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Immunocontraceptive Vaccine- An Ore to Be Mined

K. Rajamanickam S. Gowrishankar V. Leela
Vol 8(8), 9-20

Immunocontraception is the novel contraceptive approach, which uses body immune system to elicit an immune response to wedge the important steps in reproduction and reduce the fertility rate in vaccinated animals. Immunocontraceptives are developed mainly to target the three main areas of reproductive process namely gamete production, gamete function and gamete outcome. Contraceptive vaccines, which antagonize the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) have been tested in various species including dogs and cats. GnRH based vaccines are used for immune-castration of pigs to reduce the boar taint, which devalues the pork. Vaccines acting through the sperm-specific proteins and zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins have a greater advantage because of their high specificity to the germ cells. Immunization of dogs with native porcine ZP inhibit the fertility associated with ovarian dysfunction. Production of the monoclonal antibody against these proteins have added the advantage in immunocontraception. Recombinant ZP vaccines produced using Escherichia coli have reduced cross-reactivity with the somatic cells and impart long-term infertility. In spite of these advantages, immunocontraceptives may develop resistance in the immunized population in future, so more scientific inputs are required to increase the immunogenicity of immunocontraceptive vaccines and the novel vaccine delivery methods need to be developed which would impart long-term infertility with a single injection.

Keywords : Immunocontraceptive Vaccine Immune Response Infertility GnRh ZP Population Control

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