Impact and Management of Acaricide Resistance: Pertaining To Sustainable Control of Ticks
Subhradal Nath Sanju Mandal Susanta Pal Suresh Jadhao Namrata Ottalwar Prabir Kumar Sanyal
Vol 8(10), 46-60
The economically most important ixodid ticks of livestock in tropical regions belong to the genera of Hyalomma, Boophilus, Rhipicephalusand, Amblyomma. The main weapon for the control of ticks is the use of chemical acaricides. Acaricide usage is not sustainable in the long run because of the ticks becomes resistant and presence of residues in the milk and meat. Resistance is generally first recognized as failure of a drug to control parasitism. Resistance can be classified as two types: natural and genetic resistance. Natural resistance is present in all individuals and does not develop as a result of acaricidal pressure. Genetic resistance of ticks spreads by the reproduction of resistant individuals that have survived acaricidal lethal concentrations. In resistance, the user often tries to overcome the unsatisfactory performance by increasing the dose of the acaricide or the frequency of applications leading residue in food and agricultural commodities and also environmental contamination. Resistance has stimulated a great deal of research both on the problems of control and the evolutionary model that resistance provides. The development of new acaricides is a long and expensive process, which reinforces the need for alternative approaches. Focus has been directed towards the development of other options like managemental strategies, immunization, phytoacaricides, use of endosymbionts, biological control methods and exploitation of host resistance. There is urgent need of the method which is cost effective, environment friendly and minimal adverse effect on health of livestock and human being. There comes the concept of Integrated Tick Management. It involves the use of available environmental information of controlling pest and other means to avert damage caused by the pest by the most economical means with the least possible risk to people, property and the environment.
Keywords : Acaricide Ixodid Tick Resistance Integrated Tick Management
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