Dairy farming is one of the important activities among the rural farmers as it provides sustainable income and reduces unemployment. The study on health care management practices of buffaloes was purposively conducted in Bidar district of Karnataka with a total sample of 180 buffalo farmers selected randomly. The study revealed that Majority of the farmers had animal health care facility (77.78%) and were availing animal health care services both from Veterinarian and Para-Veterinarian staff (36.12%). Majority of the farmers bathed their buffaloes once in a week (53.33%) and never used sanitizer or disinfectant for cleaning their shed (97.22%). High per cent of the farmers did not take any precautionary measures for sick/diseased animals (73.88%) and ectoparasitic control (46.67%). Further, majority (88.89%) did not take any special management care during advanced pregnancy. Most of the farmers expressed insufficient information about deworming importance/schedule as a major animal health care constraint. To minimise the gap between recommended scientific practices and the existing practices, training programmes on improved health care management practices will help the farmers to overcome the certain health care management problems and helps in increase of production as well as income generation.
India is endowed with the largest livestock population in the world. Animal Husbandry is helpful in generating gainful employment in the rural sector, particularly among the landless labourers, small and marginal farmers and women by supplementing their family incomes. Livestock farming requires less capital and the management and production expenses are low compared to agriculture. Hence animal husbandry is carried out by all farmers regardless of their economic status and development of livestock sector would be more inclusive (Planning Commission, 2012-17). India continues to be the largest producer of milk in the world. Karnataka stands 6th in livestock population in India and in milk production stands 11th in the country i.e. 4.3 per cent to the total India’s milk production. Hence, dairying has become an important source of income for millions of rural families and has assumed an important role in providing employment and income generating opportunities (Basic Animal Husbandry Statistics, 2013). India has more buffaloes than any other country of the world. As per 19th Livestock census, 2012 (Basic Animal Husbandry Statistics, 2014) India’s livestock sector is one of the largest in the world with a holding of 11.6% of world livestock population which consists 57.83% of world buffalo population. In India, contribution of buffalo in total livestock population is 21.23% which increased at the rate of 3.19% during the last inter-censual period. Buffalo has inherent ability to produce milk with high milk fat content ranging from 6 to 8.5 per cent. Because of its higher milk fat contents, buffalo milk is preferred over cow milk and it fetches better price in the market (Khan et al., 2010). In Bidar district, buffalo dairy farming is more predominant hence the study was conducted to explore the different health care practices for buffaloes and also to identify the health care constraints in buffalo rearing in Bidar. The results of the study will help in understanding the different health care management practices followed by farmers and also to educate them the strengths and weaknesses in the health care management and to formulate suitable scientific health care regime for the animals.
Materials and Method
The study was conducted in the state of Karnataka which is having high density of livestock population and Bidar district is purposively selected for the study since it has got predominant buffalo based dairy production system. Two taluks viz; Bidar and Humnabad were randomly selected for the study. Thirty buffalo farmers from each category that is small (1 to 5 animals), medium (6 to 10 animals) and large farmers (more than 10 animals) were selected randomly from each of the two taluks under this study, thus, a total of 180 buffalo farmers were selected. The study adopted an exploratory research design and multistage random sampling technique was used for selection of respondents. The interview schedule for the livestock farmers on health care management practices and its constraints was developed and pre tested before administering in the main sample area. Rapport with the respondents was very essential and also played an important role in eliciting accurate responses from the respondents throughout the investigation. Keeping this in view prior to the collection of data rapport building was done and the information was collected. Data was collected through informal and friendly visits to the farmers’ homes and farms in the early hours of the day. The data collected were statistically analysed for frequency and percentage.
Results and Discussion
Health Care Management Practices in Buffaloes
The distribution of buffalo farmers based on animal health care management was depicted in the Table 1. From the table, it revealed that highest percentage of the farmers (77.78%) was receiving the facility of animal health care service from animal husbandry department. The findings indicated the well spread of the Animal husbandry institutions in the study area and also the faith of the farmers on these institutions for veterinary health care services. The results found that, 36.12 per cent of the farmers were availing services from veterinarians and Para-veterinary staff for animal health care services and 53.33 per cent of the farmers carried bathing in their buffaloes once in a week. Similar findings were reported by Yadav et al. (2009) whereas contrary to the findings of Rathore et al. (2010). Majority of the farmers (97.22%) were not using sanitizer and disinfectant for cleaning of their shed. This might be due to lack of awareness and cost of the disinfectant could be the reason for not using sanitizer and disinfectant for cleaning their shed. The findings of Aulakh and Rajbir (2012) were contrary with the present findings, where majority of the farmers used disinfectant for cleaning of their shed. Higher percentage of the farmers (65%) carried regular vaccination in the buffaloes. Kalyankar et al. (2008) and Sabapara et al. (2010) observed similar findings.
The data revealed that, vaccination was carried at proper time by majority of the farmers (55.55%), which indicated the awareness among the farmers regarding the importance of regular vaccination in the buffaloes. Significant percentage of the farmers (46.11%) vaccinated their buffaloes against FMD and HS. This is suggestive that, as the herd size increased farmers had fairly high level of knowledge regarding protecting of their animals against diseases. Similar findings were stated by Sabapara et al. (2010), where majority of the farmers vaccinated against FMD and HS and partially similar with Ahirwar et al. (2010), who reported that majority carried vaccination against FMD followed by HS and B.Q.
Majority of the farmers (73.88%) did not take any precautionary measures for sick and diseased animals. It might be due to lack of knowledge as well as non availability of separate space could be the reason for above finding. Similar findings were reported by the earlier findings of Yadav et al. (2009), who reported that, very low percentage of farmers isolated their sick animals and Vijay et al. (2008), reported that many of the farmers do not practice any precautionary measures in buffaloes. Majority of the small (58.37%), medium (35%), equal per cent of (46.67%) each large and overall farmers did not take any measures for ectoparasitic control in buffaloes. Significant percentage of the farmers i.e., 48.34 per cent, 35.00 per cent, 31.67 per cent and 38.34 per cent, respectively, noticed FMD as an important disease in their farm. None of the small farmers and majority of the medium (86.67%), large (80.00%) and overall farmers (88.89%) did not practice any special management care during advanced pregnancy. Lack of awareness among the farmers could be the reason for not practicing any management care during last stage of pregnancy.
The Table 1 revealed that 44.45 per cent of the overall farmers practiced to throw away the placenta from human vicinity. The findings were contrary with the findings of Yadav et al. (2009), who revealed that, majority of the respondents practiced deep burial. Majority of the farmers (80%) did not practice proper disposal of dead buffaloes. This could be because of lack of awareness on importance of proper burial and the cost involvement could be the reason for not practicing proper burial method. The findings were contrary with the findings of Vijay et al.(2008), who observed in their study that, most of farmers buried the dead animals into the soil.
|S.No.||Animal health care management||Farmers|
|Small (n=60)||Medium (n=60)||Large (n=60)||Overall (n=60)|
|1||Animal health care facility|
|2||Animal health care service|
|b. Para- Veterinarian||16||26.67||14||23.33||13||21.67||43||23.88|
|c. Veterinarian + Para Veterinarian||28||46.67||18||30||19||31.67||65||36.12|
|3||Frequency of bathing|
|b. Alternate day||13||21.67||15||25||11||18.33||39||21.67|
|c. Once in a week||39||65||29||48.33||28||46.67||96||53.33|
|4||Frequency of sanitization/disinfection of shed|
|b. Never use||60||100||57||95||58||96.67||175||97.22|
|5||Regular vaccination of buffaloes|
|6||Vaccination carried at proper time|
|b. FMD + HS||25||41.67||28||46.67||30||50||83||46.11|
|c. FMD + HS + BQ||9||15||6||10||7||11.67||22||12.22|
|d. FMD+HS+Brucellosis+calfhood vaccine||8||13.33||8||13.33||10||16.67||26||14.45|
|8||General precautionary measures for sick/diseased buffaloes|
|a. Animal isolate||9||15||16||26.67||22||36.67||47||26.12|
|b. Disinfect shed regularly||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0|
|c. Clean utensils regularly||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0|
|d. No any measures taken||51||85||44||73.33||38||63.33||133||73.88|
|9||Measures taken for ectoparasitic control|
|a. Regular bathing of the buffalo||6||10||10||16.67||5||8.33||21||11.66|
|b. Picking and destroying of ectoparasite||5||8.3||2||3.33||3||5||10||5.55|
|c. Use of medicine prescribed by veterinary doctors||6||10||12||20||9||15||27||15|
|d. Regular bathing of the buffalo + Use of medicine prescribed by veterinary doctors||8||13.33||15||25||15||25||38||21.12|
|e. No any measures taken||35||58.37||21||35||28||46.67||84||46.67|
|10||Important diseases noticed in buffalo farming|
|c. FMD + HS||18||30||14||23.33||9||15||41||22.77|
|11||Special mangement care in advanced pregnancy|
|a. Additional supplementary feeding||0||0||8||13.33||8||13.33||16||8.89|
|b. Providing separate space in shed||0||0||0||0||4||6.67||4||2.22|
|c. Not taking any special management care||60||100||52||86.67||48||80||160||88.89|
|12||Disposal of placenta|
|a. Burried in the soil||6||10||13||21.67||17||28.33||36||20|
|b. Burried in the garbage||25||41.67||18||30||21||35||64||35.55|
|c. Thrown away||29||48.33||29||48.33||22||36.67||80||44.45|
|13||Disposal of dead buffaloes|
|a. Deep burial||7||11.67||13||21.67||16||26.67||36||20|
|b. Thrown away||53||88.33||47||78.33||44||73.33||144||80|
Table 2: Distribution of buffalo rearing farmers based on the Animal health care constraints
|Sl.No.||Animal Health care management constraints||Famers||Ranking|
|1||Non availability of veterinary hospital/facility||9||15||5||8.33||3||5||17||9.44||IX|
|2||Distant location of veterinary hospitals/center||18||30||6||10||2||3.33||26||14.44||V|
|3||High cost of treatment||17||28.33||11||18.33||10||16.66||38||21.11||II|
|4||Insufficient information about deworming importance/schedule||12||20||16||26.66||13||21.66||41||22.77||I|
|5||Insufficient information about vaccination/vaccination schedule||11||18.33||14||23.33||11||18.33||36||20||III|
|6||Vaccination facility are not timely available||5||8.33||6||10||4||6.66||15||8.33||VIII|
|7||Non availability door step facility||12||20||8||13.33||3||5||23||12.77||VII|
|8||High incidence of diseases||6||10||9||15||9||15||24||13.33||VI|
|9||High rate of calf mortality||6||10||12||20||9||15||33||18.33||VIII|
Animal health care constraints (Table 2) revealed that, significant per cent (30%) of the small farmers expressed distant location of Veterinary hospitals and center as the major constraint. In case of medium (26.66%), large (21.66%) and overall farmers (22.77%) expressed insufficient information about importance of deworming and schedule as the major constraint perceived by them. Similar constraints were observed by Yadav et al. (2009) and Mahendra and Anil (2006).
The present study conducted on health care management practices followed by buffalo rearing farmers revealed that most of the farmers expressed insufficient information about deworming importance/schedule as a major animal health care constraint. These findings indicated a considerable gap between recommended scientific health care management practices and the existing health care management practices. To minimise this gap, younger generation farmers have to take interest in dairy activity especially in case of scientific health care practices, for which suitable extension strategies should be developed. Training programmes on improved health care management practices will help the farmers to overcome the certain health care management problems like infections and infestations. Adoption of suitable and scientific health care strategies by buffalo farmers will substantially help in increase of production as well as income generation.