Haematologic analysis is not only relevant for diagnosing disorders of the haematologic system but also helpful in the diagnosis of many organ and systemic diseases. The present study was undertaken with the objectives of establishing the normal reference values of certain haematological parameters in below one year calves of Kosali breed of cattle in their native tract in central plain region of Chhattisgarh state. Determination of red blood cell or erythrocyte (total erythrocyte count, TEC; haemoglobin, Hb; packed cell volume PCV; mean corpuscular volume , MCV; mean corpuscular haemoglobin, MCH; mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration MCHC, red cell distribution width, RDW), the white ones (total leukocyts count, TLC; lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes) and platelet (platelet count, PLT; platlet distribution width, PDW; mean platelet volume, MPV; Platelet crit, PCT) were made using the Automatic Hematology Analyzer. The mean and standard error values observed in the study were TEC 6.99 ± 0.18 103/µl, Hb 10 ± 0.19g/dl, PCV 33.03 ± 0.44%, MCV 48.92 ± 1.06 fl, MCH 14.53 ± 0.26 pg, MCHC 29.99 ± 0.46 g/dl, RDW 18.44 ± 0.76%, TLC 10.24 ± 0.37 103/µl, lymphocytes 63.22 ± 1.34 %, monocytes 13.66 ± 0.39 %, granulocytes 29.42 ± 1.06 %, PLT 259.9 ± 13.05 103/µl, MPV 6.18 ± 0.11 fl, PDW 16.97 ± 0.15 % and PCT 0.17 ± 0.009 %. Haematological parameters of calves of Kosali cattle were within the physiological range as compared to other breeds of cattle, while slight deviations were observed for certain parameters. These results may be a better understanding of the haematological indicators for estimating the physiological status of calves of Kosali cattle for further investigation, diagnosis of different ailments and academic purposes.
India has vast livestock genetic resources of which 40 well known breeds are of cattle. Kosali is 36th registered breed in India and first registered cattle breed of Chhattisgarh state. This breed is mainly found in central plain region of the Chhattisgarh state. Kosali cattle are adaptable to harsh climatic conditions and can survive on least nutritive hay and roughages. They have good disease resistant and heat tolerant ability (in press). In spite of low productivity of indigenous breeds, they have the potential for higher yields if better management conditions are provided (Mahima et al., 2013).
Physiological equilibrium is maintained mainly by the blood in the body (Geneser, 1986). Haematological values indicate stress, welfare (Anderson et al., 1999) and also adaptability to adverse environmental conditions (Shil et al., 2012). The haematological values also provide valuable baseline information and help in realistic evaluation of managemental practices, nutritional and physiological status of animals and diagnosis of health condition (Osman and Busadah, 2003; Kapale et al., 2008). Red blood cells (RBCs) or erythrocytes serve as a carrier of haemoglobin and also involved in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body during respiration (Chineke et al., 2006). Leukocytes or white blood cells (WBCs) and lymphocytes are produced and mature in the bone marrow and lymphoid tissues, respectively. The major functions of the WBCs and its differentials are to fight infections, defend the body by phagocytosis against invasion by foreign organisms and to produce or at least transport and distribute antibodies in immune response. Blood platelets are implicated in blood clotting (reviewed in Roland et al., 2014).
The haematological parameters of cattle are influenced by many factors like breed, age, sex, season, health and nutritional status of the animal, physiological conditions like lactation and pregnancy (Sattar and Mirza, 2009). Normal haematological indices for different breeds are well documented by many workers but do not reveal any reports on normal reference values of haematological parameters in claves of Kosali cattle. Hence, the current study was carried out in calves of Kosali breed of cattle to establish the normal reference values of haematological parameters.
Material and Methods
Blood samples were collected from jugular vein of below one year of 30 calves in the month of December, 2016 in between 7.00 to 9.00 AM in one of the districts (Rajnandgaon district) of the native tract of the breed. Age of the calves was asked by the farmers. Blood vials for haematological examinations were coated with ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA). After blood collection, samples were transported in a cooler at a temperature of +4 to 8 °C to the laboratory. All the calves were in good general body conditions and calves were kept calmed and from nervous or excited calves blood was not collected to avoid stress-related changes in the blood parameters.
Hematological parameters viz red blood cells or Erythrocytes (total erythrocyte count, TEC; hemoglobin, Hb; packed cell volume PCV; mean corpuscular volume , MCV; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCH; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration MCHC, red cell distribution width, RDW), the white ones (total leukocyts count, TLC; lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes) and platelet (platelet count, PLT; platelet distribution width, PDW; mean platelet volume, MPV; Platelet crit, PCT) were analyzed using Automatic Haemotology Analyzer (Mindray instrument, BC-2800 Vet) using the commercial kits.
Statistical analysis viz. mean, standard error, standard deviation and range were calculated as per methods given by Snedecor and Cochran (1994).
Results and Discussion
In cattle, different values of haematological parameters have been reported by various authors, due to differences in breeds, keeping and manner of use, feeding practices, age, sex, climatic and other factors. To the best knowledge of authors, this is the first systematic and documented study of haematological parameters in calves of Kosali breed of cattle. The mean, standard error and range of different haematological parameters viz. red blood cell (TEC, Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW), the white ones (TLC, lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes) and platelet (PLT, PDW, MPV, PCT) analyzed in blood of Kosali calves are presented in Table 1.
In the present study, the mean TEC recorded was in the range of 5.76 to 8.52 million/µl and this TEC count is within the normal range for cattle (Wood and Quiroz Rocha, 2010). TEC count is similar with count in Punganur cattle (Naik et al., 2013), Hallikar cattle (Lankesh et al., 2015), Hariana cattle (Mahima et al., 2013). It is reported that in calves TEC ranges from 5.6 to 8.02 million/µl which is higher than in mature animals where TEC ranges from 5.34 to 5.98 million /µl (Brun-Hansen et al., 2006; Jones and Allison, 2007). In calves, Hb, MCH, and MCHC decreased during the first month and then started to increase during the first 3 months of life (Mohri et al., 2007). In young calves, RBCs count might be higher, and MCV and MCHC might be lower than in adults (Brun-Hansen et al., 2006; Jones and Allison, 2007).
Table 1: Haematological profile of calves of Kosali breed of cattle
|Haematological Parameters||Mean ± SE (n=30)||Range|
|TEC (103/µl)||6.99± 0.18||5.76 – 8.52|
|Hb (g/dl)||10.00 ± 0.19||8.7 – 11.9|
|PCV (%)||33.03 ± 0.44||29.9 – 38.1|
|TLC (103/µl)||10.24 ± 0.37||7.7 – 14.5|
|MCV (fl)||48.92 ± 1.06||39.4 – 59.4|
|MCH (pg)||14.53 ± 0.26||12.1 – 16.6|
|MCHC (g/dl)||29.99 ± 0.46||34.6 – 27.3|
|RDW (%)||18.44 ± 0.76||15.5 – 28.1|
|PLT (103/µl)||259.9 ± 13.05||151 – 359|
|MPV (fl)||6.185± 0.11||5.3 – 7.2|
|PDW (%)||16.97 ± 0.15||15.6 – 18.4|
|PCT (%)||0.17 ± 0.01||0.12 – 0.25|
|Lymphocyte (%)||63.22 ± 1.34||52.5 – 72.4|
|Monocyte (%)||13.66 ± 0.39||10.5 – 16.5|
|Granulocyte (%)||29.42 ± 1.06||20.1 – 41.5|
In current study, haemoglobin percentage of Kosali calves was lower in values than the Gaolao calves (Kapale et al., 2008) and higher than the crossbred calves (Shil et al., 2012) but the level is within the bovine range and in agreement with the earlier reported values (Kraft and Durr 2005; George et al., 2010; Wood and Quiroz Rocha, 2010). The lower values in calves/ young animals may be due to lower iron intake during nursing period or due to active growth. PCV value obtained in the present study was lower than the value in Punganur calves (Naik et al., 2013), Gaoloa calves (Kapale et al., 2008) and higher than the values for Sahiwal (Kumar et al., 2017a). The result of MCV, MHC and MCHC in this study was in concurrence with the result of Hariana breed calves (Kumar et al., 2017a) but higher than Hardhenu, Sahiwal and Gaolao calves (Kapale et al., 2008; Shil et al., 2012; Kumar et al., 2017a) and lower than MCV value for Hariana heifers and crossbred calves (Shil et al., 2012; Mahima et al., 2013). Higher value for RBC volume may provide better opportunity to carry heat from body towards the skin surface and to dissipate it off (Parmar et al., 2013). Calves having higher Hb concentration showed higher MCH and MCHC values (Shil et al., 2012) and same finding is also observed in the present study. RDW of present study is within the range of bovine hematology (George et al., 2010; Wood and Quiroz-Rocha, 2010).
The TLC level for Kosali calves is concurrent with TLC level in Sahiwal calves (Kumar et al., 2017a) and higher than Gaolao, Hardhenu and Hariana calves (Kapale et al., 2008; Lankesh et al., 2015; Kumar et al., 2017a). Lymphocyte percentage observed in present study is lower than the Gaolao, Sahiwal, Panganur and Hariana calves (Kapale et al., 2008; Naik et al., 2013; Kumar et al., 2017a; 2017b) and higher than Hardhenu calves. The newborn calf has more granulocytes than lymphocytes (Jones and Allison, 2007; Wood and Quiroz-Rocha, 2010). Monocytes percentage found in Kosali calves is higher than the calves of the other breed of cattle (Kapale et al., 2008; Mahima et al., 2013; Naik et al., 2013; Lankesh et al., 2015; Kumar et al., 2017a, and 20017b). Monocyte numbers are variable in cattle and are thus not a sensible indicator for a specific disease (Roland et al., 2014). Eosinophils are below adult reference ranges after birth and increase with age (Kraft and Durr, 2005; Brun-Hansen et al., 2006; Wood and Quiroz-Rocha, 2010). Granulocytes percentage consists of neutrophil, eosinophil and basophil. The granulocyte % observed in the present study was 29.42 ± 1.06%.
In the present study, platelet count, PDW and MPV observed was 259.9 ±13.05 103/µl, 16.97 ± 0.15% and 6.18 ± 0.11 femtoliters (fL), respectively. MPV value for bovine are in the range of 4.0 to 4.8 fL (Roland et al., 2014), which is lower than the value observed in the current study. In six months old exotic Norwegian Red calves, platelet count reported was 200-590 103µl (Brun-Hansen et al., 2006). The total number of platelets is influenced by the amount of production, consumption, sequestration and loss (Boudreaux, 2011; Russell 2010). PCT value in Kosali calves was 0.17±0.009.
The results of complete blood count (CBC) are helpful in diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis of a disease along with the physiological status of the animal. Haematological values of Kosali calves established in the present study can be used as a reference value as all the calves were apparently healthy and CBC was done in their native tract.