A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing Fish meal with Soybean meal with or without Lysine and Methionine supplementation on the blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicken. To achieve the envisaged objectives, three hundred day old commercial broiler chicks were procured from a reputed source reared together until 7 days of age. On 8th day, the chicks were individually weighed, distributed randomly into five groups of four replicates with fifteen chicks in each. Five experimental diets were formulated with varying levels of Fish meal and Soybean Meal. These diets were fed to the chicken from 8th to 42th days of their age. On 42th day blood samples were collected from representative birds for estimation of blood urea nitrogen, serum calcium and phosphorus using their respective biochemical kits. There was reduction in the levels of serum calcium and phosphorus as the level of Fish meal decreased in the diets; however there was no significant effect on the serum levels of blood urea nitrogen.
In a broiler ration, Fish meal, meat and bone meal and other protein concentrates are predominantly the principal sources of animal protein. The nutritional value of Fish meal is better than that of plant proteins with respect to its biological value, essential amino acid profile, high digestibility and palatability, and as a source of essential n-3 polyenoic fatty acids. Traditionally Fish meal is being used mostly as an only source of animal protein in the formulation of poultry feeds; but is subjected to some limitations for using in the diet of poultry. The Fish meal available in the market is not good and its quantitative supply is not steady throughout the year. The price of Fish meal is also higher than other protein source and which again increasing day by day. The quality of Fish meal is often questioned because of adulteration with fish bones, fish scales, sand, stone, soil, fine sawdust, horns and hooves, blood meal, Animal oil, prawn, poultry by-products and wastes of tannery (Hossain et al, 2003). Sometimes it carries organism of certain diseases. For these reasons, it is very important to find out the possibilities of using alternative sources of low cost protein to substitute expensive Fish meal protein. In vegetable protein sources, soybean meal is the best alternative of Fish meal. Soybean meal is the only common protein supplement that may be included in poultry rations without any practical limitation, as the processing of soybean denatures the anti nutritive factor sand its limitation of essential amino acid may be supplemented additionally. Thus the present study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effect of replacing Fish meal with Soybean meal with or without Lysine and Methionine supplementation on the blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicken.
Material and Methods
Three hundred day-old commercial broiler chicks were procured from a reputed source in winter season. Chicks were reared in battery cages until 7 days of age. During this period all the birds were provided with a pre-starter mash (23% crude protein and 2800 Kcal/Kg metabolisable energy). On 8th day, the chicks were individually weighed, distributed into 5 treatment groups, each group with 4 replicates and each replicate of 15 chicks in a completely randomized design so that the treatment means differ as little as possible. Five experimental diets were formulated. Diet-1 contained 10% Fish meal (control), Diet-2 contained 5% Fish meal, Diet-3 was similar to Diet-2, but with supplementation of Lysine and Methionine @ 0.1% and 0.03% respectively. Diet-4 contained no Fish meal and Diet-5 was similar to Diet-4, but with supplementation of Lysine and Methionine @ 0.2% and 0.06% respectively. The Lysine and Methionine used was through herbal preparation. The detailed composition of the experimental diets is shown in Table-1.
Percentage Crude Protein, Total Ash, Ether Extract and Crude Fibre content of the different diets were determined as per standard procedure of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC, 1996). Calcium and phosphorus were estimated by Talpatra method (1948). Ad-libitum feeding and watering was practiced during the experimental period. Birds were reared under standard and identical managemental conditions till the completion of experiment. Blood biochemical parameters were analysed when the birds were of six weeks old. Calcium, Phosphorus and Blood urea nitrogen were estimated from the serum samples with the aid of Photo-colorimeter by using their respective biochemical kits.
The data obtained was statistically assessed by one-way ANOVA using the General Linear Model procedure of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, Base 10.0, 1999 (SPSS Software products, Marketing Department, SPSS Inc. Chicago, USA). To test the significance of difference between means Duncan’s multiple range test (Duncan, 1955) was used. The probability level for determining the significance was 0.05.
Table-1: Composition and analysis of Experimental Diets
|Supplements (gm/ kg)|
|Crude protein (%)||22.3||22.1||22.1||21.9||21.9|
|Ether extract (%)||10.3||10.84||10.84||11.4||11.4|
|Total ash (%)||7.45||5.85||5.85||4.25||4.25|
|Crude fibre (%)||4.5||4.62||4.62||4.76||4.76|
|Metabolisable energy (Kcal/Kg)*||2801||2841||2841||2881||2881|
*= Calculated value
** Per Kg of Premix provides Vitamin-A 2,00,000 I.U, Vitamin-D3 25,000 I.U, Vitamin-E 300 mg, Vitamin-K 400 mg, Vitamin B-1 800 mg, vitamin-B-6 2 gm, Vitamin B-12 240 mcg, Calcium-pentothenate 1.2 gm, Choline-chloride 70 gm, Calcium 280 gm, Phosphorus 70 gm, Manganese 12 gm, Iodine 400 mg, Iron 3.2 gm, Zinc 3gm, Copper 1 gm, Cobalt 200 mg, Antioxidant 200 mg, Methionine 120 units and sufficiently added with Propionic acid, Zeolites, Benzoates, Acetates and Formic acid
Results and Discussion
The results of serum calcium, phosphorus and blood urea nitrogen along with their standard errors are presented in Table-2.
Table-2: Effect of various Experimental diets on Blood biochemical parameters of Broiler chicken
|Blood urea nitrogen (mg/100ml)||2.42±0.09||2.31±0.10||2.39±0.11||2.27±0.08||2.30±0.07|
Means within the same row showing different superscripts are significantly different (P≤0.05)
No significant (p>0.05) effect in the level of blood urea nitrogen among the treatment groups were observed. The level of serum calcium and phosphorus decreased as the level of Fish meal was decreased in the diets suggesting that Fish meal is rich source of both calcium and phosphorus. The difference in the serum levels of calcium and phosphorus was non-significant (p>0.05) when Fish meal was replaced with Soybean meal at 50% while it was significant (p<0.05) when Fish meal was completely replaced with Soybean meal. These results are in agreement with the earlier results of Radhakrishnan et al (2001). Thus Fish meal can be replaced with Soybean meal in commercial broiler diets without any adverse effect on Blood urea nitrogen. However the level of calcium and phosphorus decreased significantly (p<0.05) when Fish meal was completely replaced with soybean meal. Hence it is concluded that Fish meal can be replaced only upto 50% without any significant effect on the blood biochemical parameters.
A.O.A.C. 1996. Official Methods of Analysis, Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 16th Ed. Washington, USA.
Duncan DB. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F test. Biometrics 11: 1-42.
Hossain MH, Ahmad MU and Howlider MAR. 2003. Replacement of fish meal by broiler offal in broiler diet. International Journal of Poultry Science. 2(2): 159-163.
Radhakrishnan L, Kadirvel R and Vijayakumar R. 2001. Replacement of fish meal with vegetable protein sources in broiler diets. Indian Journal of Poultry Science. 36: 300-304.
SPSS® 10.0. Computer Software, 1999. SPSS Inc., Headquarters, 233 p., Wacker Drive, Chicago, Illinois. 60606, USA.
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