Four she camels at their second parity were used to study changes in the blood serum profile for eight days postpartum. The study was carried out at Tamboul Camel Research Centre (TCRC). Duplicate samples of blood from each of the experimental animals were collected at 8, 24, 48, 56, 72, 96, 104, 120, 144, 152, 168 and 192 hours postpartum. Traits studied were total protein g/dl (TP), albumen g/dl (Al), globulin g/dl (GL), cholesterol (mg/dl) (CH), and calcium mg/dl (CA) and phosphorus mg/dl (PH). During the eight days postpartum the overall means of TP, Al, GL, CH, CA and PH were 6.95±0.13, 3.53±0.04, 3.42±0.13, 28.41±1.71, 10.14±0.16 and 3.55±0.11, respectively. Results revealed that generally TP, AL and GL blood concentration increased significantly from 6.66, 4.40 and 3.26 for the three traits at 8h postpartum, reached the maximum value of 7.81, 3.78 and 4.10 at72 h, then they decreased significantly as time passed post- partum. As for CH its concentration was not significantly affected by time. For CA and PH their concentration fluctuate from time to the other post partum. It was concluded that.
Sudan is well-known as one of the largest countries in the world populated by camel (Camelus dromedarius). Total camel population in Sudan is estimated as 4 million heads (Ministry of Animal Resources, Sudan, 2007) i.e. Fifth of the world camel (FAO 1990). Biochemical analysis of serum can often provide valuable information regarding health and sickness of animals. Profile of blood metabolites have been widely used to assess problem and to indicate dietary causes of diseases or low production (Lee et al 2002). The blood biochemical profiles are considered important in evaluating the health status of animals (Hagawane 2009). The estimates of biochemical constituents are prerequisite to diagnose several pathophysiological and metabolic disorders in animals (Mc Dowell 1992; Chaffe 1976). Many authors investigate serum biochemical parameters of one humped camel e.g. Lakhotia et al 1964, Barakat and Abdel-Fattah 1971, Ghosal et al 1975, Ghodsian et al 1978, Al-Ani et al 1992, Rezakhani et al 1997, Osman and Al-Busadah, 2000. The estimates obtained in one type in a certain locality could not be taken as standard for other types or for the same type in different locality. Observed variations in values from different climatic zones have been documented (Beaunoyer 1992). Ayoub et al (2003) reported that serum total protein, albumen and globulin were found to be 6.43± 0.04, 2.70±0.05 and 3.74±0.04 gm/100ml in pregnant she camel versus 5.95±0.04, 2.49±0.02 and 3.51±0.06 gm/100ml in non pregnant camel for the traits respectively. El.Azab et al (1993) found significantly higher serum protein in cyclic cows than in non cyclic ones. Burle et al (1995) reported lowest serum concentration of cholesterol in an-oestrus than in cycling cows. Hagawane et al (2009) investigate the effects of physiological conditions on blood hematological profile of buffaloes. He reported that the average of total protein, calcium, phosphorus and cholesterol were 8.38±0.47 (gm/dl), 8.1±0.83 (mg/dl), 4.64±0.53 (mg/dl) and 14.07±3.62 (mg/dl). Since the camel is an adaptable species, the standard serum biochemical values need to be determined in a number of animals in variable environmental conditions. This study was designed to investigate some biochemical serum traits in Arabian camel (Arabi-Rezaigat) which is locally known as “Umgallo” type.
Materials and Methods
The present study was conducted in Tamboul Camel Research Centre (TCRC) which is located 143 KM south east of Khartoum State. The camel herd was managed under a semi-intensive system.
The herd, from which experimental animals were derived, can be described as the (Arabi-Rezaigat) locally known as “Umgallo” type characterized by features of pack camel; heavy body weight, big hairy hump, long neck and big head with sandy gray or fawn color dominant.
Four pregnant she-camels were randomly selected from the herd. They range between 6-12 years of age and at their second parity according to the information obtained from the owner. Each animal was identified by an ear tag. Individual records containing age, parity order, calving date and body weight were already taken for each animal.
Collection of Blood Samples
Duplicate blood samples each of 10 ml were collected from each animal via jugular vein, starting from 8 hrs postpartum and continued for 24, 48, 56, 72, 96, 104, 120, 144, 152, 168 and 192 hrs postpartum.
Determination of Minerals in Serum
Serum parameters were estimated spectrophotometerically using commercial specific kits manufactured in Spain. The serum were secured and directly analysed by using colorimetric method adopted for the quantitative determinations of Total protein, Albumin, Globulin, cholesterol, Calcium and Phosphorus using 550nm spectrophotometer.
The data were subjected to statistical analysis program using Statistical Package for Social Studies (SPSS V. 13), by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Duncan‘s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was used for means separations.
Results and Discussion
Total protein serum concentration in this study ranged from 5.96±0.452 to 7.81±0.452g/dl. Estimate for the trait at 72h post-partum recorded the highest concentration being significantly different (P<0.05) from concentrations at other collections. On the other hand TP at 192 h was also significantly different (P<0.05) but being the lowest estimate recorded for the trait. The overall mean of TP in this study was 6.96±0.130 g/dl which is in accordance to Ayoub et al (2003).
Serum Al and GL in this study were from 3.19±0.144 to 3.78±0.144 g/dl and from 2.39±0.446 to 4.10±0.446g/dl for the two traits respectively. Serum Al estimates at 72h and 168 h were significantly difference (P<0.05) from estimates recorded for other collections, the first being the highest and the second being the lowest estimate recorded. On the other hand serum GL estimates at 172 and 104h postpartum were both significantly high (P<0.05) where as estimate at 192 h postpartum was significantly (P<0.05) low. The overall means of Al and GL in this study were 3.53±0.042 and 3.42±0.129 which were slightly different from Ayoub et al (2003). Coefficients of variation revealed that a considerable amount of variation do exist among animals under study. Cholesterol concentration in this study ranged from 20.45±5.91 to 36.36±5.91 with overall mean of 28.42±1.71 mg/dl and there was no significant difference (P<0.05) between collections. This is exceedingly lower than the estimate reported by Hagawane et al (2009) in buffaloes. Calcium concentration was found to range from 9.10±0.55 to 11.50±0.55 mg/dl, the overall mean was 10.14±0.16 mg/dl. There were significant differences(P<0.05) among collections for the trait, collections at 48, 104, 144 1nd 192 h showed the lowest estimates where as collection at 24 h showed the highest estimate. These estimates are higher than those reported for buffaloes by Hagawane et al (2009). Phosphorus concentration in this experiment were found to range from 3.02±0.37 to 4.79±0.37 mg/dl, estimates were significantly (P<0.05) low for estimates at 24, 48, 56, 72, 96, 104, 152 and 192 h and significantly (P<0.05) high for estimate at 8 h. generally this is lower than Hagawane et al (2009) results for buffaloes.
|Table 1. The least square means, minimum, maximum and coefficients of variations for total protein, albumen and globulin in camel blood at different hours post-partum|
|Total Protein (g\dl)||Albumen (g\dl)||Globulin (g\dl)|
|8h||4||6.66ab ±0.452||5.74||7.58||9.41||3.40abc±0.144||3.11||3.69||6.79||3.26ab ±0.446||2.35||4.16||13.83|
|24h||4||6.64ab ±0.452||5.72||7.56||8.22||3.28ab±0.144||2.98||3.57||9.12||3.36 ab±0.446||2.46||4.27||15.22|
|48h||4||7.48ab ±0.452||6.56||8.40||6.55||3.68bc±0.144||3.38||3.97||8.54||3.80 ab±0.446||2.89||4.71||5.68|
Abbreviation key: SE=Standard Error, h.=hour, Mini.=Minimum Mean, Mix.=Maximum Mean, C.V=Coefficient of Variation.
|Table 2. The least square means, minimum, maximum and coefficients of variations for cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus in camel blood at different hours post-partum|
|Trait||Cholesterol ( mg\dl)||Calcium ( mg\dl)||Phosphorus ( mg\dl)|
|Overall||48||28.41 ± 1.71||24.94||31.88||25.54||10.14ab±0.16||9.82||10.47||12.30||3.55 ±0.90||3.33||3.77||25.42|
|8h||4||34.09 ± 5.91||22.07||46.11||38.49||10.20ab±0.55||9.08||11.32||9.34||4.79b±0.37||4.03||5.54||16.59|
|24h||4||27.27 ± 5.91||15.25||39.29||47.15||11.50b±0.55||10.38||12.62||5.94||3.35a±0.37||2.59||4.10||14.63|
|48h||4||27.27 ± 5.91||15.25||39.30||70.14||9.60 a±0.55||8.48||10.72||19.54||3.09 a±0.37||2.34||3.85||9.10|
|56h||4||34.09 ± 5.91||22.07||46.12||47.15||10.10ab±0.55||8.98||11.22||8.78||3.16a±0.37||2.41||3.92||24.60|
|72h||4||27.27 ± 5.91||15.25||39.30||54.56||10.30ab±0.55||9.18||11.42||8.01||3.40a±0.37||2.64||4.15||9.87|
|96h||4||25.00 ± 5.91||12.98||37.02||45.76||10.50ab±0.55||9.38||11.62||14.38||3.28 a±0.37||2.52||4.03||23.24|
|104||4||25.00 ± 5.91||12.98||37.02||22.22||9.20a±0.55||8.08||10.32||16.27||3.30a±0.37||2.55||4.06||19.04|
|120h||4||20.45 ± 5.91||8.43||32.48||27.22||10.90ab±0.55||9.78||12.02||10.11||4.01ab±0.37||3.26||4.77||20.37|
|144h||4||27.27 ± 5.91||15.25||39.29||54.56||9.10a±0.55||7.98||10.22||15.38||3.68ab±0.37||2.93||4.44||39.43|
|152h||4||25.00 ± 5.91||12.98||37.02||49.50||10.10ab±0.55||8.98||11.22||8.16||3.40 a±0.37||2.64||4.15||43.21|
|168h||4||31.82 ± 5.91||19.80||43.84||20.42||10.90ab±0.55||9.78||12.02||10.54||4.11ab±0.37||3.35||4.86||19.30|
|192h||4||36.36 ± 5.91||24.34||48.39||42.60||9.33 a±0.55||8.21||10.45||5.35||3.02a±0.37||2.27||3.78||26.58|
Abbreviation key: SE=Standard Error, h.=hour, Mini.=Minimum Mean, Mix.=Maximum Mean, C.V=Coefficient of Variation.
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