In the present study hematological and biochemical parameters of three indigenous chicken breeds during summer season was investigated. For this 120 mature birds, forty birds from each indigenous breeds Aseel, Kadaknath and Rajasri were used. Among hematological parameters, a significant difference was noticed in total red blood cells, haemoglobin, packed cell volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. A significantly (p<0.05) high total RBC (106/ µl) was recorded in Rajasri (3.19) compared to Aseel and Kadaknath. Highest haemoglobin was recorded in Rajasri (12.65g/dL) followed by Aseel (12.46g/dL) and least in Kadaknath (11.80g/dL). High PCV % was recorded in Rajasri (45.46), followed by Kadaknath (43.58) and least in Aseel (41.83). The high MCHC was recorded in Aseel (29.73) followed by Rajasri (27.78) and least in Kadaknath (26.98). There was no significant difference noticed in other hematological parameters. No significant differences were observed among values of serum bilirubin, SGOT, SGPT, Calcium, Phosphorus and blood glucose within the three breeds. There was a significant (p<0.05) difference observed in the values of total protein (g/dl) between breeds where high serum total protein (g/dl) was recorded in Kadaknath (3.48) followed by Rajasri (3.37) and least in Aseel (3.26). Higher serum cholesterol (mg/ dl) was found in Aseel (97.24) followed by Kadaknath (79.24) and least in Rajasri(61.35).
Hematological and biochemical tests hasn’t widely applied for diagnosis of avian medicine but these tests could be a suitable diagnostic instruments for monitoring health or for following of chicken breeds responses to therapeutic regimens, and giving a prognosis to some of the poultry diseases. Normal values for hematological and biochemical factors of domestic (Elagib et al., 2012) and genetically approved industrial species of fowls (Talebi et al., 2005) were measured and a comprehensive data base was established as their blood-profiles. With these normal values, the analyses of blood parameters can be done for evaluation of poultry immune status (Seiser et al., 2000), predicting potential resistance to environmental conditions (Silversides et al., 1997), estimation of body weights in futures (Singh et al., 1998), diagnosis of disease (Prameela Rani et al., 2011), evaluation of health disorders already at the pre-clinical stage (Harper and Lowe, 1998) and many other purposes. Such information, apart from being useful for diagnostic and management purposes, could equally be incorporated into breeding programmes for the genetic improvement of indigenous chickens (Alewi et al., 2012). It is desirable to know the normal physiological values under local conditions for proper management, feeding, breeding, prevention and treatment of diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the haematological and serobiochemical profiles of the indigenous chicken during summer season.
Materials and Methods
A total of 120 mature birds, aged 21 weeks, forty birds from each indigenous (Aseel, Kadaknath and Rajasri) breeds were used. Birds were kept in the poultry experimental unit which was an open sided house in the Livestock Farm Complex, College of Veterinary Science, Korutla. Birds were fed standard layer diet, feed and water was provided ad libitum. Light was provided 18 hours daily. Total of 12 blood samples were taken from each breed from the wing vein using 3ml disposable syringes and were collected with and without EDTA for hematological and biochemical analysis.
Blood drawn was subjected to estimation of haematological parameters by using auto hematology analyzer (BC-2800, Mindray). Differential WBC counts were made on monolayer blood films, stained using Giemsa stain after fixing them with methyl alcohol.
Serum parameters including total protein, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), calcium, phosphorous, glucose, cholesterol and were determined by semi auto biochemical analyzer (Star21plus) by using standard diagnostic kits (Erba Pvt. Ltd).
The statistical analysis was done using SPSS20.0 version. Means were compared using Duncan’s multiple range tests.
Results and Discussion
There was a significant difference (p<0.05) among the three indigenous breeds in total red blood cells (106/µl) (Table 1). A significantly (p<0.05) higher value was recorded in Rajasri (3.19) compared to Aseel and Kadaknath, however there was an insignificant numerical difference between Aseel (2.93) and Kadaknath (2.98) breeds. These results were in accordance with Pandian et al. (2012) where Kadaknath and Aseel breeds had similar values of red blood cells.
Table 1: Comparative hematology of Aseel, Kadaknath and Rajasri during 21st week
|Parameters||Aseel 1||Kadaknath 2||Rajasri 3||SEM||P -value||n- value|
|RBC (106/ul)||2.93 b||2.98 b||3.19 a||0.13||0.001||12|
|HGB (g/dL)||12.46 a||11.80 b||12.65 a||0.63||0.038||12|
|PCV (%)||41.83 b||43.58 ab||45.46 a||2.11||0.004||12|
|MCHC (g/dL)||29.73 a||26.98 b||27.78 b||1.38||0.001||12|
|Eosinophils (%)||1.67 b||1.50 b||4.17 a||0.41||0.003||12|
Value bearing different superscripts within a column are significantly (P<0.05) different. Hb=Hemoglobin, WBC=white blood cells, RBC=red blood cells, PCV=Packed cell volume, MCV=Mean corpuscular volume, MCH=Mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCHC=Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, PLT=platelets, MPV=Mean platelet volume, PCT=Platelet crit.
Mean values for haemoglobin (g/dL) differed significantly (P<0.05) between the three breeds of poultry. Highest haemoglobin was recorded in Rajasri (12.65) followed by Aseel (12.46) and least in Kadaknath (11.80). Higher hemoglobin levels in Rajasri is may be that they are more active than the other breeds, which were in agreement with the findings of earlier reports (Oyewale, 1991 and Kundu et al., 1993). The mean values for Packed cell volume (%) differed significantly (p<0.05) where high PCV was recorded in Rajasri (45.46), followed by Kadaknath (43.58) and least in Aseel (41.83). The present values agrees well with the range (42-52%) reported by Panigrahy (2017) in Vanaraja and with report of Packed cell volume (35-48%) in indigenous chicken in Iran by Bahman et al. (2011) and Abdi-Hachesoo et al. (2013). However comparatively low Packed Cell Volume (PCV) values were reported in Aseel and Kadaknath breeds by Pandian et al. (2012). The higher PCV in this present study might be because of hemoconcentration due to dehydration by effect of high temperature (Benjamin, 1985). Other erythrocyte related parameters like Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) showed no significant difference (p>0.05) but there was a significant (p<0.05) difference noticed in Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) values among the three breeds. The high MCHC was recorded in Aseel (29.73) followed by Rajasri (27.78) and least in Kadaknath (26.98).There was no significant (p>0.05) difference noticed in platelets and platelet related counts. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference noticed in total WBC counts and also in differential leukocyte counts. However there was a significant difference noticed in the values of eosinophil percentage. A high eosinophil % was noticed in Rajasri breed when compared to other two breeds. These values were in contrary to the findings of Panigrahy et al. (2017).
No significant differences were observed among values of Serum bilirubin, SGOT, SGPT, Calcium, Phosphorus and blood glucose within the three breeds (Table 2). There was a significant (p<0.05) difference observed in the values of total protein (g/dl) between breeds where high total protein (g/dl) was recorded in the serum of Kadaknath (3.48) followed by Rajasri (3.37) and least in Aseel (3.26). These values of serum total protein of the breeds were in agreement with Ibrahim (2012) and Pampori and Igbal (2007).
Table 2: Comparative biochemical parameters of Aseel, Kadaknath and Rajasri during 21st week
|Parameters||Aseel||Kadaknath||Rajasri||SEM||P -value||n- value|
|Total protein (g/dL)||3.26 b||3.48 a||3.37 ab||0.03||0.012||12|
|Serum cholesterol (mg/dL)||97.24 b||79.24 ab||61.35 a||5.52||0.018||12|
|Serum bilurubin (mg/dL)||23.5||24.44||21.13||0.7||0.14||12|
|Serum calcium (mg/dL)||9.05||8.96||9.15||6.95||0.213||12|
|Serum phosphorous (mg/dL)||5.05||5.78||5.09||0.32||0.607||12|
|Blood glucose (mg/dL)||144.58||156.13||135.8||4.75||0.225||12|
Value bearing different superscripts within a column are significantly (P<0.05) different
The serum cholesterol values differed significantly among the three breeds. Higher serum cholesterol (mg/dL) was found in Aseel (97.24) followed by Kadaknath (79.24) and least in Rajasri (61.35). The low cholesterol value in Rajasri can be attributed to high metabolic activity. This result was similar to the report by Simaraks et al. (2004), who studied the serum cholesterol content in Thai indigenous chickens. Lower content of cholesterol in indigenous poultry may be in result of high body activity and high need of energy in these birds (Almeida et al., 2006). Low level of cholesterol in indigenous chickens can be considered with experts of poultry genetics, according to this fact that low fat diets have been valuable in correcting inherited disorder of lipoprotein metabolism and hyperlipidemia in human beings (Ademola et al., 2009).
This study revealed that there is difference in hematological parameters like total RBC, haemoglobin, PCV and MCHC between the three breeds Aseel, Kadaknath and Rajasri. Among biochemical parameters the mean values differed significantly for total protein and serum cholesterol. The results of the study will be helpful for accurate interpretation of haematological and biochemical tests of the indigenous poultry breeds.