animals the corresponding values were 8.68±0.01% and 8.63±0.01%, respectively.

Similar findings were reported by Prasad and Tomar (1996), Musthaq (2010) in Nili Ravi buffalo, Janus and Borkowska (2012) in H.F. cows and Meena et al. (2019a) in Kankrej cow.

Protein (%) 

The average fortnightly protein per cent in milk of Sahiwal cattle with different BCS groups are presented in Table 4.

Table 4: Average Fortnightly Protein (%) in milk of Sahiwal cattle with different BCS groups

Fortnight Average Protein (%) in milk of Sahiwal cattle in BCS groups
Intervals (days) G1 G2 G3
15 3.15±0.007aX 3.31±0.017abY 3.55±0.014aZ
30 3.15±0.006aX 3.35±0.008cY 3.57±0.014aZ
45 3.17±0.004abX 3.31±0.01abY 3.62±0.018bZ
60 3.16±0.005abX 3.29±0.013aY 3.63±0.019bZ
75 3.17±0.005abX 3.35±0.012cY 3.62±0.019bZ
90 3.19±0.004bX 3.34±0.006bcY 3.63±0.019bZ
Total (Average) 3.18±0.004aX 3.33±0.01bY 3.61±0.01cZ

Different superscript in a column (Small letter a,b,c) differ significantly (p<0.05); Different superscript in a row (Capital letter X, Y, Z) differ significantly (p<0.05)

The average fortnightly protein per cent in milk of G1 group of animals increased up to 45th day and thereafter decreased up to 60th day, and after that there was gradual increase in protein per cent up to 90th day, which were found to be non-significant. The average fortnightly protein per cent in milk of G2 group animals increased up to 30th day and thereafter decreased up to 60th day then again increased up to 75th day after that  it again decreased up to 90th day, which were found to be non-significant. The average fortnightly protein per cent in milk of G3 group animals increased significantly (P<0.05) up to 60th day and after that it decreased up to 75th day and again increased up to 90th day. There was significant (P<0.05) difference in average fortnightly protein per cent in milk between the three groups throughout the study period. The highest average protein per cent 3.61±0.01 was observed in G3 group followed by 3.33±0.01% and 3.18±0.004%, respectively in G2 and G1 group.

Similar findings were reported by Prasad and Tomar (1996), Musthaq (2010) in Nili Ravi buffalo, Janus and Borkowska (2012) in H.F. cows and Meena et al. (2019) in Kankrej cow. However, Treacher et al. (1986) reported that during early lactation, the group of fat (BCS 4) cows had yielded less milk protein than the group of thin (BCS 2.5) cows which is in disagreement with present study.

Lactose (%) 

The average fortnightly lactose per cent in milk of Sahiwal cattle with different BCS groups are presented in Table 5.

Table 5: Average fortnightly lactose (%) in milk of Sahiwal cattle with different BCS groups

Fortnight Average Lactose (%) in milk of Sahiwal cattle in BCS groups
Intervals (days) G1 G2 G3
15 4.20±0.012aX 4.29±0.010aY 4.47±0.005bZ
30 4.19±0.013aX 4.26±0.007aY 4.45±0.003bZ
45 4.20±0.012aX 4.28±0.010ay 4.43±0.006bY
60 4.21±0.007aX 4.29±0.007aY 4.48±0.005bZ
75 4.19±0.007aX 4.26±0.010aY 4.44±0.008bY
90 4.18±0.007aX 4.26±0.009aY 4.16±0.092bX
Total (Average) 4.20±0.012aX 4.28±0.100bY 4.41±0.020cZ

Different superscript in a column (Small letter a,b,c,) differ significantly (p<0.05); Different superscript in a row (Capital letter X, Y, Z) differ significantly (p<0.05)

The average fortnightly lactose per cent in milk of G1 group of animals decreased up to 30th day and after that increased up to 60th day and then again decreased up to 90th day, non-significantly. The average fortnightly lactose per cent in milk of G2 group of animals decreased up to 30th day and after that it increased up to 60th day and then again decreased up to 75th day and remained same after that up to 90th day, non- significantly. In G3 group of animals, the average fortnightly lactose per cent in milk decreased up to 45th day and after that it increased up to 60th day and then again decreased up to 90th day, non-significantly. There was significant (P<0.05) difference in average fortnightly lactose per cent between the three groups throughout the study period. The highest average lactose per cent 4.41±0.02 was observed in G3 group followed by in G2 and G1 group 4.28±0.10 and 4.20±0.012, respectively.

Similar findings were reported by Musthaq (2010) in Nili Ravi Buffalo, Janus and Borkowska (2012) in H.F. cows and Meena et al. (2019a) in Kankrej cows. However, Treacher et al. (1986) reported that during early lactation, the group of fat (BCS 4) cows had yielded less lactose than the group of thin (BCS 2.5) cows which is in disagreement with present study.

Total Solid (%)

The average fortnightly total solids per cent in milk of Sahiwal cattle under different BCS groups are presented in Table 6. The average fortnightly total solids differ significantly (P<0.05) in milk of Sahiwal cattle among different BCS groups. The average total solid content of milk changes with advance in lactation in G1, G2 and G3 group of animals and were found to be non-significant throughout the study period. There was significant (P<0.05) difference in total solid per cent in the milk of G1, G2 and G3 groups throughout the study period. The highest average total solid per cent 12.67±0.03 was observed in G3 group animals followed by in G2 and G1 group with 12.57±0.02 % and 12.26±0.02 %, respectively. Similar findings were reported by Janus and Borkowska (2012) and Meena et al. (2019a) in Kankrej cows.

Table 6: Average fortnightly total solid (%) in milk of Sahiwal with different BCS groups

Fortnight Average Total solids (%) of animals in BCS groups
Intervals (days) G1 G2 G3
15 12.40±0.018bX 12.77±0.044cY 12.91±0.010dZ
30 12.23±0.039aX 12.64±0.032bY 12.84±0.017cdZ
45 12.17±0.036aX 12.54±0.030aY 12.66±0.020bZ
60 12.21±0.026aX 12.48±0.018aY 12.52±0.025aY
75 12.22±0.027aX 12.49±0.025aY 12.52±0.037aY
90 12.25±0.029aX 12.47±0.022aY 12.54±0.014aY
Total (Average) 12.26±0.020aX 12.57±0.020bY 12.67±0.030cY

Different superscript in a column (Small letter a,b,c,d) differ significantly (p<0.05); Different superscript in a row (Capital letter X, Y, Z) differ significantly (p<0.05)

Reproductive Performance

The reproductive performances in Sahiwal cattle with different BCS groups are presented in Table 7.

Table 7: The reproductive performances in Sahiwal cattle with different BCS groups

S.No. Reproductive traits BCS groups
G1 G2 G3
1 Post-partum estrus (days) 98.34±3.51c 63.67±1.17a 82.17±1.42b
2 No. of service per conception 2.17±0.31a 1.34±0.21a 1.5±0.22a
3 First service conception rate (%) 16.67±16.67a 66.67±21.08a 50±22.36a
4 Service period (Days) 143.34±6.69c 89.84±3.79a 113.84±3.26b

Different superscript in a row (small letter a, b, c) differ significantly (p<0.05)

Data in Table 7 revealed that the animals of G2 group had shorter post-partum estrus period, fewer services per conception, higher first service conception rate and shorter service period and the values for corresponding parameter were 63.67±1.17 days, 1.34±0.21, 66.67 per cent and 89.84±3.79 days, respectively. The Sahiwal cattle of G3 group had 82.17±1.42 days, 1.50±0.22, 50.00 per cent and 113.84±3.26 for post-partum estrus, number of service per conception, first service conception rate and service period, respectively. Whereas, Sahiwal cattle of G1 group had 98.34±3.51 days, 2.17±0.31, 16.67 per cent and 143.34±6.69 days for post-partum estrus, number of service per conception, first service conception rate and service period, respectively. The study revealed that BCS had significant (P<0.05) effect on post-partum estrus and service period under the study.

Similar findings were reported by Gillund et al. (2001) in Norvegian cattle, Buckley et al. (2003) in H.F. cows, Roche et al. (2009) in dairy cow, Bayram et al. (2008) in Swedish Red and White cows, Rao and Anitha (2013) in buffalo, Stadnik et al. (2017) in Czech Fleckvieh cows and Meena et al. (2019) in Kankrej cows.

Conclusion

In present study it was concluded that the fat, protein, lactose, SNF and total solid content increases with increase in BCS and as lactation advances and varied significantly between groups. The reproductive performance was improved as the BCS increased up to 3.75, but beyond that a decline in reproductive performance was noticed. Animal with moderate (3.25-3.75) BCS at calving showed better performance in respect to productive and reproductive traits.

(In Results, discussion for above conclusion is not clearly mentioned. As BCS is good (G2) or very good (G3) it is no doubt that animal is in good condition will perform better in all aspect. So, it is needed to be discussed.

Acknowledgement

The authors thankfully acknowledged the financial support and facilities provided by RAJUVAS, Bikaner to carry out the research work.

References

  1. Animal husbandry department (AHD), India. 19th Livestock census-2012, http:/dahd.nic.in/dahd/WriteReadData/Livestock.pdf
  2. Bayram, B., Yanar, M. and Akbulut, O. (2008). Reproductive and milk production traits of Holstein Friesian cows in pre-organic and organic dairy husbandry in Turkey. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 7(7): 808-811.
  3. Buckley, F., Sullivan, K., Mee, J.F., Evans, R.D. and Dillon, P. (2003). Relationships among milk yield, body condition, cow weight, and reproduction in spring- calved Holstein-Friesians. Journal of Animal Science, 86(7): 2308-2319.
  4. Berry, D.P., Lee, J.M., Macdonald, K.A., Stafford, K., Matthews, L., and Roche, J. R. (2007). Associations among body condition score, body weight, somatic cell count, and clinical mastitis in seasonally calving dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science90(2): 637-648.
  5. Clark, C.E.F., Fulkerson, W.J., Nandra, K.S., Barchia, I. and Macmillan, K.L. (2005). The use of indicators to assess the degree of mobilization of body reserves in dairy cows in early lactation on a pasture-based diet. Livestock Production Science, 94: 199-211.
  6. Coenen, H. and Peter, M.S. (2014). Associations among body condition score, body weight, and milk weight in crossbred dairy cattle in a confined dairy operation. Tarleton State University.
  7. De Vries, M. J. and Veerkamp, R. F. 2000. Energy balance of dairy cattle in relation to milk production variables and fertility. Journal of Dairy Science, 83:62–69.
  8. Gillund, P., Reksen, O., Grohn, Y.T. and Karlberg, K. (2001). Body condition related to ketosis and reproductive performance in norwegian dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 84(6): 1390–1396.
  9. IBM SPSS STATISTICS (SOFTWARE VERSION; 20.0).
  10. Janus, E. and Borkowska, D. (2012). Changes of body condition of cows, daily milk yield and its composition during the course of lactation. Rocz Nauk, 1(1): 75-84.
  11. Konigsson, K., Savoini, G., Govoni, N., Invernizzi, G., Prandi, A., Kindahl. and Veronesi, M.C. (2000). Energy balance, leptin, NEFA and IGF-I plasma concentrations and resumption of postpartums ovarian activity in swedish red and white breed cows. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 50(3): 1-7.
  12. Meena, B.P., Goswami, S.C., Kumar, V., Jhirwal, A.K., Singh, V. and Sharma, V. (2019a). Study the Relationship of BCS with Milk Composition and Reproductive Performance. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 8(01): 228-235.
  13. Mushtaq, A. (2010). Effect of Physiological states on milk fatty acids profile In dairy cows and buffaloes. Ph.D. Thesis, (Livestock production and management), North-West Frontier Province, Agricultural University, Peshawar.
  14. Prasad, S. and Tomer, O.S. (1996). Effect of body condition at calving and post-partum level of feeding on milk production and composition, of crossbred dairy cows. Indian Journal of Dairy Science, 50: 413.
  15. Rao, K.S. and Anitha, A. (2013). Body Condition Score (BCS) system in Murrah buffaloes. Buffalo Bulletin, 32: 1290-1298.
  16. Roche, J.R., Friggens N.C., Stockdale, C.R., Baumgard, L.H., VanBaale, M.H. and Berry, D.P. (2009). Body condition score and its association with dairy cow productivity, health, and welfare. Journal of Dairy Science, 92(12): 5769–5801.
  17. Singh, V., Singh, V.K., Singh, S P. and Sahoo, B. (2015). The effect of body score condition at calving on milk yield, milk composition and udder health status of dairy animals. Journal of dairy, Veterinary and Animal Research, 2(2): 22-27.
  18. Stadnik, L., Atasever, S. and Duchacek, J. (2017). Effects of body condition score and daily milk yield on reproduction traits of Czech Fleckvieh cows. Animal Reproduction, 14(1): 1264-1269.
  19. Treacher, R.J., Roberts, C.J. and Tomas, J. (1986). Effect of body condition on reproductive performance in dairy cows. Animal Production, 79: 11-16.
  20. Veerkamp, R.F., Koenen, E.P.C. and DeJong, G. (2001). Genetic correlations among Body condition score, yield, and fertility in 1st parity cows estimated by random regression models. Journal of Dairy Science, 84: 2327-2335.
Abstract Read : 68 Downloads : 24
Previous Next

Submit Case Reports for Special Issue (Dec’19)

Recommend IJLR to include in UGC-CARE list

Download Completed format here

IJLR_UGC CARE Recommendation

And

Recommendations of new journals should be routed by universities and colleges as follows:

  1. Universities: IQAC cell to respective regional CARE University
  2. Affiliated colleges: College IQAC cell to parent university’s IQAC cell. Parent university IQAC cell will forward to respective regional CARE University.

You can find Zonal UGC-CARE address here https://ugccare.unipune.ac.in/site/website/ugc-contact.aspx

Close