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Epidemiological Studies on Canine Tumours in Jammu

Neha Sharma Ajay K. Gupta Riyaz A. Bhat Ovais S. Shah
Vol 8(5), 246-254
DOI- http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20170905050513

The study was carried out on 2500 canine cases referred to the department of Surgery and Radiology. Out of 2,500 cases, 50 were diagnosed as tumours on the basis of cytology or histopathology of excision/needle biopsy. The overall prevalence of canine tumours during the one year study period was 2%. The prevalence of benign tumours and malignant tumours was 46% and 54% respectively. Out of 50 canines diagnosed with tumours, 24 were males (48%) and 26 were females (52%). Organ-wise distribution of tumours included, mammary gland tumour (24%), skin and adnexa (20%), venereal (16%), female reproductive tract (14%), male reproductive tract (8%), melanoma and oral cavity (8%), appendicular skeleton (6%), spleen (2%) and Liver (2%). Breed-wise occurrence of neoplasms was found higher in Labrador dogs and Mongrels (non-descript) as compared to other breeds. Labrador breed of dog had 17 tumour cases followed by non-descript dogs (15), Spitz (7), German Shepherd (5), Neapolitan Mastiff (2), Rottweiler, Dalmatian, Cocker Spaniel, and Pointer, one tumour case each. Age wise prevalence of canine tumours was observed as 0-5 year age group (24%; 12 cases), 6-10 year age group (60%; 30 cases), and 10-15 year old dogs (16%; 8 cases).


Keywords : Age Breeds Malignant Neoplasm Organs

Introduction

With the increased use of vaccines and antibiotics in domestic and pet animals, death due to infectious diseases has decreased dramatically in the last two decades and cancer has now emerged as leading cause of pet animal deaths (Withrow, 2001). As  compared  to  humans,  canines  neoplasms  has  been  observed  more  frequent  and  are  one  of  the  major  cause  of  mortality  in  canines.  Consequently,  more  time  of  the  practicing  veterinarian’s,  present  days,  are  employed  in  the  diagnosis,  prognosis  and  treatment  of  tumours  in  canine  patients.  Malignant  tumours  are  potentially  life-threatening  where  as  benign  tumours  grow  slowly  without  invading  or  destroying  the  neighbouring  tissue,  and  do  not  spread  to  other  parts  of  the  body  and  are  not  usually  life  threatening.  During  the  last  several  years  canine  tumours  have  raised  great  interest  in  human  and  veterinary  surgery.  Pre-operative  determination  of  tumour  type  and  differentiation  between  malignant  and  benign  tumours  is  of  importance  in  judging  patient’s  prognosis  and  in  designing  therapy  (Simon et al., 2009).  Many  neoplasms  are  known  to  affect  the  dogs  and  cats;  the  two  most  common  household  pets  with  mixed  type  of  tumours  which  could  be  either  benign  or  malignant.  Dogs  tend  to  get  cancer  at  a  higher  rate  than  cats.  Epidemiological  studies  considering  canine  tumours  are  beneficial  in  understanding  the  patterns  of  tumour  occurrence  in  different  organs  of  various  breeds  and  age  group  dogs.  The  present  study  was  aimed  to  know  the  prevalence  of  different  neoplastic  conditions  in  Jammu.

Materials  and  Methods

The  present  study  was  carried  out  on dogs  which  were  presented  at  the  Teaching  Veterinary  Clinical  Complex  (TVCC)  of  SKUAST- Jammu. Complete history of the dogs suspected for neoplasia was recorded and clinical examination comprising of observation, palpation, percussion, recording of physiological parameters was performed. The consistency of visible growth or swelling, if any, their size, their attachment to the skin and the tissues underneath, whether ulcerated or not, engorgement of the blood vessels and lymphatics draining the affected area etc. were recorded. The tumours were diagnosed on the basis of histopathological and cytological studies  after representative tissue pieces were collected from multiple (at least 3) sites in tumour suspected cases and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin followed by processing of the sample and then histopathological studies.

Radiograph of the region involved, chest and abdomen were performed to know the extent of the lesion and to find out the metastatic lesions. Ultrasonography (USG) of the growth/swelling was performed to record the echotexture, blood supply, invasion of the surrounding tissues and whether cystic or solid. USG of abdomen was performed to find out metastatic lesions in the liver, lymph nodes, peritoneum and other visceral organs.

Results and Discussion

Out  of  2,500  cases,  fifty  were  diagnosed  as  tumours  on  the  basis  of  cytology  or  histopathology  of  excision/needle  biopsy.  The  overall  incidence  of  canine  tumours  during  the  one  year  study  period  was  2%.  The  incidence  of  benign  tumours  and  malignant  tumours  was  46%  and  54%  respectively.  Out  of  50  canines  diagnosed  with  tumours,  24  were  males  (48%)  and  26  were  females  (52%) (Fig. 1).

Fig.1: Sex wise prevalence of canine tumours (N=50)

Rungsipipat  et  al.(2003)  as well  had  reported  the  menace  of  neoplasms  in  canines  in  Bangkok  through  a  retrospective  study   conducted  in  the year  1982  and  found  a  total  of  2425  neoplasms  among  dogs  in  Bangkok,  Srivastava  et  al. (2009)  reported  407  neoplasms  in  dogs,  Bronden  et  al. (2010)  in  a  study  found  1878  cases  of  neoplasms  in  dogs,  in  Denmark,  Mukaratirwa  et  al. (2005)  recorded  540  skin  tumours  in  dogs  in  the  year  2000-2001,  among  which  45%  were  benign;  Gupta  and  Tiwari  (2009)  reported  109  neoplasms  in  dogs  among  which  47.7%  were  benign  and  52.3%  were  malignant,  Srivastva  et  al.(2009)  recorded  45.7%  benign  and  54.3%  malignant  tumours  out  of  407  neoplasms  cases of  dogs  and  Sostaric-Zuckermann  et  al. (2013)  recorded  59.1%  malignancy  condition  out  of  1568  tumour  cases  observed  in  a  study.  Nair  et  al. (2007)  in  a  study  also  reported  68.75%  benign  and  31.25%  malignant  tumours  out  of  48  clinical  cases. Overall  incidence  of  mammary  tumours  was  0.48%,  tumours  of  male  reproductive  tract  0.16%,  female  reproductive  tract  tumours  (excluding TVT)  0.28%,  skin  tumours  0.4%,  tumours  of  oral  cavity  0.16%,  tumours  of  appendicular  skeleton  0.12% ,  tumours  of  visceral  organs  0.08%,  and  TVT  0.32% (Table 1).

Table 1: System wise incidence canine tumours (N=50)

Oran Incidence (%)
Mammary tumor 0.48
Male reproductive system tumor 0.16
Female reproductive system tumor 0.28
Skin tumors 0.4
Tumors of the oral cavity tumor 0.16
Tumors of the appendicular system tumor 0.12
Tumors of the visceral organs 0.08
TVT 0.32

 

Among  all  tumour  cases,  the  prevalence  of  mammary  tumour  was  highest  (24%)  and  they  constituted  46%  of  all  the  tumours  of  female  dogs.  Out  of  12  mammary  tumours,  adenocarcinoma  constituted  41.66%  (5 cases),  fibroadenoma  33.33%  (4 cases),  and  myoepithelioma  25%  (3 cases) (Fig. 2, 3 and 4) (Table 2).

Fig. 2: HP of Mammary adenocarcinoma showing ducts partially occluded with in growth of tumour cells and presence of extensive fibrous stroma. Fig. 3: HP of Mammary fibroadenoma showing myoepithelium mixed with stromal elements and highly cellular stroma.

Table 2: Incidence among mammary tumours (N=12)

Tumor n= no. of cases Incidence (%)
Adenocarcinoma  Constituted 5 41.66%
Fibroadenoma 4 33.33%
Myoepithelioma 3 25%

Sertoli  cell  tumours  formed  75%  (3 cases)  and  seminomas  25%  (1 case)  of  the  male  reproductive  tract  tumours,  which  constituted  8%  of  all  tumours  (excluding TVT) (Fig. 5) (Table 3).

Fig.4: HP of Mammary myoepithelioma showing neoplastic proliferation of the myoepithelial cells forming nodular masses with abundant fibrous tissue proliferation. H&EX400. Fig.5: Testicular tumour: Sertoli cell tumour showing neoplastic sertoli cell arranged in a palisade pattern within pseudotubular structure resembling seminiferous tubules. H&EX 100.

Table 3: Incidence among male reproductive system (N=12)

Tumor n= No. of Cases Incidence (%)
Sertoli  cell  tumours  formed 3 75%
Seminomas 1 25%

The  female  reproductive  tract  tumours  formed  14%  (7 cases)  of  all  tumours.  All  the  tumours  of  female  reproductive system,  excluding  TVT,  were  leiomyoma  (100%) (Fig. 6). The skin  tumours  also  comprised  20%  (10 cases)  of  all  tumours.  Out  of  ten  cases,  perianal  adenoma  formed  30%  (3 cases),  the  fibrosarcoma,  anaplastic  histiocytoma,  and  mastocytoma  constituted  20%  each  (each 2 cases),  whereas  squamous  cell  carcinoma  (SCC)  formed  10%  (1 case)  of  the  skin  tumours.

Fig.6: Vaginal leiomyoma showing interlacing bundles of smooth muscle fibres.

Out  of  4  cases  of  tumours  of  oral  cavity  which  comprised  8%  of  overall  tumours,  75%  (3 cases)  were  malignant  melanoma  and  25%  (1 case)  peripheral  odontogenic  fibroma.  The  tumours  of  appendicular  skeleton  formed  6%  (3 cases)  of  all  tumours  and  all  the  tumours  were  osteosarcoma,  forming  100%  of  bone  tumours.  Only  two  tumours  of  visceral  organs  were  recorded,  one  of  the  spleen  and  the  other  of  the  liver,  2%  of  total  tumours  respectively.  The TVT formed 16% of the total tumour cases.  Jani  et  al.(1992),  Rostami  et  al.(1994)  and  Rungsipipat  et  al.(2003)  reported  neoplasms  of  the  mammary  glands  were  most  common  followed  by  skin  tumours.  The  present  study  prevalence  of  mammary  tumour  was  highest  (24%)  followed  by  skin  tumour  (20%),  transmissible  venereal  tumour,  TVT  (16%),  female  reproductive  tract  excluding  TVT  (14%),  male  reproductive  tract  and  tumours  of  oral  cavity  (8% each),  appendicular  skeleton  (6%)  and  tumours  of  visceral  organs  (4%).  Vachhani  et  al.(2004)  and  Nair  et  al.(2007)  reported  that  the  mammary  glands,  reproductive  organs  and  skin  were  the  most  common  sites  for  the  neoplasms  in  dogs,  and  Khimta  et  al.(2010)  also  in  a  study  recorded  highest  occurrence  of  canine  TVT  followed  by  tumours  of  mammary  gland  and  skin.  Low  incidence  of  visceral  tumours  in  the  present  study,  due  to  the  fact  that  the  pet  owners  reported  in  the  hospital  for  treatment  of  tumours  when  they  noticed  a  visible  lump  on  the  body  and  that  too  when  it  interfered  with  normal  functions  of  the  animals,  whereas  the  visceral  tumours  were  not  observed  by  the  owners  and  when  the  animals  brought  for  some  other  complaints  were  suspected  for  some  lesions  on  the  liver,  spleen  or  some  other  visceral  organ  based  on  haemato-biochemical  alterations,  radiography  or  ultrasonography  (USG),  the  owners  declined  exploratory  celiotomy  or  ultrasound guided  biopsy  in  most  of  the  cases.  Merlo  et  al.(2008)  who  recorded  3303  canine  cancers  out  of  6743  biopsy  specimens  also  made a  similar  observation  that  because  a  biopsy  specimen  was  required  to make  a  cancer  diagnosis,  cancer rates  for  internal  organs  cancers,  such  as  respiratory  and  digestive  tract  cancers  might  have  been  underestimated  in  the  study  population.

Highest  incidence  was  among  6-10  year  age  group  (60%,  30 cases),  followed  by  0-5  year  age  group  (24%, 12 cases),  and  was  least  in  10-15  year  old  dogs  (16%, 8 cases) (Table 4).

Table 4: Age wise incidence of canine tumours

Age in Years n= no. of cases Incidence
0-5 12 24%,
6-10 30 60%,
10-15 8 16%,

 

The  mean  age  of  animals  suffering  from  mammary  tumours  was  9.1±0.64  years  (5-13).  Mammary  adenocarcinoma  were  seen  in  animals  aged  9.8±1.28  years  (8-13),  mammary  fibroadenoma  in  8.5±1.19  years  (5-10),  and  mammary  myoepithelioma  in  9±0.57  years  (8-10).  Tumours  of  male  reproductive  tract  were  seen  in  animals  aged  9.5±1.04  years  (7-12).  Sertoli  cell  tumours  were  recorded  in  dogs  of  8.66±0.88  years  age  (7-10)  and  seminoma  in  a  12  year  old  dog.  Female  reproductive  tract  tumours,  leiomyoma,  were  seen  at  mean  age  of  8.85±0.59  years  (7-12).  The  mean age  of  dogs  having  skin  tumours  was  7.9±0.58  years  (5-11).  The  SCC  was  recorded  in  a  7  year  old  dog,  whereas  the  mean  age  of  dogs  having  fibrosarcoma  was  8±1  years  (7-9),  anaplastic  histiocytoma  7.5±0.5  years  (7-8),  and  mastocytoma  5.5±0.5  years  (5-6).  Perianal  adenomas  were  seen  at  a  mean  age  of  10±0.58  years  (9-11).  The  mean  age  of  dogs  having  oral  cavity  tumours  was  7.75±1.88  years  (5-13).  The  tumours  of  appendicular  skeleton,  osteosarcoma,  were  recorded  in  the  dogs  aged  7.33±2.78  years  (2-11).  Splenoma  was  seen  in  an  8  year  old  animal,  whereas  the  age  of  the  animal  suffering  from  hepatocellular  carcinoma  was  10  years.  TVT  were  recorded  in  the  animals  aged  3.37±1.2  years  (1-12).  The  finding  were  in  agreement  with  Das  and  Parhi  (2003)  who  observed  that  the  7-9  year  age  group  had  the  highest  incidence  of  tumours,  particularly  at  8  years  of  age.  As the age increased, the incidence declined sharply.  Kujur  et  al. (2009)  reported  highest  incidence  of  skin  tumours  in  dogs  aged  5-10  years  and  Reddy  et  al. (2009)  observed  that  the  age  group  at  which  mammary  tumours  occurred  most  frequently  was  8-10  years  followed  by  6-8 years.

Highest  incidence  of  tumours  was  observed  in  Labrador  breed  (34%, 17 cases)  followed  by  non-descript  (ND)  dogs  (30%, 15 cases),  Spitz  (14%, 7 cases),  German  shepherd  (10%, 5 cases),  Neapolitan Mastiff  (4%, 2 cases),  Rottweiler,  Dalmitian,  Cocker  Spaniel and  Pointer  (2% each, 1 case each) (Table 5).

Table 5: Breed wise incidence of canine tumours

Breeds n= no. of cases Incidence
Labrador 17 34%
non-descript  (ND) 15 30%,
Spitz 7 14%
German  shepherd 5 10%,
Neapolitan Mastiff 2 4%
Rottweiler 1 2%
Dalmitian 1 2%
Cocker  Spaniel 1 2%
Pointer 1 2%

Vachhani  et  al.(2004)  reported  that  the  prevalence  of  tumours  was  more  in  Pomeranian  breed  (24%)  followed  by  German  Shepherd  (21.6%),  Doberman  (10.4%)  and  Labrador  (7.2%).  Similarly,  Kashyap  et  al.(2013)  also  recorded  highest  tumour  cases  in  Spitz  and  Pomeranian  breeds  (60%)  followed  by  German  Shepherd  (20%),  Mongrel (8%),  Doberman,  Boxer and Lhasa Apso  (4% each).  However,  Malicka  et  al. (1996)  reported  that  prevalence  of  neoplasms  in  mixed  breed  dogs  was  highest  (27.2%)  followed  by  German  Shepherd  (12.7%),  Poodles  (10%),  Boxers  (7.2%),  Dachshunds  (6.4%)  and  Cocker  Spaniel  (4.7%).  Srivastava  et  al.(2009)  also  reported  highest  incidence  of  canine  neoplasms  in  ND  dogs  (24.57%)  followed  by  breeds  such  as  Spitz,  German  Shepherd,  Labrador,  Doberman,  Boxer  and  Great  Dane.

The  variation  in  the  incidence  of  neoplasms  in  various  breeds  of  dogs  reported  by  different  authors  might  be  due  to  the  fact  that  particular  breeds  might  have  been  more  popular  than  the  other  breeds  in  the  areas  under  study  and  the  number  of  cases  recorded  in  a  breed  might  correspond  to  its  population  in  the  area. The  incidence  of  tumours  in  males  (48%)  and  females  (52%)  in  the  present  study  in  accordance  with  the  observations  of  Rungsipipat  et  al.(2003)  and  Sostaric- Zuckermann  et  al.(2013)  who  did  not  observe  any  marked  difference  between  sex  related  incidence  of  tumours.  Rao  and  Rao  (2009)  study  reported  tumour  in  canine  males  (56.09%)  and  females  (43.91%).  Das  and  Parhi  (2003),  Majie  and  Majie  (2013)  and  Khimta  et  al.(2010)  observed  that  canine  neoplasm  were  more  in  females  than  in  males.

Conclusion

In this study the overall prevalence of canine tumours is 2%. Prevalence of tumours is higher in females (52%), intact animals of both sexes, and age group of 6-10 years. Highest prevalence of tumours was observed in Labrador breed followed by non descript dogs, Spitz, German Shepherd, Neapolitan Mastiff, Rottweiler, Dalmation, Cocker Spaniel, and Pointer. Mammary tumours has highest prevalence followed by skin tumours, transmissible venereal tumours, tumours of female reproductive tract, tumours of male reproductive tract, tumours of oral cavity, tumours of appendicular skeleton and tumours of visceral organs.

Acknowledgement

Authors are thankful to the DRI, Veterinary Surgery Department, SKUAST-J, for providing necessary facilities to carry out this work

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