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Effect of Feeding Area Specific Mineral Mixture on Haemato Biochemical, Serum Minerals and Ovarian Status of Reproductive Disordered Crossbred Cattle in Jatani Block of Odisha

J. K. Sahoo S.K. Das K. Sethy S.K. Mishra R.K. Swain P. C. Mishra
Vol 7(5), 98-104

To study the effect of area specific mineral mixture on the haemato biochemical, serum minerals and ovarian status of crossbred cattle, forty reproductive disordered animals were selected and divided into two groups having 20 animals each. Group I was kept as control (farmer practice) and Group II: Group I + mineral mixture (50 g/day/animal). Treatment was conducted for 60 days. Haemato - biochemical and mineral profile were assessed for the analysis of the reproductive status of the animals. Ovarian status and pregnancy detection of animals were regularly monitored. Among blood biochemical’s, only serum glucose and total protein level were increased significantly (P<0.05). All minerals concentration was found to be highest in mineral supplemented group compared to that of control. In the treated group the numbers of functional ovaries were effectively increased in heifers and repeat breeders as well as conception rate as compared to control group. So Supplementations of area specific mineral mixture enhanced the haemato biochemical, mineral and ovarian status in repeat breeding animals as well as eliminate the anestrous problem in crossbred animals.

Keywords : Infertility Crossbred Cattle Mineral Mixture Ovarian Condition Reproduction


For better dairy production satisfactory fertility in cows is essential. Livestock production efficiency is to a large extent dependent on reproductive performance. Infertility and sterility resulting in widening of dry period, reduced no. of calving and lactations are some abnormalities in normal reproductive function of cows which may cause heavy economic loss to farmer. It is said that inadequate nutrition delays puberty and sexual maturity in heifers and irregularities of ovarian activity and estrous in postpartum cows. Minerals are the essential nutrients bearing a significant role in the animal reproduction as well as in all physiological processes in animals, because their excess or deficit produces detrimental effect on the performance of livestock (Akhta et al., 2009). Macro elements like K, Ca, Na, Cl, P and trace elements like Cu, Co, Zn, Fe, Se, I, Mo, Mn are found to be very essential for normal livestock growth and performance (Underwood, 1981). Minerals supplementation greatly enhances the blood biochemical parameters in dairy animals (Samanta et al., 2005). Both macro and micro minerals play crucial role in augmenting production and reproduction in farm animals and their deficiency causes impairment of all body functions (Corah, 1996). Manganese and copper are required for steroid synthesis helping in hormonal regulation. By providing area specific mineral mixture i.e. ASMM (Ca, P, Cu, Zn and Mn) and iodized salt through concentrate mixture for a period of 30 days to anestrous crossbred heifer, it was found that the rate of expression of estrus and conception was 92.16% and 97.38%, respectively(Puvarajan and Vijayarajan, 2013). Based on this, an attempt has been made in Jatani block of Khurda district, Odisha to study the effects of area specific mineral mixture on the haemato biochemical, serum minerals and ovarian status of crossbred cattle.

Material and Methods

Selection of Animals

An on-farm trial was carried out in the villages of a semi urban and industrialized area of Jatani block in Khurda district of Odisha. The average rainfall of the zone is about 1443 mm and soils are red lateritic sandy soil and some patches of ideal alluvial soil. From the farmers general information viz., breed and age of animals, details of oestrus, treatment after oestrus, age at first calving, calving number, services per conception, date of last calving and other breeding history including anestrous, repeat breeding, post-partum anoestrous, feeding practices of dairy cows were collected. Individual animal was examined per-rectally to know the status of reproductive organs like cervix, ovary, and uterus etc. On the basis of survey findings forty reproductive disordered animals with no anatomical and physiological abnormality were selected from eight villages of Jatani Block. The animals were dewormed with broad spectrum anthelmintic (Fenbendazole @ 10 mg/kg body weight) to rule out the possible effect of worms on growth and reproduction of the animals.

Experimental Design

An experiment was designed for a period of 60 days and total of forty reproductive disordered animals (16 cows and 24 heifers) were selected and divided into two groups having 20 animals (containing both anestrous and repeat breeder) each. Animals in control group (I) were maintained as per the traditional practices of the farmer without any nutritional supplementation where as treatment group was fed with area specific mineral mixture @ 50 g per day per animal. The treatment group along with the control group was maintained as per the standard managemental practices except feeding protocol mentioned above.

Preparation of Mineral Mixture

The minerals intake of animals of Jatani block were deficient in major minerals viz. Ca and P and minor minerals viz. Zn, Cu, Mn. Taking these mineral deficiency of the animals, area specific mineral mixture (ASMM) was prepared. Though iodine and cobalt were not estimated in the experimental animals, but they were added in the prepared mineral mixture as per ICAR recommendation (1998). The recommended composition of 1000 g of ASMM was presented in Table 1.

Table 1: Composition of area specific mineral mixture

Sl. No Ingredients Amount/1000 g
1. Dicalcium phosphate 800 g
2. Wheat flour 200 g
3. Cupric sulphate 200 mg
4. Potassium iodide 1.63 mg
5. Manganous sulphate 400 mg
6. Zinc sulphate 500 mg

Haemato-Biochemical Profile

Blood samples were analysed for haematological, biochemical and mineral estimation as per the protocol of Oser (1971). The concentration of glucose, total protein, albumin and urea was estimated using the kit of CREST BIOSYSTEMS (India). Globulin concentration was determined by subtracting the albumin from the total protein concentration in the serum samples. The ALT and AST activity in serum was determined as per Reitman and Frankel (1957). Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was estimated by the method of Kind and King (1954) using diagnostic kit manufactured by Span Diagnostic Limited, Surat, India. The haemoglobin content of the blood samples were estimated by Hellige and Sahli’s haemoglobin meter. The packed cell volume (PCV) determinations of all the blood samples were carried out by the procedure given by Jain et al. (1986). The serum calcium and phosphorus concentration was estimated by using the kit prepared by CREST BIOSYSTEMS (India). The serum micro minerals like Cu, Zn and Mn were estimated by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (ELICO-SL 243 Double Beam AAS) as per the method described by Piper (1996).

Reproductive Status

The animals were regularly checked for any improvement in ovarian status as well as monitored for the onset of heat and it was detected by behavioural symptoms (Layek et al., 2011). Animals exhibiting the sign of heat were per-rectally inseminated artificially by the local Veterinary Asst. Surgeons. Pregnancy diagnosis was conducted per-rectally at 40- 50 days and re-examined again 60-75 days of post insemination.

Statistical Analysis

Statistical analysis was done by using Software Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 17.0 (2008) and one-way analysis of variance (Generalized Linear Model, ANOVA) with comparison among means was made by Duncan‘s multiple range test (Duncan, 1955) with significance level of P ≤ 0.05.

Results and Discussion

Haematological Profile

There were no significant difference (P>0.05) in the value of glucose, RBC, PCV, MCV and MCHC at 0 and 60 days of study. Tiwari et al. (2000) reported that haemoglobin concentration significantly higher in mineral supplemented groups probably due to better interaction of trace minerals and utilization of dietary Fe due to supplementary Cu in the diet which was not found in our study.

Serum Biochemical Profile

The cholesterol and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT)/ALT level varied significantly (P<0.05) among control and treatment group in the initial period of the experiment (Table 2).

Table 2: Serum biochemical profile of cross bred animals without and with area specific mineral mixture

Parameter 0 day 60 days
I II P value I II P value
Glucose (mg/dl) 50.30 ±5.74 50.51 ±5.19 0.68 43.80a ±3.23 56.00b ±3.50 0.04
Total Protein(g/d) 6.77 ±0.66 6.55 ±1.15 0.50 5.78a ±0.62 7.60b ±1.01 0.04
Albumin (g/dl) 2.41 ±0.22 2.90 ±0.21 0.06 2.42 ±0.25 2.90 ±0.21 0.08
Globulin (g/dl) 4.37 ±0.46 3.66 ±1.05 0.74 4.35 ±0.42 3.70 ±0.89 0.71
A:G ratio 0.55 ±0.03 1.00 ±0.38 0.55 0.56 ±0.05 0.90 ±0.25 0.50
Urea (mg %) 14.33 ±0.47 16.94 ±1.14 0.53 14.41 ±0.44 17.05 ±0.92 0.60
Cholesterol (mg/dl) 100.97c ±3.7 100.16 c ±3.82 0.03 100.16 ±3.09 99.51 ±3.71 0.12
Triglyceride(mg/dl) 82.40 ±3.33 78.47 ±4.12 0.28 78.68 ±3.33 79.30 ±4.28 0.05
SGPT (U/L) 14.12 a ±0.49 17.3b ±0.65 0.09 13.99 ±0.45 15.12 ±0.47 0.11
SGOT (U/L) 72.60 ±1.07 70.28 ±1.97 0.12 72.72 ±1.20 73.47 ±2.50 0.10
ALP (U/L) 126.8 ±0.31 125.6 ±0.80 0.47 127.0 ±0.51 124.9 ±1.31 0.69

Values bearing different superscripts in a row differ significantly (P<0.05)

At the end of the experiment glucose and total protein content was significantly (P<0.05) higher in group II than control and the cholesterol and SGPT concentration decreased which was favored by the findings of Jain et al. (1986); Shah (2003) and Khan et al. (2015). On mineral supplementation group the minerals played active role either in the form of cofactor and/or activator of enzymatic systems associated with the metabolism of nutrients. Zn altered molar proportion of VFA in the rumen with an increase in propionate concentration resulting in increased glucose level in the plasma (Aliarabi and Chhabra, 2006) which was reflected in our findings. The high blood glucose level increased progesterone production directly by increasing LH pulse and mean concentration of LH and indirectly by increasing blood insulin level which stimulated progesterone secretion from luteal cells (Mc Ardle and Holtfort, 1989). The enzymes alanine-amino-transferase (ALT) / SGPT, aspartate amino transferase (AST) / SGOT level as well as other remaining parameters did not showed statistically significant difference between control and mineral supplemented group.

Serum Mineral Profile

The serum calcium and phosphorus concentration at start of our experiment was found to be at below the critical value; Ca (9-12 mg/ml) and P (4-8 mg/ml) that might be due to the traditional practice of feeding as reported earlier by Panda et al. (2014) with paddy straw or wheat straw which are deficient of Ca and P (Table 3). But after treatment both macro and micro minerals level were varied significantly (P<0.05) between the control and supplemented group. The plasma Cu level was influenced by mineral supplementation group. Desai et al.,1982, reported that Cu has a significant role in maintaining the optimum fertility as it act as an indicator for FSH, LH and estrogens activity. Role of Cu in ovarian steroidogenesis through Cu superoxide dismutase activity was reported by Olson et al. (1999) which were favourable to our results.

Table 3: Mineral profile of crossbred cattle without and with area specific mineral mixture

Parameter 0 day 60 days
I II P value I II P value
Ca (mg/dl) 6.88 ±0.17 6.95 ±0.05 0.12 6.95a ±0.17 7.94b ±0.08 0.04
P(mg/dl) 4.14 ±0.26 3.87 ±0.12 0.24 4.14a ±0.26 5.37b ±0.33 0.02
Zn(ppm) 0.78 ±0.01 0.82 ±0.04 0.21 0.77a ±0.02 1.53b ±0.14 < 0.01
Cu(ppm) 0.71 ±0.04 0.72 ±0.02 0.18 0.69a ±0.02 1.24b ±0.03 < 0.01
Mn(ppm) 0.32 ±0.02 0.26 ±0.02 0.27 0.32a ±0.02 0.58b ±0.03 < 0.01

Values bearing different superscripts in a row differ significantly (P<0.05)

Reproductive Performances

In the mineral supplemented group there was effective improvement noticed in ovarian condition of both anestrous and repeat breeder animals (Table 4 and 5). In mineral mixtures supplemented group, out of 13 anestrous animals there were 10 (76.92 %) animals exhibited estrous and 6 animals got conceived and from 7 repeaters, 5 animals got conceived having total conception rate (55%) in this group against the control (15%) which favours the findings of ( Mohapatra et al., 2012 ; Puvarajan and Vijayarajan, 2013).

Table 4: Ovarian condition of anoestrous and repeat breeder animals before and after supplementing area specific mineral mixture

Attributes (%) 0 day 60 days
Anoestrous I II Total I II Total
Non functional 27.27 15.38 20.83 27.27 7.8 16.67
Sub active 63.63 76.92 70.83 54.55 53.86 54.17
Functional 9.09 7.69 8.33 18.2 38.6 29.17
Total 100 100 100 100 100 100
Repeat Breeder 0 day 60 days
Sub active 44.44 42.85 43.75 33.33 14.28 25
Functional 55.56 57.15 56.25 66.67 85.71 75
Total 100 100 100 100 100 100

Table 5: Distribution of conceived animals (heifers and cows) in groups without and with area specific mineral mixture

Attributes I (20 animals) II (20 animals) Total
Type of disorders An RB An RB An RB
11 9 13 7 24 16
Conceived animals 1 2 6 5 7 7
Total conceived 3 11 14
% of conception 15 55 31

An – Anoestrus and RB – Repeat breeder


Supplementations of area specific mineral mixture enhanced the blood biochemical, serum mineral and ovarian status in repeat breeding animals as well as eliminate the anoestrus problem in crossbred animals without any harmful effect.


The authors are thankful to the Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Odisha and AICRP Project on Nutritional and physiological approach for enhancing reproductive performance in cattle and buffalo for providing necessary funds and facilities to carry out this research work.


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