NAAS Score 2019

                   5.36

Declaration Format

Please download DeclarationForm and submit along with manuscript.

UserOnline

Free counters!

Previous Next

Gross Morphological and Morphometrical Studies on the First and Second Coccygeal Vertebrae of Blue Bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus)

S. Sathapathy B. S. Dhote D. Mahanta Tamilselvan S. M. Mrigesh S. K. Joshi
Vol 9(6), 191-197
DOI- http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20190310063048

The present study was carried out on the first and second coccygeal vertebrae of six specimens of adult Blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus). They presented complete arches and spinous processes. The transverse processes were found to be plate like that were directed downward, backward extending beyond the level of the posterior articular surface of the body. There were two intervertebral foramina in the cranial aspect of Cy1 in Blue bull. The left one was smaller having 0.05±0.001 cm and 0.008±0.001 cm diameter, whereas the right one was larger having 0.11±0.002 cm and 0.15±0.001 cm diameter. The ventral spine was bifid forming sulcus vasculosus for the passage of the middle coccygeal artery.


Keywords : Blue Bull Coccygeal Vertebrae Morphology Morphometry

The Blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus) is known to be one of the biggest antelopes in Asia and is widely found in both the forests and adjoining villages with enough green grass (Sathapathy et al., 2017; Rohlan et al., 2018; Sathapathy et al., 2018a; Sathapathy et al., 2018b; Sathapathy et al., 2018c and Sathapathy et al., 2018d). The Blue bull belongs to the family Bovidae (Sathapathy et al., 2018e; Sathapathy et al., 2018f and Sathapathy et al., 2018g). It is quite prevalent in northern and central parts of India especially in the foothills of Himalayas, eastern part of Pakistan and southern part of Nepal, but has vanished from Bangladesh (Sathapathy et al., 2019). The adult male appears like ox and so called as Blue bull. The Blue bull is protected in various parts of India such as Gir National Park (Gujarat), Kumbhalgarh Santuary (Rajasthan) and Panchamarahi Biosphere Reserve, India. The coccygeal vertebrae form the skeleton of the tail and play very important role in locomotion of the animals. The present osteo-morphological study was carried out to develop a baseline data on the first and second coccygeal vertebrae of adult Blue bull that would immensely help the wild life anatomists and veterinarians in species identification and solving forensic and vetero-legal cases.

Materials and Methods

Study was carried out on the first and second coccygeal vertebrae of six specimens of adult Blue bulls (Boselaphus tragocamelus). The permission for the collection of bones was obtained from the Principal Chief Conservator of Forests (PCCF), Government of Rajasthan. The bones were procured from the Jodhpur zoo, Rajasthan getting permission from the Principal Chief Conservator of Forests (PCCF), Government of Rajasthan. The skeletons were taken out from the burial ground that was located in the premises of the office of the Deputy Conservator of Forest Wildlife (WL), Jodhpur. Afterwards, the specimens were boiled in an aluminium vat for about one hour. They were taken out from the vat and air dried for 3-5 days (Choudhary et al., 2013). The gross study was conducted under the supervision of the Zoo Authority, Jodhpur, India. The different morphometrical parameters of body, arch, processes, groove and foramina of first and second coccygeal vertebrae of Blue bull were measured and subjected to routine statistical analysis as per standard technique of Snedecor and Cochran (1994) and independent samples t-Test with Systat Software Inc, USA and SPSS 16.0 version software.

Results and Discussion

The first (Cy1) and second (Cy2) coccygeal or caudal vertebrae were long and well developed in Blue bull that formed the cranial part of skeleton of its tail. They were 15 to 21 in number in Blue bull (Fig. 1). The first and second coccygeal vertebrae included complete neural rings and spinous processes. The transverse processes were large. The cranial non-articular processes were also found. These were similar to the findings of Getty et al. (1930) in ox, Raghavan (1964) in ox and Meena (2012) in chital, but contrary to the description of Miller et al. (1964) in dog, where the vertebral arch was well developed in Cy1 after which lumen became progressively smaller. The summits of the supraspinous processes were thick, tuberous and bifid (Fig. 2 and Fig. 4).

Fig.1: Ventral view of coccygeal vertebrae (Cy1- Cy15) of adult male Blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus) Fig. 2 : Dorsal view of first coccygeal vertebrae of adult male Blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus) showing- a) Transverse process, b) Bifid summit of dorsal supraspinous process, c) Dorsal supraspinous process, d) Groove, e) Laminae, f) Anterior non-articular process, g) Anterior surface of body, h) Vertebral foramen, i) Pedicle and j) Posterior surface of body

The cranial processes were present, but were non-articular. The caudal ones were absent which was in accordance with the findings of Getty et al. (1930) in horse and ox, Raghavan (1964) in ox, Smuts and Bezuidenhout (1987) in camel, Levine et al. (2007) in horse and  Meena (2012) in chital, but dissimilar with Miller et al. (1964) who reported that the posterior articular processes were asymmetrical in dog. The transverse processes were found to be plate like that were directed downward, backward extending beyond the level of the posterior articular surface of the body.

Fig. 3: Ventral view of first coccygeal vertebrae of adult male Blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus) showing-a) Ventral spines, b) Ventral foramen, c) Groove, d) Posterior surface of body, e) Transverse process, f) Anterior non-articular process and g) Sulcus vasculosus Fig. 4: Cranial view of second coccygeal vertebrae of adult male Blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus) showing- a) Bifid summit of Dorsal supraspinous process, b) Dorsal supraspinous process, c) Transverse process, d) Laminae, e) Vertebral foramen, f) Anterior non-articular process, g) Anterior surface of body and h) Ventral spines

 

Fig. 5: Ventral view of first coccygeal vertebrae of adult male Blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus) showing- a) Anterior surface of body, b) Ventral spines, c) Anterior non-articular process, d) Ventral foramen, e) Groove, f) Transverse process, g) Anterior surface of body and h) Sulcus vasculosus

The extremities of bodies were rounded anteriorly and flattened posteriorly, which corroborated the findings of Getty et al. (1930) in horse and ox, Raghavan (1964) in ox, Smuts and Bezuidenhout (1987) in camel and Konig and Liebich (2005) in horse. The ventral surfaces of the bodies of coccygeal vertebrae were concave in Blue bull. The ventral spine was bifid forming a groove known as sulcus vasculosus for the passage of the middle coccygeal artery (Fig. 3 and Fig. 5).

Biometrical Observation

The biometrical observations were represented in Table 1 and Table 2.

Table 1: Measurements of first coccygeal vertebra of Blue bull in cm

Parameters Range Mean±SE
Body Length 4.3-4.9 4.68±0.09
Width at the middle 1.38-1.71 1.55±0.05
Dorsal spine Length 0.82-1.39 1.11±0.06
Height Cranial 0.32-0.52 0.43±0.02
Middle 0.43-0.91 0.64±0.04
Caudal 0.49-0.69 0.59±0.02
Transverse process Length 1.48-1.92 1.71±0.04
 Width 0.65-0.90 0.79±0.03
Cranial non-articular process Length 0.99-1.48 1.23±0.06
Width 0.24-0.53 0.40±0.03
Ventral spine Length 1.50-1.78 1.64±0.02
Height Cranial 0.48-0.81 0.65±0.03
Middle 0.83-1.18 1.02±0.03
Caudal 0.59-0.91 0.73±0.03
Sulcus vasculosus Length 1.66-1.91 1.79±0.04
Width 0.39-0.55 0.48±0.02
Diameter of vertebral canal Cranial 0.32-0.39 0.36±0.01
Caudal 0.08-0.18 0.13±0.01
Length of vertebral canal 2.24-2.51 2.38±0.04

Values bearing superscript (*) differ significantly in column P< 0.05

Table 2: Measurements of second coccygeal vertebra of Blue bull in cm

Parameters Range Mean±SE
Body Length 3.9-4.3 4.13±0.07
Width at the middle 1.37-1.63 1.51±0.04
Dorsal spine Length 0.74-1.05 0.91±0.03
Height Cranial 0.22-0.39 0.29±0.02
Middle 0.43-0.75 0.58±0.03
Caudal 0.43-0.71 0.57±0.02
Transverse process Length 0.9-1.3 1.17±0.04
Width 0.94-1.11 1.03±0.01
Cranial non-articular process Length 0.9-1.9 1.35±0.09
Width 0.30-0.51 0.41±0.02
Ventral spine Length 1.55-1.99 1.77±0.05
Height Cranial 0.38-0.50 0.45±0.01
Middle 0.51-0.67 0.60±0.01
Caudal 0.40-0.51 0.44±0.01
Sulcus vasculosus Length 1.97-2.10 2.02±0.02
Width 0.11-0.24 0.18±0.02
Diameter of vertebral canal Cranial 0.21-0.29 0.25±0.01
Caudal 0.08-0.15 0.13±0.01
Length of vertebral canal 1.98-2.20 2.09±0.03

Values bearing superscript (*) differ significantly in column P< 0.05

Conclusion

The first and second coccygeal vertebrae of Blue bull consisted of a well-developed body, plate like backwardly and downwardly directed transverse process, cranial non-articular process, bifid dorsal spine and bifid ventral spine forming sulcus vasculosus in Blue bull. Further, various morphometrical parameters of the first and second coccygeal vertebrae like average length and width of body, average length, height and thickness of dorsal spine, average length and width of transverse process, cranial non-articular process and sulcus vasculosus, average length and height of ventral spine, average length of vertebral canal, average cranial and caudal diameters of vertebral canal were of importance for identification of this animal.

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the Dean, CVASc, GBPUA&T, Pantngar, Uttarakhand and Ministry of Environment of Forests (MoEF), New Delhi and Jodhpur Zoo, Rajasthan, India for providing facilities and support for carrying out research on the bones of Blue bull. Funding was provided by Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi and Indian Council of Agricultural research, New Delhi, India as Ph.D. grant (DST-INSPIRE Fellowship and ICAR-SRF (PGS) to the first author.

 

 

References

  1. Choudhary, O. P., Mathur, R., Joshi, S., Beniwal, G. and Dangi, A. (2013). Gross and Biometrical studies on carpals of chital (Axis axis). Veterinary Practitioner. 14(1):36-39.
  2. Getty, R., Sisson, S. and Grossman, J.D. (1930). The Anatomy of the Domestic Animals. W.B. Saunders Comp., Philadelphia. 2nd (Vol. 1), pp 25-130.
  3. Konig, H.E. and Liebich, H.G. (2005). Veterinary Anatomy of Domestic Animals, 3rd Edn, Schattauer, Stuttgart, Germany. pp 49-236.
  4. Levine, J.M., Levine, G.J., Hoffman, A.G., Mez, J. and Bratton, G.R. (2007). Comparative Anatomy of the Horse, Ox and Dog: The Vertebral Column and Peripheral Nerves. CE article-1, pp 279-281.
  5. Meena, V. K. (2012). Gross studies on the bones of vertebral column in chital (Axis axis). Masters’ thesis submitted to the Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bikaner.
  6. Miller, M.E., Christensen, G.C. and Evans, H.E. (1964). Anatomy of the Dog. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, USA, pp 51- 61.
  7. Raghavan, D. (1964). Anatomy of Ox. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, pp 17-38.
  8. Rajani, C.V. and Chungath, J.J. (2012). Studies on the Lumbar, Sacral and Coccygeal Vertebrae of Indian Muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak). Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy. 24 (2): 78-79.
  9. Rohlan, K., Mathur, R., Dangi, A., Shringi, N., Ganguly, S. and Kumar, V. (2018). Morphometrical studies on humerus of Blue Bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus). International Journal of Livestock Research. 8(06): 177-184.
  10. Sathapathy, S., Dhote, B.S., Singh, I., Mahanta, D. and Tamil selvan, S. (2017). Gross and morphometrical studies on the sacrum of blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus). Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 5(6): 1591-1597.
  11. Sathapathy, S., B.S. Dhote, M. Mrigesh, D. Mahanta and Tamil Selvan, S. (2018a). Gross and Morphometrical Studies on the Sternum of Blue Bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus). J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 7(01): 136-145.
  12. Sathapathy, S., Dhote, B.S., Singh, I., Mahanta, D. and Mrigesh, M. and Joshi, S. K. (2018b). Gross Anatomical and Sex wise Biometrical Studies on the Atlas and Axis of Blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus). Journal of Animal Research. 8(1): 137-147.
  13. Sathapathy, S., Dhote, B.S., Singh, I., Mahanta, D., Tamil selvan, S. and Mrigesh, M. (2018c). Gross morphometrical study on the atypical (6th and 7th) cervical vertebrae of Blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus) with special reference to sexual dimorphism. International Journal of Livestock Research. 8(9): 192-201.
  14. Sathapathy, S., Dhote, B.S., Mahanta, D., Tamilselvan S., Singh, I., Mrigesh, M. and Joshi, S.K. (2018d). Gross morphological and sex wise morphometrical studies on the first, second and third thoracic vertebrae of blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus). Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 6(6): 1-6.
  15. Sathapathy, S., Dhote, B.S., Mahanta, D., Tamilselvan, S., Singh, I., Mrigesh, M. and Joshi, S.K. (2018e). Gross morphological and sex wise morphometrical studies on the eighth, ninth and tenth pairs of ribs of Blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus). Multilogic in Science. VIII (XXVIII): 207-212.
  16. Sathapathy, S., Dhote, B.S., Mahanta, D., Tamilselvan, S., Singh, I., Mrigesh, M. and Joshi, S.K. (2018f). Gross Morphological and Biometrical Sexual Dimorphic Studies on the First, Second and Third Pairs of Ribs of Blue Bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus). Journal of Animal Research. 8(6): 1041-1046.
  17. Sathapathy, S., Dhote, B.S., Mahanta, D., Tamilselvan, S., Singh, I., Mrigesh, M. and Joshi, S.K. (2018g). Gross Morphological and Sex wise Morphometrical Studies on the Third to Fifteenth Coccygeal Vertebrae of Blue Bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus). J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 7(11): 411-428.
  18. Sathapathy, S., Dhote, B.S., Mahanta, D., Tamil selvan, S. and Mrigesh, M. and Joshi, S.K. (2019). Gross morphological and Sex wise morphometrical studies on the fourth, fifth and sixth thoracic vertebrae of Blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus). International Journal of Livestock Research. 9(3): 207-218.
  19. Smuts, M.S. and Bezuidenhout, A.J. (1987). Anatomy of Dromedary, Oxford Science Publications, pp 9-20.
  20. Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1994). Statistical Methods. 8th Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA.
Abstract Read : 45 Downloads : 21
Previous Next

Recommend IJLR to include in UGC-CARE list

Please recommend IJLR to include in UGC-CARE list

Download Completed format here

IJLR_UGC CARE Recommendation

And

Recommendations of new journals should be routed by universities and colleges as follows:

  1. Universities: IQAC cell to respective regional CARE University
  2. Affiliated colleges: College IQAC cell to parent university’s IQAC cell. Parent university IQAC cell will forward to respective regional CARE University.

You can find Zonal UGC-CARE address here https://ugccare.unipune.ac.in/site/website/ugc-contact.aspx

Close