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Gross Morphological Studies on the Digestive System of Guinea Fowl (Numida meleagris)

Devendra Saran Balwant Meshram Hemant Joshi Gajendra Singh Shashi Kumar
Vol 9(2), 266-273
DOI- http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20180907051353

The gross anatomy of digestive system was performed in Guinea Fowl (Numida meleagris) birds. The digestive system was started at the beak which were observed ending at cloaca or vent. Beak (rostrum), tongue (lingua), salivary glands (glandulae ois), pharynx, esophagus, proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine, large intestine, colorectum and cloaca were observed as the sequential structural components of digestive system. The cervical and thoracic oesophagus, combinedly has recorded 12.81% of total length of digestive system whereas proventriculus with gizzard, the combine has shown 2.40% of length to that of complete tubular digestive system. The total length of tubular component of digestive system has approximate 80% share to the intestines wherein the small intestine has contributed approximate 87% while 13% was the share of the large intestine. The right caecae was observed 6.38% larger than the left.


Keywords : Gross Morphology Morphometry Digestive System Guinea Fowl (Numida meleagris)

Digestive system of multi-cellular organism converts their ingested food material into nutrients that require for their maintenance, growth and production. In birds, the process of digestion takes place by mechanical and chemical action on their ingested food material. The metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins into the body is closely associated with digestive system. Digestive system is involved into intake of food, breakdown of consumed food material, convert them into nutrients and finally the absorption of nutrients into blood stream. Production of waste from that digested food material and thereby the elimination of it, is also one of the functional aspect of digestive system. In birds, this body system resembling with long tube which seems to be the combo of different organ components that start from beak and ends at vent or cloaca in abdominal region. Bird’s gastric apparatus component i.e. stomach is formed by two elements viz. proventriculus and ventriculus or gizzard. The stomach structure of birds presents assortments that depend on the dietary affinities of each species (Turk, 1982; Ogunkoya and Cook, 2009). Gastrointestinal tract and its adaptation facilitate the birds in maintaining light weighted body which need for flying friendly and producing survival sustainability. A huge of information exists on the life structure of digestive system of numerous other feathered birds (McLelland, 1975, 1979a; Ziswiler & Farner, 1972; Nickel et al., 1977 but, exceptionally little has been distributed around digestive system of Guinea fowl.

Materials and Methods

In the city of Udaipur one local poultry farm was identified which was in the business of Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) bird supply for meat shops located in and around the city limit. The complete digestive system of 12 numbers of guinea fowl birds without discriminating the sex has been collected after their slaughter at meat shops and carried the same on ice to the laboratory for further routine desired process of investigation. The gross structural details of complete digestive system have been investigated in the collected 12 Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) samples in respect to its location, course, relation, shape, size and biometrical findings by using digital Vernier calipers and digital weighing balance.

Results

The gross anatomy of digestive system of Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) was studied. The digestive system was started from the beak and ended at cloaca or vent (Fig. 1). Sequentially it was exhibited with beak (rostrum), tongue (lingua), salivary glands (glandulae ois), pharynx, esophagus, proventriculus or glandular stomach, gizzard or non-glandular, small intestine, large intestine, colorectum and cloaca were the sequential structural components of the digestive system.

The esophagus was connected cranially to the pharynx while caudally it was connected at the proventriculus. Esophagus, a thin walled distensible tube used to transport feeding material from the pharynx to the stomach. The esophagus was divided into two sections depending upon the portion located in particular region, viz. cervical esophagus and thoracic esophagus. The esophagus was noticed at right side of neck. Spindle shaped diverticulum, the crop was observed as the cervical component of esophagus. The length of esophagus and its weight with ingesta were recorded as 15.451±0.56 cm and 49.810±3.051gms respectively.

Examination of stomach was revealed two distinct parts viz. proventriculus and ventriculus. The existence of proventriculus was perceived as the fore stomach and functionally this was endorsing as the glandular component. The ventriculus which was also been identified as the gizzard has shown non glandular segment as a functional support to the stomach. The luminal surface of proventriculus or glandular stomach was observed as the whitish in color with numerous papillae. The spindle shaped organ of proventriculus was short, thick walled and was lying dorsal to the liver. The proventriculus was connected cranially to the thoracic segment of esophagus and caudally to the ventriculus or gizzard. The lumen of proventriculus was narrow in comparison of the esophagus. The average length and width were observed as 22.448± 0.475 and 14.162±0.478 mm respectively. The weight of proventriculi with grain and without grain were also weighed which were 19.294±1.130 and 11.701±0.890 gm respectively.

 

 

The ventriculus or gizzard was spheroid in shape. It was lying in the left dorsal and ventral invented common thoraco-abdiminal cavity, as there was no demarcation as such thorax and abdomen. It was connected cranially to proventriculus or glandular stomach and caudally to the duodenum (Fig. 2). It was observed with prominent musculature portion in comparison to the proventriculus or glandular stomach. The ventriculus was lined by the mucosal protective layer of koilin, which secrete HCL and pepsinogen. The maximum as well as minimum length and thickness of gizzard was measured which was recorded as 45.344± 1.155 mm, 36.814±0.481 mm and 24.452± 0.405 mm respectively. Its weight was also calculated with and without grain, which was 154.823± 6.016 gm and 109.942±3.211 gm respectively.

The small intestine and large intestine was observed as the two divisions in the name of intestine. The small intestine, a long and coiled mass was forming a series of loop. Cranially the small intestine was connected to pyloric portion of gizzard and caudally to at the junction of caeca and colorectum. The small intestine has three elements viz. duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Lengthwise the small intestine was larger than the large intestine. The length and weight with grain of small intestine was observed on the tune of 86.295±2.548 cm and 153.091±4.628 gm respectively. The large intestine was observed with two blind sac of caecae and a segment of colorectum. Colorectum was the terminal end of alimentary canal. It was a short and straight tube extending from the distal part of the ileum and open distally into cloaca. The length and weight of large intestine was observed as 10.889± 0.581cm and 64.445±4.024 gm respectively. The biometrical observations are shown in Table 1.

 

Table 1: Different micrometrical observations with respect to digestive system

S. No. Parameter Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Sample 5 Sample 6 Sample 7 Sample 8 Sample 9 Sample 10 Sample 11 Sample 12 Average mean Standard Deviation Standard Error
1 Age (in days) 215 225 226 235 235 238 216 224 227 236 237 238 229.33 8.337575 2.4068505
2 Total weight of bird (Kg) 1.109 1.187 0.939 1.19 1.195 1.263 1.085 1.191 0.963 1.187 1.189 1.209 1.142 0.100223 0.0289318
3 Total length (Esophagus to cloaca) 115.57 cm 127.7 cm 106.93 cm 125.5 cm 126.8 cm 120.34 cm 123.18 cm 120.93 cm 119.16 cm 118.13 cm 127.19 cm 115.13 cm 120.546 cm 6.130046 1.7695918
4 Total weight (Esophagus to cloaca) 303.17 gm 323.71 gm 325.43 gm 474.07 gm 508.52 gm 410.03 gm 440.63 gm 414.12 gm 403.45 gm 398.99 gm 510.12 gm 302.12 gm 401.196 gm 74.87764 21.615313
5 Esophagus length 17.78 cm 19.05 cm 13.3 cm 15.01cm 17.2cm 16.35cm 14.33cm 15.71cm 13.85cm 13.15cm 17.13cm 12.56cm 15.451cm 2.07636 0.5993934
6 Esophagus weight 54.765 gm 48.58 gm 36.205 gm 51.29 gm 67.95 gm 45.39 gm 50.78 gm 47.95 gm 45.13 gm 41.46 gm 70.45 gm 37.78 gm 49.81gm 10.56884 3.0509602
7 Proventriculus weight (with  ingesta ) 22.923 gm 22.934 gm 10.09 gm 20.295 gm 16.755 gm 18.341 gm 21.93 gm 20.16 gm 19.97

gm

18.35 gm 24.33 gm 15.46 gm 19.294

gm

3.914971 1.1301548
8 Proventriculus weight (without ingesta) 13.114 gm 14.285 gm 9.853 gm 14.505 gm 3.282 gm 13.434 gm 12.19 gm 11.96 gm 11.47 gm 10.56 gm 14.65 gm 11.12 gm 11.701 gm 3.082643 0.8898825
9 Proventriculus length 21.95 mm 21.62 mm 21.53 mm 22.51 mm 25.75 mm 21.59 mm 21.45 mm 21.26 mm 21.78 mm 22.96 mm 25.85 mm 21.13 mm 22.448 mm 1.647201 0.4755058
10 Proventriculus width 15.71 mm 11.65 mm 12.05 mm 16.28 mm 14.11 mm 15.29 mm 14.71 mm 13.06 mm 13.64 mm 14.98 mm 16.33 mm 12.14mm 14.162mm 1.656201 0.4781041
11 Gizzard weight (with  ingesta ) 168.92 gm 130.23 gm 126.61 gm 162.65 gm 181.91 gm 158.34 gm 167.89 gm 131.45 gm 125.98 gm 164.85 gm 181.56gm 157.49gm 154.823gm 20.84212 6.0166022
12 Gizzard weight (without  ingesta ) 116.32 gm 98.88 gm 95.36 gm 110.98 gm 127.51 gm 107.98 gm 115.97 gm 99.3gm 97.45gm 112.13 gm 128.91gm 108.52gm 109.942gm 11.12522 3.2115752
13 Gizzard maximum length 44.16 mm 43.31 mm 45.13 mm 46.48 mm 57.33 mm 44.34 mm 44.56 mm 45.69 mm 42.89 mm 41.98 mm 42.78mm 45.48mm 45.344mm 4.002421 1.1553994
14 Gizzard minimum length 37.99 mm 34.89

mm

35.65

mm

37.96

mm

39.23

mm

35.29

mm

38.99

mm

36.12

mm

35.89

mm

35.41

mm

38.96mm 35.39mm 36.814mm 1.667532 0.481375
15 Gizzard thickness 23.11

mm

22.28

mm

23.76

mm

25.34

mm

26.86

mm

24.38

mm

22.65

mm

23.87

mm

24.96

mm

25.69

mm

26.12mm 24.41mm 24.452mm 1.406163 0.4059242
16 Small intestine weight 170.4

gm

162.23

gm

116.79

gm

158.5

gm

163.33

gm

140.32

gm

171.7

gm

142.23

gm

140.79

gm

159.56

gm

164.56

gm

146.69

gm

153.091

gm

16.03408 4.6286392
17 Small intestine length 73.66cm 82.55cm 82.05cm 95.2cm 95.7cm 93.19cm 74.16cm 79.23cm 78.56cm 95.56cm 96.12cm 89.56cm 86.295cm 8.826696 2.5480475
18 Large intestine weight 76.32gm 65.34gm 30.14gm 71.84gm 74.12gm 65.97gm 77.24gm 66.17gm 45.56gm 72.4gm 73.93gm 66.32gm 65.445gm 13.93929 4.0239253
19 Large intestine length (Colorectum) 10.92cm 8.89cm 7.829cm 13.5cm 10.7cm 12.82cm 11.01cm 9.17cm 8.25cm 13.29cm 11.19cm 13.11cm 10.889cm 2.015046 0.5816937
20 Length of caeca (Right) 16.3cm 16.03cm 16.3cm 15.8cm 15.9cm 14.18cm 15.96cm 16.56cm 16.14cm 15.98cm 15.99cm 13.94cm 15.456cm 0.820846 0.2369578
21 Length of caeca (Left) 14.9cm 13.95cm 14.87cm 14.02cm 14.2cm 13.27cm 15.01cm 14.96cm 15.64cm 14.95cm 14.85cm 13.01cm 14.469cm 0.782635 0.2259272

 

Discussion

The present observations pertaining to location and sequential components of the digestive organs of Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) were observed akin with the findings revealed by Hassan and Moussa (2012) in duck and pigeon and Nasrin et al. (2012) who were studied the postnatal grown digestive tract in broilers. The biometrical observations are shown in Table 1. The length of different tubular components of digestive system was determined from the caudal end of pharynx i.e. the cranial esophagus upto the cloacal aperture. The cervical and thoracic oesophagus, combinedly has recorded 12.81% of length and proventriculus with gizzard combinedly has shown about 2.40% of length to that of complete tubular digestive system. Small intestine has counted the maximum length of tubular digestive system which was on the tune of 71.58% out of totality however large intestine has 9.03 % excluding bilaterally placed caecae which has union at ileo-caeco-rectal junction. It meant, the total length of tubular digestive system has approximate 80% share to the intestines only, among which the small intestine was contributing approximate 87% to the small intestine and 13% to the large intestine. It was the reality that small intestine contributes for 90% of the digestion and absorption of food while the other as to stomach and large intestine contribute only for 10%. Such submission seems to be very encouraging as unearthed in the present studies, where, the small intestine occupies approximate 70% of its length wise share of the tubular digestive tract. The right and left caecae were also measured while pursuing present studies wherein the right has been observed 6.38% larger than the left.

The present findings were in partly agreement with Hussein and Rezk, 2016 who has recorded the length of proventriculus in the range of 1.1-1.5 cm in Cattle Egret (Bubulcus Ibis) but in the present studies it was counted 2.244 ± 0.47 cm, which may be attributed to the species difference of birds. But the proventricular papilla which were evident in the present studies, were in accordance with those of Hussein and Rezk (2016). The observations in present investigation do providing differences on metric parameter of length of tubular components of digestive tract with the findings mentioned by Bailey et al. (1997). They had studied the comparative morphology of alimentary tract and its glandular derivatives in captive bustards. They were observed the length of oesophagus, combined proventriculus and ventriculus, small intestine and large intestine where the sequential different components as mentioned were formed 24.2 – 28.4 %, 7.3 – 9.7 %, 40.5 – 55.1% and 9.1 – 14.7% of length to that of total alimentary tract respectively. The findings of present studies were accorded as the mean percentages which were 12.81, 2.40, 80, 13 against oesophagus, combine proventriculus and gizzard, small intestine and large intestine respectively.

Present research findings has shown the isthmus gastric, a small constricted area was noticed and identified in between the proventriculus and gizzard. It was in concurrence with that of Saffar and Samawy (2015) what they had studied Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) but it was in contradiction with Hussein and Rezk (2016) and Juboory et al. (2016) where they have not observed any such line of demarcation between proventriculus and gizzard in Cattle egret (Bubulcus Ibis) and Barn owl (Tyto alba) respectively. In particular about the ventriculus or gizzard, the present study discovered it in spheroid shape wherein the stone particles recorded their presence for helping the grinding of ingested food by its thick musculature (Fig. 3).

 

It was in similarity with Saffar and Samawy (2015) who has observed the thick and well developed muscular walled organ of ventriculus in mallard. The present studied bio-model was habitual to get supplemented pelleted feed with higher protein. Hence, the present findings as to spheroid muscular organ might be known as encouraging component against the feeding nature it.

Conclusion

In attempt to chase the mandate of present dissertation, gross anatomy of digestive system was performed in Guinea Fowl (Numida meleagris) birds. The meticulous endeavor is being concluded as under.

  1. The digestive system was started from the beak and ended at cloaca or vent.
  2. Beak (rostrum), tongue (lingua), salivary glands (glandulae ois), pharynx, esophagus, pharynx, proventriculus or glandular stomach, gizzard or non-glandular, small intestine, large intestine, colorectum and cloaca were the sequential structural components observed as digestive system.

 

References

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  2. Hassan Said A. and Moussa Eid A. (2012). Gross and microscopic studies on the stomach of domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos) and domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). Journal of Veterinary Anatomy. 5(2): 105 – 127.
  3. Hussein Shaymaa and Rezk Hamdy (2016). Macro and microscopic characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract of the cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis), International Journal of Anatomy and Research, 4(2): 2162-74.
  4. Juboory Rasha W. Al., Dauod Hussain A.M and Arajy Ali. S. Al. (2016). Comparative anatomical and histological study of the two Iraqi birds Columba palumbus and Tyto alba. Ibn Al-Haitham J. for Pure & Appl. Sci. 29(2).
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  6. McLelland J (1979a). Digestive system. In Form and Function in Birds (ed. King AS, McLelland J), pp. 69-181. London: Academic Press.
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  8. Nickel R., Schummer A. and Seiferle E. (1977) Alimentary tract of the head. In Anatomy of the Domestic Birds (translated by Siller, WG, Wright PAL), pp. 41-72. Berlin: Paul Parey.
  9. Ogunkoya, Y. O. and Cook R. D. (2009). Histomorphology of the proventriculus of three species of Australian Passerines: Lichmera indistincta, Zosterops lateralis and Poephila guttata. Anat. Histol. Embryol. 38, 246–253.
  10. Saffar- Al F.J. and Samawy Eyhab R.M (2015). Histomorphological and histochemical Studies of the Stomach of the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Asian Journal of Animal Science. 9(6): 280-292.
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