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Effect of Feeding Different Levels of Concentrate Mixture on Yield and Composition of Milk and Lactation Length in Sirohi Goats

Vinod Bhateshwar Mahesh Datt Ganesh Ram Jat Pankaj Aman Rathaur Hitesh Muwal
Vol 8(12), 113-119
DOI- http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20180416095835

A study was conducted to assess the “Effect of feeding different levels of concentrate mixture on yield and composition of milk, and lactation length in sirohi goats”. The experiment was conducted at RKVY Goat unit, S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner (Jaipur) during November 2016 to May, 2017. Twenty four lactating Sirohi goats (36.2±0.7 kg) were taken for the study. The total duration of feeding experiment was 90 days; however, the lactation length was also recorded. Apart from daily grazing, concentrate mixture was offered to the exyent of 0.00 gm (T1) as control, 100gm (T2), 200gm (T3) and 300gm (T4), respectively with Prosopis cineraria (Khejri) dry leaves feeding ad libitum. The results revealed that significantly (P<0.05) higher daily milk yield, total milk yield, % fat, % solid not-fat as well as % total solids -in T4 than T3, T2 and control T1. The mean lactation length was recorded as 153.5±1.70 days with the lactation length ranging between 141 to 160 days. Thus with increasing amount in concentrate feeding there was successive increase in daily milk yield, total milk yield and improvement in milk composition. It is concluded that there is a certain beneficial effect of concentrate mixture feeding on daily milk yield, total milk yield and milk composition performance during lactation period in Sirohi goats.


Keywords : Concentrate Mixture Milk Yield Milk Composition Lactating Length Sirohi Goats

Goats are the backbone of the economy of small and marginal farmers and landless labours in India. It is an insurance against crop failure and provides alternate sources of livelihood of farmers round the year. They play an important role in income and employment generation and improving house hold nutrition. The goat “poor man’s cow” has tremendous potential to be projected as the ‘Animal of Future’ for rural prosperity under the changing agro-geo-climatic conditions and depleting resources for crop-based livelihood. There are around 880 million goats in the world out of which India has over 135.17 million (15.36%) of 23 defined and non-descript breeds that are adapted efficiently in different agro-climatic conditions all over the country. India has 26.4% goat of total livestock population (512.02 million) out of which Rajasthan contributes to 16.03% (Anonymous, 2014). The goats in India are reared primarily for meat and also for milk and hairs. The goat meat production in India has doubled (9.3% to 18.3%) and goat milk production shown a growth rate 31.53% during the last decade (Thiruvenkadan and Rajendran 2015). The country stands first in goat milk production (26.31%) and is second largest meat producer (10.41%) in the world.

Nutrition affects both the yield and composition of the milk produced by dairy animals (Bencini and Pulina, 1997). In case of goats, rations with higher energy concentration should be provided during lactation, where milk production is in high correlation with the quantity of energy consumed from food, especially in mid-lactation. Feeding strategies that include grazing and concentrate supplementation improve the milk fat, protein, lactose and total solids compared to grazing or forage alone (Soryal et al., 2004). Incorporation of concentrates in goat diets is intended to increase dietary energy, protein, mineral and vitamins and optimize the efficiency of feed utilization for growth, gestation or milk production (Morand-Fehr and Sauvant, 1987). Goat milk has been acknowledged as an ideal food for the aged, the sick and convalescent as well as for infants and growing children. Goat milk differs from cow or human milk by having higher digestibility, distinct alkalinity, higher buffering capacity and certain therapeutic values in human medicine and nutrition. Goat milk is more digestible due to the presence of smaller fat globules than the cow’s milk.

Materials and Method                       

Present experiment was conducted on 24 lactating Sirohi goats of second lactation with an average body weight of 36.2±0.7 kg. Goats were randomly divided into four equal (n=6) groups. The concentrate mixture was fed to goats individually as per requirement of experiment. All goats were managed semi-intensively under of standard management practices. Goats were also allowed feeding leaves of Prosopis cineraria (Khejri) ad libitum besides concentrate mixture feeding. Animals were allowed access to fresh drinking water ad libitum in the barns. The feeding practice was remained uniform throughout the study period.

The total duration of experiment was 210 days. But feeding experiment i.e. recording of milk yield and milk composition was done only upto 90 days with an interval of 15 days. For individual doe, daily milk yield was measured at 15 days intervals beginning on post-partum day 15 (i.e. on days 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90) by hand milking. Hand milking was performed on two occasions (morning around 8 am and in the evening, around 4 pm). On the days of milk recording, the kids were separated from does and were reintroduced to their mother after milking. Measuring the amount of milk was done with a 500ml graduated cylinder kept at individual milking units, with the lowest digit of 10 ml. For carrying out study on proportional milk composition analysis, volumes of morning milk was taken every 15 days intervals after cleaning and disinfecting teats and discharging the first streams of foremilk. Samples were collected in 200 ml clean and sterile plastic bottles at 15 days intervals upto 90 days experimental period. There were a total of six sampling on each goat during the period of 90 days trial. The milk composition (quantity of milk fat, solid non-fat and total solid) was determined by electronic milk analyzer (Master Eco.). All values were expressed in percentage. Lactation length was calculated from 15 days after kidding until daily milk yield dropped to below 0.20 lit. Lactation length data was recorded for each doe on separate proforma specially designed for this purpose.

Statistical Analysis           

The data related to daily milk yield, milk composition and lactation length were statistically analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance (SAS system ‘Local’, W32-7PRO) for completely randomized design. All statement of significant differences was based on the 0.05 probability level. Significant differences among treatment, within the experiment, were analyzed using Duncan’s multiple rang test.

Result and Discussion

There was 18-20% crude protein (minimum), 12% crude fiber (maximum), 2% salt and 2400 Kcal. (ME) / Kg in concentrate mixture that was taken for present study.

Table 1: Chemical composition (% DM basis) of concentrate mixture fed to the Sirohi goats

Nutrients Concentrate Mixture
Crude protein (%), Min. 20
Crude fat (%), Min. 2.5
Crude fibre (%), Max. 12
Common salt (%), Max. 2
Calcium (%), Min. 0.8
Phosphorus (%), Min. 0.5
Ether extract (%), Max. 2.53
Total ash (%), Max. 9.48
ME / Kg. 2400 Kcal.

Data of daily milk yield (DMY) and total milk yield (TMY) during lactation periods are presented in Table 2. The total milk yield (TMY) taken upto 90 days of lactation was the highest in T4 (25.38 litres) followed by T3 (21.96 litres) then T2 (19.14 litres) compared with control T1 (16.14 litres) which were higher by 57.24%, 36.05% and 18.58%, respectively, compared with control. The results of this study were similar to those of Rohilla and Chand (2004) who reported higher TMY in the supplemented Marwari lactating does compared to those on grazing. Also the present results corroborates with the findings of Basitan and Jarcia (2013) and Saba et al. (2016).

Table 2: Effect of concentrate mixture feeding on average daily milk yield (DMY) and total milk yield (TMY) of goats during the lactation period

DMY (lit.) Treatments SE±M P value
T1 T2 T3 T4
15 days 0.33b 0.38b 0.41b 0.55a 0.0473 0.001
30 days 0.33b 0.40b 0.52a 0.60a 0.055 0.0005
45 days 0.45b 0.52b 0.55ab 0.63a 0.0468 0.0075
60 days 0.48c 0.57bc 0.65ab 0.73a 0.043 <0.0001
75 days 0.53c 0.62c 0.75b 0.85a 0.0431 <0.0001
90 days 0.57d 0.70c 0.78b 0.87a 0.0398 <0.0001
TMY (lit.) 16.14d 19.14c 21.96b 25.38a

a, b, c and d means with the same letters in the same row are non-significantly different (P< 0.05).

The effect of supplementing various levels of concentrate mixture on milk fat percentage are presented in Table (3). The overall mean of various feeding treatments showed the same trend as the highest value for T4 (3.91%) followed by T3 (3.62%) then T2 (3.40%) compared to Control T1 (3.17%) 23.34%, 14.19% and 7.25%, respectively compared to control T1 group. Statistically, the fat percentage and overall mean of treatment showed the highest estimates with T4 followed by T3 then T2 and then T1 control. When concentrate mixture was increased in T4 and T3 the milk fat percentage increased gradually with advancing stage of lactation. The results of this study were found similar to those reported by Kassab et al. (2009) and Okunlola et al. (2015). However, Kushwaha et al. (2012) found non-significant differences in values of fat in treatment and control group in Indian lactating goats. This could be due to variation in treatments i.e. quantity of concentrate supplementation and stage of lactation or environmental effect.

 

Table 3: Effect of concentrate mixture feeding on milk fat levels

Daily Fat % Treatments SE±M P value
T1 T2 T3 T4
15 days 2.54a 2.56a 2.62a 2.69a 0.1354 0.6777
30 days 2.64a 2.72a 2.77a 2.81a 0.0832 0.2131
45 days 3.40d 3.74c 3.95b 4.31a 0.0389 <.0001
60 days 3.44d 3.76c 4.05b 4.48a 0.0419 <.0001
75 days 3.47d 3.79c 4.11b 4.56a 0.0387 <.0001
90 days 3.54d 3.85c 4.21b 4.61a 0.0281 <.0001
Overall mean of treatment 3.17d 3.40c 3.62b 3.91a

a, b, c and d means with the same letters in the same row are non-significantly different (P< 0.05).

The effect of supplementing various levels of concentrate mixture on solid-not fat (SNF) percentage are presented in Table 4. The overall mean of various feeding treatment showed the same trend as the highest value for T4 (10.29%) followed by T3 (9.75%) then T2 (9.29%) compared to control T1 (8.62%) and in terms of percentage as 19.37%, 13.11% and 7.77% respectively compared to T1 control. Statistical analysis showed significantly higher value for T4 followed T3 then T2 and then T1 control. The results of present investigations are in close agreement to those reported by Hejazi and Omar (2009) who studied the effects of feeding sesame oil cake (SOC) on milk quality of Anglo-Nubian goats. However, Kushwaha et al. (2012) reported non-significant effect of supplementation on SNF content of milk in Indian lactating goats in control as well as treatment group. Which could be due to variation in treatment i.e. quantity of concentrate supplementation and stage of lactation or environmental effect.

Table 4:  Effect of concentrate mixture feeding on solid-not fat (SNF) levels

Daily SNF % Treatments SE±M P value
T1 T2 T3 T4
15 days 8.34c 8.51bc 8.68ab 8.81a 0.1045 0.0014
30 days 8.56b 8.69ab 8.90a 8.85a 0.1279 0.0614
45 days 8.54d 9.38c 9.88b 10.72a 0.0818 <.0001
60 days 8.64d 9.57c 10.21b 10.97a 0.0579 <.0001
75 days 8.77d 9.78c 10.33b 11.15a 0.0609 <.0001
90 days 8.82d 9.81c 10.47b 11.24a 0.0416 <.0001
Overall mean of treatment 8.62d 9.29c 9.75b 10.29a

a, b, c and d means with the same letters in the same row are non-significantly different (P< 0.05).

The effect of supplementing various levels of concentrate mixture on total solid (TS) percentage are presented in Table 5. The overall mean of treatment showed the same trend as the highest value with T4 (14.73%) followed by T3 (13.36%) then T2 (12.70%) compared with control T1 (10.78%) and when expressed in percentage to the tune of 36.64%, 23.93% and 17.81%, respectively compared to T1 group. Statistical analysis revealed highest estimates for T4 followed T3 then T2 and then control T1. The results of present investigations are in close agreement to those reported by Singh et al. (2014). Similar results were reported by Okunlola et al. (2015) who studied effect of supplementation on milk composition in Red Sokoto goats. However, Kushwaha et al. (2012) reported non-significant effect of supplementation on TS content of milk on Indian lactating goats in control as well as treatment group. This could be due to variation in treatments i.e. quantity of concentrate supplementation and stage of lactation or environmental effect.

Table 5:  Effect of concentrate mixture feeding on total solid (TS) levels

Daily TS % Treatments SE±M P value
T1 T2 T3 T4
15 days 10.88b 11.07ab 11.30ab 11.46a 0.2112 0.0602
30 days 11.20b 11.40ab 11.67a 11.68a 0.1873 0.0535
45 days 11.94d 13.11c 13.83b 15.12a 0.1189 <.0001
60 days 12.07d 13.33c 14.26b 15.45a 0.0838 <.0001
75 days 12.24d 13.57c 14.44b 15.80a 0.1124 <.0001
90 days 12.36d 13.70c 14.68b 15.85a 0.0499 <.0001
Overall mean of treatment 10.78d 12.70c 13.36b 14.73a

a, b, c and d means with the same letters in the same row are non-significantly different (P< 0.05).

The mean lactation length in present investigation was recorded as 153.5±1.70 days and the lactation length ranges between 141 to 160 days (Fig. 2) which was similar in all groups.

The results of present investigations are in close agreement to those reported by Rai and Singh (2005). However, higher lactation length was reported in Jakhrana breed of goat (183.04±4.04days) by Mandal et al. (2010) and in Kutchi breed of goat (202.5±5.65 days) by Kumar et al. (2004) respectively. This could be due to variation in breed or variation in nutrition provided to lactating does as nutrition is one of the most important factors that directly influence the lactation period in goats.

Conclusion

On the basis of the present investigation, it may be concluded that the higher daily milk yield and total milk yield  with better milk composition can be obtained in Sirohi goats with increasing amount of concentrate mixture in comparison to control; however, the effect of different levels of concentrate mixture feeding on lactation length was found to be non-significant. These results are only indicative and require further experimentation to arrive at some more consistent conclusion.

References

  1. Anonymous, 2014. Livestock Census, 2012, Ministry of Agriculture. Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries. Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi.
  2. Basitan, I. S. and Jarcia, E. G. 2013. Yield, quality and feed cost efficiency of milk produced by Anglo-nubian goats fed different mixtures of Napier (Pennisetum purpureum) grass and Malunggay (Moringa oleifera). Philippine Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 39(2): 193-200.
  3. Bencini, R. and Pulina, G. 1997. The quality of sheep milk, a review. Australian Journal Experimental Agriculture, 37: 485–504.
  4. Hejazi, A, and Omar, J. M. A. 2009. Effect of Feeding Sesame Oil Cake on Performance, Milk and Cheese Quality of Anglo-Nubian Goats. Hebron University Research Journal, 4(1): 81-91.
  5. Kassab, A. Y., Abdel-Ghani, A. A., Solouma, G. M., Soliman, E. B. and Abd El moty, A. K. 2009. Lactation performance of Sohagi sheep as affected by feeding canola protected protein. Egyptian Journal of Sheep and Goat Sciences, 4 (2): 65-78.
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  7. Kushwaha, R., Rai, S. N. and Singh, A.K. 2012. Effect of feeding acacia nilotica pods on body weight, milk yield and milk composition in lactating goats. Indian Journal of Animal Research, 46(4):366-370.
  8. Mandal, A., Roy, R.Bhusan, S., Rout, P. K. and Sharma, M. C. Environmental effects on production traits of Jakhrana goat. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 80(11): 1141-1144.
  9. Morand-Fehr, P. and Sauvant, D. S. 1987. Feeding strategies in goats. Departamento de Difusao de Tecnologia, Brasilia, Brazil. 4th International Conference on Goats, 2: 1275-1303.
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  11. Rai, B. and Singh, M. K. Production performance of Jakhrana goats in its home tract. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 75(10): 1176-1178.
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  13. Saba, E. F., El-Nimer. A. M. M., Gomaa, A. A. A. I., EL Badawy, A. A., Shehata, E. I. and Gawad, A. M. A. Effect of supplementing diets of Zaraibi goats with corn steep liquor on milk production and quality properties of soft white cheese. Egyptian Journal of Sheep and Goat Sciences, 11(1): 1- 15.
  14. Soryal, K. A., Zeng S. S., Min, B. R. and Hart, S. P. 2004. Effect of feeding treatments and lactation stages on composition and organoleptic quality of goat milk Domiati cheese. Small Ruminant Research, 52(1): 109-116.
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