The experiment was conducted for a period of six weeks on 300 day old straight run RAJA II broiler chicks, wing banded and randomly assigned to five groups with 60 chicks in each with a four replicates of 15 chicks in each groups (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 ). The diets were fed ad libitum to chicks by adding 0, 0.25, 0.5,1 and 1.5% Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) root powder in the ration of T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 groups respectively. The findings of the experimental trial reveals that the serum cholesterol, LDL, HDL and serum proteins in groups supplemented with Shatavari were significantly (P>0.05) different compared to control group. While decrease in serum cholesterol and LDL was recorded in Shatavari supplemented in treatment T3 and T4 as compared to other groups. However significant (P>0.05) increase in serum proteins was observed in treatment T3 among Shatavari supplemented groups.
Indian poultry industry occupies an important role among agricultural industries as it is an important source of animal protein for human population. Which has emerged on the world poultry map as the 3rd largest eggs (66 billion eggs) and 5th largest poultry meat (2.6million tons) producer. Indian broiler industry is growing at a rate of 10-15% per annum (Chikwa et al., 2018).Various herbal feed additives are better for feeding of broilers as liver tonic, immunomodulator and adoptogenic to stress and toxins, leading to lower mortality, morbidity and enhance growth and production performance. “Shatavari” is one of the important medicinal plants known as the “queen of herbs” in Ayurveda that produces saponins which are responsible for the pharmacological activities and having properties like nutritive tonic, anti-stress (Kamat et al., 2000). Supplementation of shatavari root powder had beneficial effect on body weight and feed conversion efficiency and improves general health status of the bird. Hemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) concentration increased in the treatment group supplemented with 1% shatavari root powder as compared to control the group of broiler chicken according to Rekhate et al. (2010). Bhardwaj et al. (2009) reported that the supplementation of shatavari root powder in broiler birds improved the protein level in the blood. Lower serum cholesterol level observed lower in shatavari treated group of rats by Bhosale et al. (2012). Therefore, the present study was planned to explore the effect of shatavari on biochemical profile of broiler.
Materials and Methods
Three hundred number of day old straight run Raja II broiler chicks were obtained from AICRP on Poultry for Meat, Veterinary college, Hebbal, Bengaluru for the experimental study.
Table 1: Per cent ingredient and nutrient composition of basal experimental diet (as per BIS-2007)
|Ingredients||Pre-starter (0-7 days)||Starter (8-21 days)||Finisher (22-42 days)|
|Soya bean meal (46%)||41.92||37.5||32.5|
|Vitamin premix **||0.1||0.1||0.1|
|Total||100.0(99.84)||100.0 (100.32)||100.0 (100.32)|
|ME (Kcal/kg) b||2966.6||3074.89||3138.22|
|Crude protein (%) b||22.89||19.22||18.09|
|Calcium (%) a||1.01||0.91||0.855|
|Phosphorous (%) a||0.46||0.37||0.355|
|Lysine (%) a||1.4||1.18||1.03|
|Methionine (%) a||0.49||0.39||0.342|
Mineral mixture: Each 100 g contains Magnesium oxide- 1.48g, Ferrous sulphate- 6.0g, copper sulphate- 0.05g, Manganese Sulphate-0.04 g, Potassium Iodide- 0.001g, Potassium Chloride-17.09g and Sodium selenite- 0.001g.
** Vitamin-mineral Premix: Each 100g contains Vitamin AD3 (Vitamin A-10,00,000 IU/g, Vitamin D-200000 IU/g)- 0.165g, Vitamin K3-0.103g, Vitamin E- 2.4g, Thiamine Mononitrate- 0.206 g, Riboflavin- 0.513g, Pyridoxine hydrochloride- 0.309g, Cyanocobalamine- 0.00031g, Folic acid- 0.103g, Niacin-4.124 g, Ca-D-Pantothenate- 1.031g, Biotin- 1.5g, Maltodextrine- 89.545g; a calculated values; b analyzed values
Chicks were wing banded, weighed and randomly distributed into five treatment groups (T1– T5) with four replicates (R1-R4) in each treatment group and with 15 chicks in each replicate. Chicks were reared under deep litter system upto 6 weeks of age, with supply of ad libitum feed and water. The diet T1 control (without Shatavari), T2 (control + 0.25 per cent Shatavari), T3 (control + 0.5 per cent Shatavari), T4 (control + 1 per cent Shatavari) and T5 (control + 1.5 per cent Shatavari). Approved managemental practices and standard vaccination schedule were followed during the experiment. Feed ingredients required for the formulation of the experimental diets were procured from the feed mill unit of the Department of Poultry Science, Veterinary College, KVAFSU, Hebbal, Bengaluru-24 and prepared as per the recommendations of BIS (2007).The feed formulations of the diets used in the trial are presented in Table 1. The sample of Shatavari root powder was procured from Classic Medi. Herbs Pvt. Limited 253/2, 3rd main road, Roopena Agrahara, Bommanahalli, Bengaluru- 560068, Karnataka.
For the determination of serum cholesterol, LDL, HDL and serum proteins, the blood samples were collected from three birds selected randomly from each replicate of all the treatment group at the end of 6th week, serum was separated individually and each treatment group was pooled separately and subjected to estimation of total serum cholesterol, LDL and HDL by enzymatic method, using auto analyzer kits. Serum protein concentration in serum was estimated by Biuret method with the help of Span Diagnostic Kit at 545 nm wavelength. Concentration of plasma total proteins was expressed in g/dl. Test: 0.1 ml of serum was taken in a test tube and 4.9 ml of 0.75 N sodium hydroxide was added and mixed thoroughly. Blank: 5.0 ml of 0.75 N sodium hydroxide was taken in a separate test tube. In test and blank, 1.0 ml of biuret reagent was added and mixed and wait for 20 minutes. The unknown was read against the blank at 545 nm wavelength. Total serum protein is calculated by the following formula-
Total serum protein (mg/ 100 ml) = O.D x 16.16
Data pertaining to various parameters obtained during the trial were analyzed statistically by ANOVA using SPSS 20.0 statistical software. Differences between the means were tested using Duncans Multiple Range Test Duncan (1995) at P≤0.05.
Results and Discussion
The results of serum cholesterol for different treatment group are furnished in Table 2 and graphically depicted in Fig. 1. The mean serum cholesterol levels ranged from 97.83 mg/dl in T3 (0.5 per cent Shatavari) to 129.33 mg/dl in T1 diet group. Statistical analysis revealed that there was significant difference in T3 group when compared to T1 and T2 group. However, T3 was non-significantly comparable with T4 and T5. However, T2 was non-significantly comparable with T5. Similar findings were reported by Bulbul et al. (2009), Rekhate et al. (2010) and Kant et al. (2014), Dahale et al. (2014).
Table 2: Effect of supplementation of Shatavari on serum cholesterol, LDL, HDL and serum protein values (Mean ± SE) of Raja II broilers
|Experimental Group||Description of the Treatment||Serum Cholesterol (mg/dl)||LDL (mg/dl)||HDL (mg/dl)||Serum Proteins (mg/dl)|
|T3||Control + 0.5%Shatavari||97.83±2.98c||59.83±3.16b||36.50±0.96b||3.92±0.20a|
|T5||Control + 1.5%Shatavari||106.75±2.67bc||50.43±3.01b||36.75±0.88b||3.63±0.21ab|
Means bearing different superscript column wise differ significantly (P≤0.05)
Fig. 1: Mean blood profile values (mg/dl) of Raja II broilers fed with different levels of Shatavari during 0 to 6 weeks
Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL)
The results of effect of supplementation of various levels of Shatavari in Raja II broilers at the end of 42 days of experimental period on low density lipoproteins are presented in Table 2 graphically depicted in Fig. 1. The mean LDL values ranged from 47.39 mg/dl in T4 (1.5 per cent Shatavari) to 82.23mg/dl in T1 (control) diet group. Significant difference in LDL levels was observed in T2, T3, T4 and T5 when compared to control T1. Non-significant difference (P>0.05) was observed among various treatments (T2, T3, T4 and T5). Similar findings were reported by Bhardwaj et al. (2009).
High Density Lipoproteins (HDL)
The mean HDL values ranged from 35.67 mg/dl in T2 (0.25 per cent Shatavari) to 40.58 mg/dl in T1 (control) diet group. Significant difference in HDL levels was observed in T2, T3, T4 and T5 when compared to control (T1). However, non-significant difference (P>0.05) was observed among various treatments (T2, T3, T4 and T5) presented in Table 2graphically depicted in Fig. 1. Similarly, broilers in group T1 and T2 which were fed with herbal feed supplement Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) root powder at the rate of 0.25 % and 0.5 % showed lower values for HDL than the control group fed without herbal feed supplementation Visavadia and Narasimhacharya (2005). Dahale et al. (2014) reported that HDL concentration was significantly (P<0.05) lower when compared to control group.
Total serum protein level increased (P<0.05) in treatment groups as compared to control group and the highest value was recorded in 0.5 per cent Shatavari supplemented group T3(3.92 mg/dl) and the lowest in control group T1(3.07 mg/dl) (Table 1 and Fig. 2). However, significant difference observed in T3 when compared to T1 and T2 and T3, T4 was non-significantly comparable with T2 and T5. Similar findings were reported by Bhardwaj et al. (2009) that supplementation of SRP at 0.5, 1 and 1.5% level showed a significant increase in the serum total protein level. Rekhate et al. (2010), Dahale et al. (2014) also found the similar result. The higher levels of serum proteins might be due to the effect of herbal feed supplement which stimulated hepatic activities resulting in the release of enzyme viz., phosphorylase and teansaminase that regulate the blood glucose and serum protein levels in the bio system Guyton (1991).
Fig. 2: Mean serum proteins values of Raja II broilers fed with different levels of Shatavari during 0 to 6 weeks
The results of these investigations showed that the supplementation of shatavari improved total serum protein, serum cholesterol, LDL and HDL levels in treatment groups, however, the better response was found in terms of these biochemical parameters in treatment with combination of 0.5% shatavari root powder.
The authors are thankful to Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bidar, Karnataka for financial support.