Present study reports the normal physiological values of haematological indices and biochemical profile of the adult female turkey under agro-climatic conditions of Mizoram. The observed haematological and biochemical parameters were WBC-26.72±3.33 m/mm3, RBC-2.83±0.13 m/mm3, Hct-34.88±1.14 (%), MCV-123.60 nfl/cell, Hb-14.05±0.50 g/dl, THR- 540.0±365.64 m/mm3, MPV-6.85±0.24 fl, Pct-0.36±0.24 (%), PDW-6.50±4.42, MCH-49.7±0.92 pg, MCHC-40.25±0.47 g/dl, RDW-9.3±0.39, LYM-35.75±3.89 (%), MON-10.25±1.97 (%), GRA-54.0±5.81 (%), glucose-311.75±2.63 mg/dl, total cholesterol-172.25±27.24 mg/dl, triglyceride-56.75±8.54 mg/dl, HDL-cholesterol-110.0 mg/dl, total protein-5.60±0.25 gm/dl, albumin-1.93±0.19 gm/dl, globulin-3.68±0.17 gm/dl, A:G-0.53±0.06 gm/dl, uric acid-6.70±1.96mg/dl, BUN-4.28±0.22 mg/dl, creatinine- 0.50±0.22 mg/dl, direct bilirubin-0.10±0.00 mg/dl and total bilirubin-0.15±0.05 mg/dl. Data generated may be of use for assessing the health as well as for disease diagnosis in turkey.
Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) represents almost 2% of the total poultry population (Sonawane et al., 2017) and play significant role in augmenting the economic and nutritional status of varied population across the globe (Anna Anandh et al., 2012). In recent years, turkey production is gaining momentum as a new agricultural activity for the commercial production of meat in India (Thornton et al., 2012; Hamza et al., 2015 and Marchewka et al., 2013). It is well established that the level of serum biochemical constituents vary according to sex, age and physiological and nutritional status (Osman and Al-Busadah, 2003). Changes in haematological parameters are often used to determine various status of the body and to determine stresses due to environmental, nutritional and/or pathological factors (Afolabi et al., 2010). A variety of factors can affect the haematological and biochemical parameters in animals, including the breed, gender, age, reproductive status and seasonal variations (Wells et al., 1999). The knowledge of normal values of biochemical constituents of different animals are of academic as well as practical importance for clinical and experimental interpretations. However, no or very few works has been undertaken in relation with turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) under agro-climatic conditions of hilly region. Therefore, there is a need to establish an appropriate baseline data of this breed which will help in realistic evaluation of the managemental practices, nutritional and diagnosis of health conditions. Considering this fact, the present study was undertaken to establish the normal haematological and biochemical values of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) under agro-climatic conditions of Mizoram.
Materials and Methods
The present study was conducted at the Department of Veterinary Physiology & Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Sciences & A.H., Central Agricultural University, Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram (India). Clinically healthy adult female turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) reared at Poultry Farm, A.H. & Veterinary Department, Government of Mizoram Selesih, Aizawl were selected for the study. Approximately 3 ml of blood samples were collected aseptically from wing vein using pre-sterilized polypropylene disposable syringe and transferred to heparinized non-vacuum tubes. 1ml of the collected blood was immediately used for haematological analysis using automated hematological cell counter (Model: MS4eVet, Melet Schloesing Laboratoires, France). Whereas, the remaining 2 ml was centrifuged at 2,500 rpm for 5 min in a refrigerated centrifuge machine (Hermle-Z326K) to separate out the plasma for biochemical analysis using a fully automated Dry clinical analyzer (FujiFilm 4000i). The results were then analyzed statistically using suitable statistical method as per Snedecor and Cochran (1994).
Results and Discussion
The mean values of the hematological parameters of the adult female turkey are presented in Table 1. The mean white blood cell observed was 26.72±3.33 m/mm3 of blood and the level ranges between 22.41 and 30.48 m/mm3. The observed value in the present investigation is higher than the values reported in literature. The value reported for female turkey reared in southern Nigeria is 7.76±0.22 x 103/μ (Isidahomen et al., 2013).The mean red blood cell count observed was 2.83±0.13 m/mm3 of blood and the level ranges from 2.65 to 2.95 m/mm3. The observed cell count is comparable with the value reported for adult female turkey reared under arid tropical environment in which the observed mean cell count (millions/mm3 of blood) was 2.55±0.10 during winter and 2.33±0.08 during summer (Gattani et al., 2016). However, the observed value is not comparable for cell count reported for the turkey reared in Nigeria. Isidahomen et al. (2013) reported a mean cell count of 2.18±0.05 x 106/μ while Agina et al. (2015) reported a cell count of 3.75±0.22 x 106/μl. The Hct (%) level was 34.88±1.14 and value ranges between 33.40 and 36.00. The mean corpuscular volume (fl/cell) observed was 123.60±1.64 and the values range between 122.30 and 126.00. The observed value is lower than the values reported in literature. Gattani et al. (2016) reported a mean value of 157.44±7.27 (fl) during winter and 141.76±4.48 (fl) during summer season while Isidahomen et al. (2013) reported a mean value of 155.57±1.14 (fl).
Table 1: Hematological parameters of the adult female turkey
|S. No.||Hematological Parameters||Observed Value||Range|
|1||White blood cell (WBC) (m/mm3 of blood)||26.72±3.33||22.41 – 30.48|
|2||Red blood cell (RBC) (m/mm3 of blood)||2.83±0.13||2.65 – 2.95|
|3||Haematocrit (Hct) (%)||34.88±1.14||33.40 – 36.00|
|4||Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) (fl/cell)||123.60±1.64||122.30– 126.00|
|5||Hemoglobin (g/dl)||14.05±0.50||13.50 – 14.70|
|6||Thrombocyte (THR) (m/mm3)||540.00±365.64||39.00– 898.00|
|7||Mean Platelet (MPV) (fl)||6.85±0.24||6.60 – 7.10|
|8||Platelet count (Pct) (%)||0.36±0.24||0.03 – 0.59|
|9||Platelet distribution width (PDW)||6.50±4.42||0.00 – 9.90|
|10||Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) (pg)||49.7±0.92||48.7 – 50.9|
|11||Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) (g/dl)||40.25±0.47||39.7 – 40.8|
|12||Red blood cell distribution width (RDW)||9.3±0.39||8.9 – 9.8|
|13||Lymphocyte (LYM) (%)||35.75±3.89||32 – 41.2|
|14||Monocyte (MON) (%)||10.25±1.97||9.1 – 13.2|
|15||Granulocyte (GRA) (%)||54±5.81||45.6 – 58.9|
The hemoglobin level observed was 14.05±0.5 g/dl and the value ranges from 13.50 to 14.70 g/dl. The observed hemoglobin concentration is comparable with reported value of 13.34±0.27 g/dl for female turkey reared in southern Nigeria (Isidahomen et al., 2013) but is higher than other values reported by other workers. Gattani et al. (2016) reported a mean value of 11.43±0.36 g/dl during winter and 10.09±0.22 g/dl during summer while Agina et al. (2015) reported mean hemoglobin concentration of 12.95±0.62 g/dl. The THR observed was 540±365.64 m/mm3 and ranges between 39 and 898 m/mm3. The PCT observed was 0.36±0.24 % and the level ranges between 0.03 to 0.59 %. The PDW level was 6.50±4.42 and ranges from 0 to 9.90. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin observed was 49.70±0.92 pg and the value ranges from 48.70 and 50.90 pg. The observed value is comparable with value reported in literature. The observed value for adult turkeys reared under arid tropical environment was 45.86±2.02 during winter and 43.88±1.44 during summer (Gattani et al., 2016). However, Isidahomen et al. (2013) reported a value of 61.03±2.18 which is much higher than the observed level. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration observed was 40.25±0.47 g/dl and the value ranges from 39.70 to 40.80. This observed value is within the range reported by other workers. Gattani et al. (2016) reported a mean value of 29.55±1.03 during winter and 31.16±0.89 during summer for the adult female turkey while Isidahomen et al. (2013) reported a mean value of 41.31±1.03. The RDW value observed was 9.30±0.39 and the value ranges between 8.90 and 9.80. The LYM (%), MON (%) and GRA (%) estimated were 35.75±3.89, 10.25±1.97 and 54±5.81 respectively and the level ranges between 32.00 to 41.20 for LYM, 9.10 to 13.20 for MON and 45.60 to 58.90 for GRA.
The observed biochemical parameters in the adult female turkey is given in the Table 2.
Table 2: Plasma biochemical profile of adult female turkey
|2||Total Cholesterol (mg/dl)||172.25±27.24||156.00-213.00|
|5||Total Protein (gm/dl)||5.60±0.25||5.40-5.90|
|9||Uric Acid (mg/dl)||6.70±1.96||3.80-7.80|
|12||Direct Bilirubin (mg/dl)||0.10±0.00||0.1|
|13||Total Bilirubin (mg/dl)||0.15±0.05||0.1-0.2|
The plasma glucose concentration observed was 311.75±2.63 mg/dl and the value ranges between 308.00 and 314.00 mg/dl. The observed value is higher than the values reported in literature. Gattani et al. (2016) reported glucose concentration of 219.49±8.45 mg/dl during winter and 193.53±7.34 mg/dl during summer for adult female turkeys reared under arid tropical environment. Isidahomen et al. (2013) reported a value of 207.00±5.16 mg/dl whereas Sonawane et al. (2017) reported a value of 176.57 mg/dl. The total cholesterol level observed was 172.25±27.24 mg/dl and the value ranges between 156.00 – 213.00 mg/dl. The observed level in the present investigation is almost comparable with the values reported in literature. Sonawane et al. (2017) reported a value of 170.15±2.53 mg/dl while Agina et al. (2015) reported a value of 157.83±12.81 mg/dl. The HDL-Cholesterol level observed was 56.75±8.54 mg/dl and this observed value is higher compared to the value of 33.08±0.37 mg/dl reported by Sonawane et al. (2017). The observed triglyceride level was 56.75±8.54 mg/dl and the value ranges between 44.00 and 62.00 mg/dl. This observed value is lower than value reported (79.81±2.01 mg/dl) by Sonawane et al. (2017). The observed total protein, albumin and globulin levels were 5.60±0.25 gm/dl, 1.93±0.19 gm/dl and 3.68±0.17 gm/dl respectively and the values ranges between 5.40 and 5.90 g/dl for total protein, 1.80 and 2.20 g/dl for albumin and 3.50 and 3.90 g/dl for globulin. The observed values are more or less comparable with the values reported by other workers. Isidahomen et al. (2013) reported the serum total protein, albumin and globulin levels of 5.31±0.14 g/dl, 1.52±0.03 g/dl and 4.23±0.18 g/dl respectively. Gattani et al. (2016) reported a total protein value 5.45±0.16 gm/dl during winter and 4.25±0.25 gm/dl during summer. The albumin level was 1.62±0.04 gm/dl during winter and 1.45 gm/dl during summer. The globulin level reported was 3.83±0.17 gm/dl in winter and 2.79 gm/dl in summer season (Gattani et al., 2016). However, Sonawane et al. (2017) and Agina et al. (2015) reported values different from the present finding. Sonawane et al. (2017) reported the levels of 4.17±0.58 g/dl for total protein, 4.00±0.14 g/dl for albumin and 0.70±0.08 g/dl for globulin. Agina et al. (2015) reported the levels of 4.64±0.17 g/dl for total protein, 2.54±0.12 g/dl for albumin and 2.11±0.12 g/dl for globulin. The calculated A:G ration in present investigation was 0.53±0.06. The observed A:G value is also comparable with the values reported in literature. The A:G value of the female turkey reared under arid tropical environment was 0.44±0.03 during winter and 0.59±0.04 during summer (Gattani et al., 2016). The uric acid level observed was 6.70±1.96 mg/dl and the level and the value ranges between 3.80 and 7.80 mg/dl. The BUN observed was 4.28±0.22 mg/dl and the value ranges between 4.00 and 4.50 mg/dl. Observed creatinine level was 0.50±0.22 mg/dl and the level ranges between 0.30 – 0.80 mg/dl. The direct and total bilirubin observed was 0.10±0.00 mg/dl and 0.15±0.05 mg/dl respectively.
It may be concluded that the physiological range of different haematological and biochemical indices recorded for the turkey breed domesticated in Mizoram is comparable with those reported in previous reports by other researcher.
We are thankful to the Dean, College of Veterinary Sciences & A.H., Central Agricultural University, Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram for providing all the necessary facilities to conduct this work and Dr. Saipari Sailo, Manager, Poultry Farm, A.H. & Veterinary Department, Government of Mizoram, Selesih, Aizaw for allowing us to collect the blood samples.