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Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) Powder on the Performance of Commercial Broiler Chicken

Dimpi Choudhury Joga Dev Mahanta Deben Sapcota B. N. Saikia Rafiqul Islam
Vol 8(7), 182-191
DOI- http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20171129032810

A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of turmeric (Curcuma longa) powder on the performance of commercial broiler chicken. A total of 144 numbers of day-old commercial broiler chicks with uniform body weight were randomly divided into four groups viz. T0 (standard basal diet as control), T1 (basal diet + 0.25% turmeric powder), T2 (basal diet + 0.50% turmeric powder) and T3(basal diet + 0.75% turmeric powder) comprising 36 chicks in each group. The final body weight was significantly (P≤0.05) higher in T3 group (2134.56 g) followed by T2 (2049.36 g), T1 (1963.97 g) and T0 (1900.28 g). In respect of overall FCR, the T3 group showed the best FCR value of 1.71 followed by T2 (1.75), T1 (1.81) and T0 (1.88). The study revealed that there was increased body weight, improved FCR, highest BPEI and higher gross profit per bird offered with 0.75 per cent turmeric powder in feed.


Keywords : Broilers Body Weight FCR Gross Profit Turmeric Powder

Poultry production in India has become a profitable and most popular income generating sector for the educated unemployed youth. Most of the poultry farmers are interested in broiler production due to its quick returns, less space requirement and higher weight gains. The productive potential of poultry in India has not been fully exploited due to deficit feed resources and unutilization of available improved technologies for getting high productivity from the poultry at economical rate. Hence, it is essential to further enhance the feeding value of available feed resources so as to improve the efficiency of feed utilization and minimize the cost of feed per kilogram live weight gain. Phytobiotics have gained increasing interest as natural growth promoting feed additives in broiler production in recent years. These have wide range of medicinal properties with no residual side effects and are best alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (Rahman et al., 2014). Beneficial effects of these substances in poultry nutrition are due to their high content of pharmacologically active compounds stimulating appetite and feed intake, improving endogenous digestive secretion and activating immune responses (Nouzarian et al., 2011 and Toghyani et al., 2010). Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is one of such perennial herbs which contained an active component named curcumin (Wuthi-Udomler et al., 2000 and Mashhadani, 2015) and it range from 2 to 5% of the turmeric (Bagchi, 2012). The curcumin content of local variety of turmeric of Assam was found to contain 3.0% on dry weight basis. The therapeutic properties of curcumin included antibacterial, anticoccidial, antioxidant, hypocholesteremic and hypolipidaemic (Hussein, 2013; El-Khtam et al., 2014 and Qasem et al., 2015). It also posses anti-inflammatory (Holt et al., 2005), antiseptic, nematocidal, immunomodulatory and hepatoprotective properties (Daneshyar et al., 2011 and Rajput et al., 2013). Considering the above facts in view the present study was undertaken to determine dietary supplementation of garlic powder on the performance of broiler chicken fed at different levels with feeds.

Material and Method

The trial was conducted in  the  Experimental  Poultry  shed of Department of Poultry Science, C.V.Sc., Khanapara, Guwahati with 144 number of day-old broiler chicks having uniform body weight from a single hatch.

Table 1: Ingredients and nutrient composition of broiler starter and broiler finisher

Ingredients (kg) Starter (0-28 days) Finisher (29-42 days)
Maize 42 50.5
Rice polish 14 15
Ground nut cake 25 16
Soyabean meal 10 10.5
Fish meal 7 6
Mineral mixture 1.5 1.5
Common salt 0.5 0.5
Nutrient Composition    
Dry matter (%) 88.92 88.95
Crude protein (%) 23.04 20.12
Ether Extract (%) 4.89 5.01
Crude Fibre (%) 5.81 6.11
Nitrogen free extract (%) 59.44 60.52
Total ash (%) 7.01 6.98
Metabolizable energy (kcal/kg)* 2850.85 2913.41

*Calculated values (N.B. Vitamin premix (Vitablend vit A, B2, D3, K) was added @ 20 g per quintal of diet in both starter and finisher diet.  Mineral mixture contained calcium 25%, Phosphorus 5%, Sodium chloride 23%, Iodine 10 ppm, Copper 100 ppm, Manganese 2000 ppm and Cobalt 10 ppm).

The chicks were randomly divided into four groups viz. T0, T1, T2 and T3 comprising of 36 chicks in each group. Each group was further subdivided into 3 replicates of 12 chicks. The chicks were wing banded and reared under deep litter system of management. The control group (T0) was fed with basal diet without any supplementation and the treatment group T1, T2 and T3 were supplemented with local variety of turmeric powder at the rate of 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 per cent respectively. The curcumin content of turmeric rhizomes was estimated following a standard procedure. The birds were fed as per recommendation of BIS (2007) feeding standards to meet the energy and protein requirements during starter phase (0- 28 says) and finisher phase (0- 42 days). The ingredient and nutrient composition for mash feed for starter and finisher basal diet is presented in Table 1. All the birds were offered ad libitum drinking water and feed throughout the experimental period of six weeks under uniform managemental condition. The birds were vaccinated against Ranikhet disease at the age of 6 days with LaSota strain and Infectious Bursal Disease at 14 days of age using IBD ‘MB’ intermediate strain. The performance of broiler in respect of weekly feed intake, weekly body weight and body weight gain, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), Broiler Performance Efficiency Index (BPEI), livability and economics of production were calculated as per standard methods. One Way Analysis of Variance was performed by software SAS Enterprise Guide 4.2.

Results and Discussion

Weekly Feed Intake and Total Feed Consumption

The mean weekly feed intake of the present study (Table 2) indicated that during the first week of age, the feed intake was lowest in T1 group and highest in T3 group Similar trend was seen in second week of age, except that feed intake was similar in T0 and T1 group.

Table 2: Mean weekly feed intake (g/bird) and total feed consumption (g/bird)

Week Group
T0 (Control) T1 T2 (TP- 0.50%) T3 (TP- 0.75%)
1st 154.16 136.94 163.33 164.72
2nd 297.77 297.5 313.88 325
3rd 518.61 528.75 530.27 506.38
4th 743.33 726.94 728.89 710.83
5th 886.25 897.5 873.33 868.05
6th 986.94 973.47 975.69 1084.02
Total 3587.06 3561.11 3585.4 3659.02

During the sixth week of age, highest feed intake was hound in T3 group (1084.02 g) and lowest in T1 group (973.47 g). Thus it was found from all the weeks that supplementation of turmeric powder at 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 per cent improved feed intake except fourth week of age compared to control group. Similar findings with respect to improvement of feed intake were observed by several workers (Sharma et al., 2015 and Hady et al., 2016). In contrary to the present observation, Kumar et al. (2005) and Nouzarian et al. (2011) reported no significant difference in feed intake between the control and treated groups of broiler chicken.

The total feed consumption per broiler for different experimental groups was found to be highest in T3 group (3659.02 g) and lowest in T1 group (3561.11g). This observation corroborated well with the findings of Hady et al. (2016). The increased feed intake might be due to the activity of turmeric as an antioxidant that stimulated protein synthesis (Osawa et al., 1995) by birds’ enzymatic system. Moreover, turmeric powder possesses appetite stimulant, stomachic and carminative properties (Platel and Srinivasan, 2004 and Chakraborty et al., 2011).

Weekly Body Weight and Body Weight Gain

The (Mean± S.E.) weekly body weight (Table 3) of different experimental groups did not differ significantly during the first and second week of age.

Table 3:  (Mean ± S.E.) weekly body weight (g) of broilers under different treatments

Week Group
T0 (Control) T1 (TP-0.25%) T2 (TP-0.50%) T3 (TP-0.75%)
1st 134.51a ± 1.98 134.38a ± 1.72 136.97a ± 1.48 138.94a ± 1.19
2nd 340.47a ± 6.34 343.61a ± 6.54 353.05a ± 6.88 338.33a ± 4.49
3rd 625.00a ± 11.12 637.50a ± 11.31 685.00b ± 10.45 677.50b ± 8.37
4th 1031.94a ± 17.38 1054.17ab± 19.75 1094.44b ± 16.39 1098.61b ± 16.36
5th 1447.22c ± 25.66 1438.89a ± 29.08 1563.89b ± 20.17 1561.11b ± 23.15
6th 1900.28c ± 31.27 1963.97ac± 39.36 2049.36ab± 31.07 2134.56b ± 25.82

Means bearing same superscripts in a row do not differ significantly

On third week, body weight differed significantly (P<0.05) among the different treatment groups. The T2 and T3 group achieved significantly (P<0.01) higher body weight (685.00 and 677.50 g) as compared to T0 and T1 group (625.00 and 637.50 g). During fourth, fifth and sixth week of age, the body weight of broiler chicken differed significantly (P<0.01) among the different experimental groups. The T3 and T2 group gained significantly (P<0.01) higher body weights as compared to control and T1 group during fourth, fifth and sixth week of age. Similar observations were made by Jahan (2014) and Mashhadani (2015) who reported that supplementation of turmeric powder in the basal diet of broiler chicken improved final body weight of broiler chicken. Contrary to the present finding, Mehala and Moorthy (2008) and Nouzarian et al. (2011) reported that body weight was not affected by dietary supplementation of turmeric powder in broiler chicken.

The mean (± S.E.) weekly body weight gain (Table 4) of different experimental groups did not differ significantly in the first, second and fourth week of age. However, the mean body weight gain differed significantly (P<0.01) during third and fifth and sixth week of age among the different treatment groups. In the sixth week T3 group showed significantly (P<0.05) higher body weight gain as compared to other experimental groups. The improvement in body weight and body weight gain of the broiler chickens due to supplementation of turmeric powder in the diets might be due to the increased length of the intestinal villi as well as decreased pH in the intestine (Sieo et al., 2005). Turmeric decreased the intestinal microbes’ population and selectively increased Lactobacillus count (Sieo et al., 2005 and Namagirilakshmi et al., 2010). This reduction in microbial load of broiler chickens could be due to the antibacterial effect of turmeric on intestinal microbiota (Faghani et al., 2014). Turmeric also enhanced the secretion of digestive enzymes and hence improved nutrient absorption and ultimately resulting in improved growth performance (Arslan et al., 2017). These findings corroborated well with the reports of Mondal et al. (2015), Sharma et al. (2015) and Sethy et al. (2016).

Table 4: (Mean ± S.E.) weekly body weight gain (g/bird) of broilers under different treatment groups

Week Group
T0 (Control) T1 (TP-0.25%) T2 (TP-0.50%) T3 (TP-0.75%)
1st 89.91a ± 1.76 89.58a ± 1.55 90.58a ± 1.53 93.89a ± 1.21
2nd 205.96a ± 5.38 209.23a ± 7.47 216.08a ± 6.09 199.39a ± 3.78
3rd 284.52a ± 9.58 293.89a ± 9.39 331.94b ± 8.82 339.16b ± 6.56
4th 406.94a ± 12.34 416.67a ± 15.65 409.44a ± 10.85 421.11a ± 11.99
5th 415.27a ± 16.64 384.72a ± 17.23 469.44b ± 11.49 462.50b ± 24.75
6th 453.06a ± 26.00 525.08a ± 21.75 485.47a ± 23.18 573.45b ± 23.66

Means bearing same superscripts in a row do not differ significantly              

Feed Conversion Ratio          

Among the different experimental groups, the mean weekly feed conversion ratio (Table 5) of T1 group showed the best FCR values during the first (1.53) and second (1.42) week of age. On the third and fourth week, T3 group showed the best values (1.50 and 1.69) as compared to other groups. On the fifth week, the mean FCR value of T2 group (1.86) was best among all the experimental groups. In the sixth week of age, T1 group (1.85) showed best FCR followed be T3 (1.89), T2 (2.00) and T0 (2.18) group.

Table 5: Mean weekly feed conversion ratio of broilers under different treatment groups

Week Group
T0 (Control) T1 (TP-0.25%) T2 (TP-0.50%) T3 (TP-0.75%)
1st 1.71 1.53 1.81 1.75
2nd 1.45 1.42 1.45 1.63
3rd 1.82 1.8 1.6 1.5
4th 1.83 1.74 1.78 1.69
5th 2.13 2.33 1.86 1.88
6th 2.18 1.85 2 1.89
Overall 1.88 1.81 1.75 1.71

The overall FCR of the entire period of experiment was best in T3 group (1.71) followed by T2 (1.75), T1 (1.81) and T0 (1.88) group. The better feed conversion ratio can be attributed to the antimicrobial properties of turmeric powder which resulted in better absorption of the nutrients in the gut and finally leading to improvement in feed conversion ratio (Ong-ard et al., 2010). Turmeric could control and limit the growth and colonization of numerous pathogenic and non-pathogenic species of bacteria in chicken’s gut resulting in balanced gut microbial ecosystem that leads to better feed utilization reflected by improved feed conversion ratio (Hussein, 2013). Similar observations were reported by several workers (Naderi et al., 2014; Arslan et al., 2017). On the other hand, addition of turmeric powder in the broiler ration did not show significant differences in feed conversion ratio according to findings of several workers (Mehala and Moorthy, 2008; Vashan et al., 2012 and Fallah and Mirzaei, 2016).

Broiler Performance Efficiency Index and Livability

Among the different treatment groups, T3 group showed the highest BPEI (124.82) followed by T2 (117.09), T1 (108.50) and T0 (101.08) group (Table 6).

Table 6: Broiler Performance Efficiency Index (BPEI) and Livability of broilers under different treatment groups

Parameters Groups
T0 (Control) T1 (TP-0.25%) T2 (TP-0.50%) T3 (TP-0.75%)
BPEI 101.08 108.5 117.09 124.82
Livability (%) 100 100 100 100

Similar findings with respect to improvement in efficiency index were observed by earlier researchers, Yaghobfar et al. (2011), Basak, (2015) and Attia et al. (2017) in broiler chicken. The higher value of BPEI in T3 group was due to higher average body weight and better feed conversion ratio in broiler chicken during the entire experimental trial. The efficiency index of broiler chicken improved gradually as the level of supplementation of turmeric powder increased from 0.25% to 0.75% as compared to control group. The per cent livability of all the experimental groups was cent per cent 9100). Similar observations were reported by Mehala and Moorthy (2008) and Attia et al. (2017) in broiler chicken supplemented with diet containing turmeric powder as phytogenic growth promoter. This might be due to the antioxidant and antimicrobial effect of turmeric powder in the treated groups (Al-Jaleel, 2012). In addition, curcumin of turmeric had a role on the immune stimulating factor in immune system which reduced the mortality rate in chicken (Al-Kassie et al., 2011). Contrary to the present observation, Al-Jaleel (2012) found variable mortality rates in broiler chicken fed control and turmeric treated diets.

 

Economics of Production

The cost of production per broiler including the additional cost of turmeric powder was found to be (Rs.) 172.14, 172.09, 174.50 and 177.50 for T0, T1, T2 and T3 groups respectively (Table 7). The cost of production per broiler in T3 and T2 was numerically higher by about (Rs.) 5.36 and 2.36 as compared to T0 group. However, gross profit per broiler was found to be highest in T3 group (Rs. 35.96) followed by T2 (Rs. 30.44), T1 (Rs.24.30) and T0 (Rs.17.86) group. Thus, among the four groups, the T3 group showed best result in respect of higher gross profit per broiler. The gross profit per broiler was higher by ₹ 18.10 in T3 group as compared to T0 group. The better gross profit per broiler in T3 group could be attributed to the better growth performance and improved FCR of broilers due to addition of turmeric powder in the ration. These findings corroborated with the results of earlier workers (Hossain et al., 2014 and Kassu et al., 2016) who showed reduction in production cost per Kg weight gain, increased live weight, better FCR and higher net revenue in turmeric treated groups as compared to untreated group.

Table 7: Cost of production and gross profit (Rs.) per broiler under different treatment groups

Parameters Group
T0 (Control) T1

(TP-0.25%)

T2

(TP-0.50%)

T3

(TP-0.75%)

I.       Expenditure
Chick cost (A) = 1.05 x cost of one day-old chick (₹) 33.6 33.6 33.6 33.6
Feed cost (B) = Live weight in Kg x FCR x Cost per Kg of feed (₹) 116.09 115.28 116.59 118.37
Miscellaneous expenditure (C) = Add 15% of (A+B) (₹) 22.45 22.33 22.52 22.79
Additional cost of Turmeric powder (D) 0.88 1.79 2.74
Production cost per broiler (A+B+C+D) (₹) 172.14 172.09 174.5 177.5
II.    Return
Sale of one live broiler @ ₹ 100 per Kg 190 196.39 204.94 213.46
III.       Gross profit per broiler () 17.86 24.3 30.44 35.96

Conclusion

A biological trial was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding turmeric (Curcuma longa) powder on the performance of broiler chicken. A total of 144 numbers of day-old commercial broiler chicks with uniform body weight were randomly divided into four groups viz. T0 (standard basal diet as control), T1 (basal diet + 0.25% turmeric powder), T2 (basal diet + 0.50% turmeric powder) and T3 (basal diet + 0.75% turmeric powder) comprising 36 chicks in each group. The final body weight was significantly (P<0.05) higher in T3 group (2134.56 g) followed by T2 (2049.36 g), T1 (1963.97 g) and T0 (1900.28 g). In respect of overall FCR, the T3 group showed the best FCR value of 1.71 followed by T2 (1.75), T1 (1.81) and T0 (1.88). The study revealed that there was increased body weight, improved FCR, highest BPEI and higher gross profit per bird offered with 0.75 per cent turmeric powder in feed. Thus, it can be recommended that turmeric powder can be used as natural feed additive in feed at the level of 0.75% to improve the overall performance of broiler chicken. The effective level of incorporation of turmeric powder might be due to the hormesis effect.

Acknowledgement

The authors express thankfulness to the Dean, Faculty of Veterinary Science, AAU, Khanapara for providing necessary facilities to carry out the experiment.

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