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Estrus Induction and Fertility Response in Postpartum Anoestrus Marathwadi Buffaloes using Hormonal Protocol Along with Vitamin E and Selenium

A. S. Mujawar W. A. A. Razzaque S. S. Ramteke A. D. Patil S. S. Ali A. U. Bhikane M. A. Khan I. R. Mogal
Vol 9(3), 289-296
DOI- http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20181113073117

The present study was carried out to study the effectiveness of hormonal protocol along with vitamin E and selenium on estrus induction and fertility response in postpartum anoestrus Marathwadi buffaloes. A total of 16 postpartum anoestrus buffaloes were divided into two equal groups. Group I buffaloes treated with CIDR protocol along with injection of vitamin E and selenium at the dose rate of 1ml/50kg BWT, on day 0 and day 7, respectively. Group II buffaloes treated with Ovsynch protocol and were administered two subcutaneous injections of vitamin E and selenium at the dose rate of 1ml/50kg BWT, on day 0 and day 9, respectively. Estrus induction response was 100% in all treated animals. Time required for onset of estrus in Group I and II was 78.16±6.10 hrs and 66.62±5.23 hrs, respectively. Duration of estrus was 21.25±2.37 hrs and 20.16±4.22 hrs in Group I and II, respectively. The intensity of estrus was intense in 37.50% and 12.50%, intermediate in 50.00% and 75.00% and weak in 12.50% and 12.50% buffaloes in Group I and II, respectively. Most of the animals were having clean and thick cervico-vaginal mucus. The overall pregnancy rate was 87.50% and 75.00% in Group I and II, respectively.


Keywords : CIDR Ovsynch Postpartum Anoestrus Buffaloes Selenium Vitamin E

                          

The buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) has a significant role in the agricultural economy of many developing countries by providing milk, meat and draught power (Warriach et al., 2015).  Reproductive efficiency is the primary factor affecting productivity and is hampered in female buffalo by factors like late maturity, poor estrus symptoms, long intercalving intervals and reduced ovarian activity during hot season (Singh et al., 2000).

Anoestrus is one of the most commonly occurring reproductive problems in buffalo affecting livestock productivity and economics to a great extent. The incidence of anoestrus is higher in adult aged buffalo than the heifers. In India, the incidence of anoestrus in buffaloes has been reported between 20.84- 60.83 per cent (Kumar, 2014). The onset of cyclicity of estrus cycle and initiation of ovulation during the post-calving period in parturient buffaloes constitutes a major problem and results into long postpartum anoestrus and delayed breeding with consequent serious economic losses in the milk production and in efficient reproduction (Bakr et al., 2015).

Control internal drug releasing device (CIDR) is now a days being used in various countries throughout the world cattle industry and buffaloes to deal with postpartum anoestrus (Macmillan and Peterson, 1993; Bakr et al., 2015). It has been effectively used to treat anoestrus and/or synchronize estrus in buffaloes. It is achieved  by slow  delivery  of  progesterone  into  the  blood  circulation  of  the  animal (Rathbone et al.,  2002). Insertion of CIDR concurrent with administration of PGF2α is sufficient to   facilitate   estradiol-induced   follicular   wave   emergence   in   cattle. Although   the   initial progesterone release by CIDR insert might be sufficient to induce dominant follicle regression in  cattle  and  ensure  the  presence  of  a  growing  dominant  follicle  following  CIDR  removal (Colazo et al., 2004). Pursley et al., (1995) introduced a novel protocol, ‘Ovsynch’(G-P-G) to synchronize ovulations in lactating dairy cows using GnRH and PGF2α. The precise synchrony allows for successful fixed time artificial insemination without the need for detection of estrus and has been applied widely in cattle breeding (Neglia et al., 2003). Administration of antioxidants delays, prevents or removes oxidative damage to a target molecule. The preventive body antioxidative defense systems can be accomplished by non-enzymatic mechanisms like vitamin E (α- tocopherol) and selenium (Sharma et al., 2011). Vitamin  E  is  a  potent  chain  breaking antioxidant which inhibits propagation of peroxidation reactions by scavenging oxygen radicals and  terminating  free  radical  chain  reaction  (Rock  et  al.,  1996).

Selenium, a component of enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), in combination with vitamin E serves as a biological antioxidant to maintain cellular integrity. The action of vitamin E and selenium appears to be synergistic (Papas et al., 1990). Hence, the present study was designed to study the efficacy of CIDR device and effect of vitamin-E and selenium on estrus induction and fertility in post-partum anestrus buffaloes.

 

Materials and Methods

The present study was conducted in the Department of Animal Reproduction, Gynaecology and obstetrics, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Udgir. A total of 16 healthy non-cyclic Marathwadi buffaloes with the history of not exhibiting estrus within 90 days postpartum and aged between 4.5-8 years were selected from TVCC, Instructional Livestock Farm Complex, Cattle Breeding Farm and Buffalo unit of COVAS, Udgir and adjoining villages. Buffaloes were examined gynaeco-clinically to rule out anestrus due to persistent corpus luteum and ovaries with smooth surface on per-rectal examinations 10 days apart.  The selected animals were assigned to two groups where in Group I, eight animals were administered vit.E and Se inj. 1mg/50kg body weight subcutaneously and CIDR implant on day 0, followed by i/m injection of PGF2α (Pragma) 500µg on day 6, followed by removal of CIDR plus inj. vit. E and Se @ 1 mg/50kg body weight subcutaneously on 7th day. Animals were observed for estrus signs. In Group II, eight animals subjected to treatment with Ovsynch protocol plus inj. vit. E and Se. Animals were administered vit.E and Se inj. 1mg/50kg body weight subcutaneously and 10 μg GnRH analogue (Buserelin acetate, 5ml, (i.m.) on day 0, followed by i/m injection of PGF2α (Pragma) 500μg on day 7, followed by i/m injection of 10 μg GnRH analogue (Buserelin acetate, 5ml) plus inj. vit.E and Se@ 1 mg/50kg body weight subcutaneously on 9th day. Animals were observed for estrus sign.

Statistical Analysis

The data generated on onset of estrus, duration of estrus were subjected to student’s “t” test.

Results and Discussion

Estrus induction response, time required for onset of estrus, duration of estrus, intensity of estrus and overall pregnancy rates are presented in Table 1.

Table 1: Estrus induction response, time required for onset of estrus, duration of estrus, intensity of estrus and overall pregnancy rates in postpartum anoestrus buffaloes treated with hormonal protocol plus vitamin E and selenium.

Group No. of animals treated Estrus induction response Time required for onset of estrus (h) Duration of estrus (h) Intensity of estrus
Intense Intermediate      Weak
Group I (CIDR+ Vit. E and Se) 8 100% 78.16±6.10 21.25±2.37 3 (37.50%) 4 (50.00%) 1 (12.50%)
Group II (Ovsynch+ Vit. E and Se) 8 100% 66.62±5.23 20.16±4.22 1 (12.50%) 6 (75.00%) 1 (12.50%)

 

The efficacy of treatment in terms of estrus induction response was 100% in buffaloes treated with CIDR protocol plus vitamin E and Selenium. These findings for estrus induction rate are in agreement with earlier reports of Anita et al. (2004) and Resum et al. (2017) who reported 100% estrus response in postpartum anoestrus buffaloes treated with CIDR plus vitamin E and selenium. In Group II buffaloes treated with Ovsynch protocol plus vitamin E and selenium, all 8 (100%) buffaloes responded to the treatment. These findings are in agreement with Bakr et al. (2015), Kumar et al. (2015), Biradar et al. (2016), Vikash et al. (2016) and Kaliannan et al. (2018) who reported 100% estrus response in postpartum anoestrus buffaloes treated with Ovsynch protocol. Mean time required for onset of estrus in Group I and Group II was 78.16±6.10 hrs and 66.62±5.23 hrs, respectively. There was significant difference (P<0.05) in time required for onset of estrus between the two treatment groups. The findings for onset of estrus in the treatment groups were in close proximity with Jindal et al. (1988), Caesar et al. (2011), Visha et al. (2014), Alyas et al. (2015), Resum et al. (2017) and Wani et al. (2018) who reported the time required for onset of estrus to be between 56.00±3.82 to 75.00±3.5 hrs, respectively in buffaloes. Behavioural and gynaeco-clinical symptoms of estrus were observed. The characteristic symptoms of estrus were bellowing, frequent micturition, tummification of vulva lips and vaginal discharge. Homosexual behavior and excitement was seen in few animals only.

Intensity of estrus in Group I buffaloes treated with CIDR plus vitamin E and Se protocol was intense in 3 (37.50%), intermediate in 4 (50.00%) and weak in 1 (12.50%) buffaloes. These results are in close proximity with those reported by Chaudhary (1992),  Alyas et al. (2015) and Wani et al. (2018) In Group II buffaloes treated with Ovsynch plus vitamin E and Se protocol, intensity of estrus was intense in 1 (12.50%), intermediate in 6 (75.00%) and weak in 1 (12.50%) buffaloes. These findings are in close proximity with those reported by Alyas et al. (2015), Kumar et al (2015), Ahmed et al. (2016) and Kaliannan et al. (2018). Mean duration of estrus in Group I and II was 21.25±2.37 h and 20.16±4.22h, respectively. There was no significant difference in duration of estrus between two treatment groups. These findings in Group I are in close proximity with Resum et al. (2017) who reported mean duration of estrus was 20.75±1.30 h in buffaloes treated with CIDR protocol plus vit. E and Se.  On the contrary, longer duration of oestrus were reported by Razzaque et al. (2009), Perera (2011) and Velladurai et al. (2014). This variation may be due to the difference in age, breed, parity and geographical location. Razzaque et al. (2009) reported these findings may be due to the super ovulatory treatment given to the cows which lead to longer duration of estrus.

Fern pattern in Group I was typical in 5 (71.42%) animals and atypical in 2 (28.57%) animal. In Group II typical fern pattern was observed in 4 (66.66%) animals and atypical in 2 (33.33%) animal. The percent typical and atypical fern pattern recorded in this study is in agreement with the observation of Layek et al.  (2013), Verma et al. (2014), Alyas et al. (2015) and Wani et al. (2018) who reported typical fern pattern between 50.00% to 66.67% and atypical fern pattern between 16.67% to 37.24% in buffaloes.

Table 2:   Pregnancy rate in various treatment groups

S. No. Treatment Groups No. of animals responded First service pregnancy rate Second service pregnancy rates Over all pregnancy rate
1 Group I (CIDR+ Vit. E and Se) 8 3/8 (37.50%) 4/8 (50.00%) 7/8 (87.50%)
2 Group II (Ovsynch+ Vit. E and Se) 8 2/8 (25.00%) 4/8 (50.00%) 6/8 (75.00%)

In Group I, out of 8 buffaloes 37.50% conceived at first service and 50.00% conceived at second estrus. In Group II, out of 8 buffaloes 25.00% conceived at first service and 50.00% conceived at second estrus. The overall pregnancy rate was 87.50% and 75.00% in Group I and II, respectively. Lower levels of anti-oxidant vitamins are associated with poor fertility and production levels in ruminants (Nayyar and Jindal, 2010). These findings for Group I treated with CIDR protocol plus vit. E and Se are in agreement with El-Shahat and Badr (2011), Nougiera et al. (2011), Bakr et al.  (2015) and Resum et al.  (2017) who reported 85.70%, 93.30%, 85.74%, and 85.33% overall pregnancy rate in CIDR treated animals, respectively. On the contrary, lower pregnancy rates have been reported by Alyas et al. (2015), Ghallab et al. (2016) and Wani et al. (2018) in buffaloes. These variations may be due to the difference in treatment protocol, age, breed, parity, body condition, management, feeding and geographical location.

The findings for Group II treated with Ovsynch protocol plus vit. E and Se are in agreement with Çevik et al. (2010) and Vikash et al. (2016) who reported 76.92% and 68.02±8.59% overall pregnancy rate in Ovsynch treated buffaloes, respectively. On the contrary, lower pregnancy rates have been reported by Gupta et al.  (2015), Kumar et al.  (2015), Warriach et al. (2015), Biradar et al. (2016), Karuppanasamy et al. (2017), Rathore et al. (2017) and Kaliannan et al. (2018) in buffaloes. These variations may be due to the difference in treatment protocol, age, breed, parity, body condition, management, feeding and geographical location. Supplementation of vitamin E and selenium which acts as an antioxidant resulted into higher conception rate, decrease in service per conception (Khan et al., 2014)). The association of vitamin E to the estrus synchronization protocol with the use of progesterone is beneficial for the obtainment of good reproductive results (Zanella et al., 2010).

Conclusion

Postpartum anestrus buffaloes treated with CIDR based protocol along with vitamin E and Selinium exhibit intense heat symptoms and better pregnancy rate as compared to ovsynch protocol. Estrus synchronization protocol with the use of progesterone along with vitamin E and Selenium is beneficial for the obtaining optimum reproductive results.

Acknowledgement

We are thankful to the Associate Dean of college of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Udgir for providing funds and all the facilities which are necessary to complete this research work.

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