NAAS Score – 4.31

Free counters!


Previous Next

Impact of Seasons and Extenders on Quality and Freezability of Surti Buffalo Bull Semen under Middle Gujarat Climate

D. V. Chaudhari K. K. Hadiya J. A. Patel A. J. Dhami
Vol 8(6), 304-311

A study was conducted to evaluate the seasonal influence (peak winter and summer) and the efficacy of three extenders (egg yolk based TFYG extender and egg yolk free soya bean based commercial extenders Optixcell and Andromed) on quality and freezability of Surti buffalo bull semen in middle Gujarat. Nutritionally the bulls were managed identically throughout the year. Semen ejaculates (6/bull/season, total 36) revealed mean ejaculate volume 3.23±0.18 ml, sperm concentration 963.06±64.74 million/ml, progressive motility 79.94±0.83 %, live sperm 83.67±0.62 %, abnormal sperm 7.69±0.41 %, and sperm with intact plasma membrane 83.19±0.75 % and intact acrosome 94.92±0.24 %. Only the progressive sperm motility (80.56±0.98 vs. 73.33±0.57 %) and HOST (85.33±0.81 vs 81.06±1.07 %) were significantly (p<0.05) higher with lesser sperm abnormality (6.17±0.53 vs. 9.22±0.37 %) during winter than in summer. Semen samples split diluted with TFYG, Optixcell and Andromed extenders revealed the overall mean values (%) of progressive sperm motility, livability, abnormality, plasma membrane integrity and acrosomal integrity during winter season as 75.09±0.49, 76.41±0.51, 5.52±0.21, 77.22±0.38 and 92.61±0.28 at pre-freeze stage and 42.13±1.25, 54.81±0.88, 8.46±0.29, 33.26±0.96 and 90.78±0.28 at post-thaw stage, respectively. The respective values (%) in summer season were 65.37±0.53, 71.56±0.50, 9.81±0.28, 68.17±0.96 and 92.81±0.28 at pre-freeze stage, and 33.43±0.80, 50.78±0.76, 14.46±0.29, 28.04±0.78 and 90.43±0.29 at post-thaw stage. The overall mean sperm post-thaw motility/longevity at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min of incubation at 37°C was 43.13±1.34, 36.72±1.41, 29.47±1.42 and 19.83±1.34 % during winter season and 34.73±0.81, 29.31±0.83, 21.86±0.69 and 14.34±0.82 % in summer season, respectively. The initial quality as well as freezability of semen in terms of motile, live, normal and HOS reactive sperm including post thaw longevity were significantly (p<0.01) better in winter season than in summer season. Further, the values of all the five semen quality parameters studied were comparatively better in Optixcell than TFYG and Andromed extenders with significant differences mainly in sperm progressive motility, viability and post-thaw longevity in both the seasons. However, the season x extender interaction was not significant for any of the sperm quality parameters studied. Winter was the best season for harvesting optimum quality and freezability of buffalo semen in Optioxcell extender.

Keywords : Buffalo Bull Freezability Gujarat Climate Post Thaw Longevity Season Semen Quality


Semen cryopreservation and AI offer many advantages to the livestock industry. Bull fertility and semen quality are of vital importance to the bovine industry as sub-fertile bulls can cost producers a significant amount of loss (Kastelic and Thundathil, 2008). Among various climatic elements, high ambient temperature is the most important one affecting semen quality and animal fertility (Koivisto et al., 2009), probably through change in quality of feed and its digestibility. Further, the semen extender may aggravate the situation. Egg yolk has been used as a basic component of extenders for bovine ejaculate since 1939 (Amirat et al., 2004) and has still remained popular because of their excellent protection of sperm cells (Celeghini et al., 2008). Nevertheless, the use of egg yolk as a cryoprotectant has recently been restricted in some countries for reasons of immunologic and hygiene risks (Thun et al., 2002). An alternative to replace the components of animal origin in semen extenders is the soy lecithin. Hardly few studies aiming to evaluate the efficiency of soy lecithin as a primary source of lipoproteins in semen extenders are available on buffalo semen (Akhter et al., 2010, Chaudhari et al., 2015). We postulate that buffalo sperm motility is negatively affected by the hot season and poor extender and that season/extender induced alterations might affect the sperm’s motility, viability and fertilizing ability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of season on semen quality and extenders with and without egg yolk on its freezability based on pre-freeze and post-thaw sperm quality parameters in Surti buffalo bulls under native climate.

Materials and Methods

The study was conducted during peak winter (Nov-Dec) and peak summer (May-Jun) on semen of three mature healthy Surti buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis), 6-8 years old (Av. 6.66 yr), managed identically with similar feeds & fodders throughout the year at the Sperm Station of the College in Anand, Gujarat. The bulls were under regular twice a week semen collection schedule using artificial vagina in the early morning between 7.30 and 8.30 hrs. The ejaculates (6 per bull/season, total 36) after collection were immediately transferred in to a water bath at 34ºC and evaluated for gross quality, motility and sperm concentration (by Accucell photometer). Only the ejaculates with >70% initial motility were used for further processing.


Preparation of Extenders

The standard Tris-citrate-fructose-egg yolk-glycerol (TFYG) extender was prepared fresh daily and antibiotics benzyl penicillin 1000 IU/ml and streptomycin sulphate 1000 µg/ml were added as recommended by FAO (1979). The commercial Optixcell® (IMV, France) and Andromed® (Minitube, Japan) were prepared fresh for use by diluting 4 and 2 times, respectively, with Milli-Q water according to manufacturer’s instructions.

Semen Processing

Qualifying ejaculates from each bull were split into three equal aliquots and diluted in single step at 34°C with each of three extenders @ 100 ×106 spermatozoa ml-1 and were evaluated for progressive sperm motility. They were soon filled and sealed in French mini straws using IS4 System of IMV, France. The straws were then cooled to 4-5 °C within 60-90 minutes and further equilibrated for 4 hrs in cold handling cabinet. Freezing of straws was carried out in LN2 vapour using a programmable bio-freezer (Digitcool 5300 CE ZH 350, IMV). The straws were then plunged in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C) for overnight storage. Semen straws were thawed next day in a water bath at 37 °C for 30 seconds.

Assessment of Sperm Quality

The samples were evaluated for various sperm quality parameters, viz., motility, viability, morphology, acrosome integrity and HOS test at initial (on dilution), pre-freeze (after equilibration) and post-thaw stage using standard procedures and phase contrast microscope. The sperm progressive motility was determined at 37°C temperature under high power magnification (40 X) and viability with eosin-nigrosin stained semen smears under oil emulsion lens of a phase contrast microscope. Simultaneously, sperms were also examined for various types of abnormalities. The percentages of spermatozoa with intact acrosome were assessed using Geimsa stain (Watson et al., 1975) and plasma membrane integrity was assessed using a hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test employing 150 mOs/L solutions with 30, 60 and 120 minutes of incubation at 37°C (Jayendran et al., 1984).

Statistical Analysis

The data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test by employing IBM SPSS Statistics version 20.00 to know the effect of season, extender and their interaction on various sperm quality traits during cryopreservation.

Results and Discussion

The pooled mean ejaculate volume, mass activity, sperm concentration, individual motility, viability, morphology and plasma membrane as well as acrosomal integrity of Surti buffalo semen averaged 3.23±0.18 ml, 3.42±0.05, 963.06±64.74 million/ml, 79.94±0.83%, 83.67±0.62 %, 7.69±0.41 %, 83.19±0.75 % and 94.92±0.24 %, respectively. The semen quality was apparently better in winter season than summer season, with significant (p<0.05) differences in sperm progressive motility (76.39±0.97 vs. 71.94±1.00 %), HOS reactive sperms (85.33±0.81 vs. 81.06±1.07 %) and abnormal sperm (6.17±0.37 vs. 8.56±0.30 %). The observations soon after dilution and at pre-freeze and post-thaw stage are presented in Table 1.

Table 1: Seasonal variation in semen quality parameters (%) of buffalo bulls on dilution, at pre-freeze and at post-thaw stage in different semen extenders

Stage Season Extender Progressive motility Viability Plasma memb. integrity Sperm Abnormality Acrosomal Integrity
On dilution Winter TFYG 80.56±0.98 81.61±0.83 82.83±0.75 5.11±0.41 94.22±0.44
Optixcell 81.94±0.72 80.94±0.94 83.06±0.72 5.11±0.35 94.11±0.50
Andromed 79.72±0.75 80.50±0.96 81.17±0.70 4.50±0.32 93.83±0.45
Overall 80.74±0.48p 81.02±0.52p 82.35±0.43p 4.91±0.21p 94.06±0.26
Summer TFYG 73.33±0.57a 77.72±0.48a 76.11±1.54 7.11±0.41 94.22±0.44
Optixcell 75.72±0.81b 80.06±0.65b 77.06±1.50 7.06±0.41 94.28±0.50
Andromed 73.89±0.65a 78.50±0.60ab 76.50±1.49 7.39±0.44 93.78±0.46
Overall 74.31±0.41q 78.76±0.35q 76.56±0.85q 7.19±0.25q 94.09±0.27
Pre-freeze Winter TFYG 75.00±0.99ab 77.61±0.63 77.61±0.62 5.06±0.36 92.78±0.48
Optixcell 76.39±0.79b 76.22±1.01 77.78±0.78 5.61±0.35 92.89±0.48
Andromed 73.89±0.65a 75.39±0.90 76.28±0.56 5.89±0.35 92.17±0.50
Overall 75.09±0.49p 76.41±0.51p 77.22±0.38p 5.52±0.21p 92.61±0.28
Summer TFYG 64.72±0.85a 71.22±0.80ab 67.61±1.83 9.39±0.41 92.94±0.47
Optixcell 67.22±0.92b 73.28±0.88a 70.56±1.48 9.28±0.30 93.17±0.49
Andromed 64.17±0.83a 70.17±0.82b 66.33±1.57 10.17±0.44 92.33±0.50
Overall 65.37±0.53q 71.56±0.50q 68.17±0.96q 9.81±0.28q 92.81±0.28
Post-thaw Winter TFYG 41.39±2.21 54.61±1.62 31.28±1.38 8.94±0.50 90.67±0.46
Optixcell 44.44±2.17 56.06±1.48 35.28±1.74 7.22±0.45 91.28±0.48
Andromed 40.56±2.13 53.78±1.49 33.22±1.80 9.22±0.55 90.39±0.53
Overall 42.13±1.25p 54.81±0.88p 33.26±0.96p 8.46±0.29p 90.78±0.28
Summer TFYG 31.94±1.15a 50.94±1.23 28.22±1.55 13.83±0.27 90.33±0.47
Optixcell 36.11±1.25b 52.61±1.32 29.56±1.44 13.48±0.51 90.94±0.49
Andromed 32.22±1.58a 48.78±1.34 26.33±0.92 15.75±0.34 90.00±0.52
Overall 33.43±0.80q 50.78±0.76q 28.04±0.78q 14.46±0.29q 90.43±0.29

Means with different superscripts (a, b) differ significantly (p<0.05) within the column between extenders for a season/stage and overall means with subscripts p,q differ significantly (p<0.05) between seasons for a stage.

The sperm progressive motility, viability, morphology and plasma membrane integrity were found significantly (p<0.05) better in winter season than summer season on dilution and at pre-freeze and post-thaw stage, but no such variation was noted in acrosomal integrity. Among the diluters used for semen extension, Optixcell followed by TFYG gave better protection against cold shock than Andromed as characterized by significantly (p<0.05) better sperm progressive motility and viability, particularly during summer, but other sperm parameters showed no significant differences among three extenders in any of the seasons at initial or pre-freeze and post-thaw stage (Table 1).

Further, the overall mean sperm post-thaw longevity/motility was significantly (p<0.05) better during winter season than summer season at all incubation (37°C) intervals with pooled values of 43.13±1.34 vs. 34.73±0.81, 29.47±1.42 vs. 21.86±0.69 and 19.83±1.34 vs. 14.34±0.82 %  at 0, 1 and 2 hrs, respectively. At each stage of post-thaw incubation, Optixcell diluent proved better than other two dilutors, and the values at all post-thaw incubation intervals were significantly better during winter than summer season in all three diluents, with non-significant effect of season x extender interaction (Table 2).

Table 2: Post-thaw longevity (% sperm progressive motility) in buffalo bulls in various semen diluters in different season

Season Dilutor Post-thaw longevity (% sperm progressive motility)
0 min 30 min 60 min 120 min
Winter TFYG 42.39±2.21 36.11±2.16 28.61±2.09 17.67±2.06
Optixcell 45.28±2.04 40.00±2.02 33.33±2.06 24.72±2.16
Andromed 41.39±1.97 35.56±1.80 27.22±1.91 16.11±2.20
Overall 43.13±1.34 36.72±1.41 29.47±1.42 19.83±1.34
Summer TFYG 33.67±1.07 28.67±1.07 21.11±0.95 13.61±1.20
Optixcell 37.28±1.18 31.44±0.89 23.61±1.13 16.94±1.00
Andromed 32.83±1.09 27.28±1.03 19.89±0.86 11.91±0.82
Overall 34.73±0.81** 29.31±0.83** 21.86±0.69** 14.34±0.82**

** Significant (p<0.01) between seasons within the column for overall values.

In the present study, initial semen evaluation revealed better sperm progressive motility and lesser sperm abnormalities during winter season as compared to summer season. At pre-freeze and post-thaw stages also, the semen collected during summer had reduced progressive motility, viability, and a tendency toward a higher proportion of abnormal sperm with damaged plasma membrane, relative to semen collected in the winter. The photoperiod is an important factor that influences the seminal characteristics of buffaloes (Sansone et al., 2000) and the effect of the hot environment on the reproduction and sexual activity of buffalo bulls has previously been reported, not only affecting the libido but also the quality and freezability of semen (Vale, 2007); and the effect is probably aggravated by changed feed/fodder quality and its ruminal digestibility. However, in the present study care was taken to provide uniform feed and fodders throughout the year to the bulls under investigation. Thus, the results of present study substantiate the observations of these researchers.

We found seasonal variations in freezability of buffalo semen. Freezability was found to be best when semen was cryopreserved in winter compared with summer, and concurred with the findings of Bahga and Khokar (1991), Tiwari et al. (2011), Alam et al. (2015) and many others. Castro et al. (2017) suggested that the physical and morphological characteristics of the ejaculates showed a significant statistical difference in wave motion, motility, vigor, major defects, minor defects, total defects and plasma membrane integrity between the hot and cool periods (p<0.05). In tropical region, the ideal period for using buffalo ejaculates, are the months of the cooler season. Alam et al. (2015) based on their findings also concluded that sperm quality of Egyptian water buffalo is affected by the elevated temperature during summer season that might be related to the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

Tiwari et al. (2011) reported significantly (p<0.05) lower initial and post-thaw sperm progressive motility in summer than winter in Murrah buffalo bull semen, although semen volume and sperm output per ejaculate were not affected by season. Higher values in winter, followed by summer and monsoon seasons have also been reported by Sagdeo et al. (1991) in Surti buffalo bulls. Koivisto et al. (2009) observed significant seasonal influence on gross-motility, progressive sperm motility, vigor and morphological sperm defects. All these reports collaborate to our present findings. Orgal et al. (2012) also recorded lower post-thaw velocity, motility and progressive motility in summer than winter samples. The reduction in sperm motility in frozen semen could be attributed to the reduction of total protein concentration and absence of specific protein from seminal plasma due to seasonal effect (Smith et al. 1999). Plasma membrane integrity is crucial to sperm survival inside the female reproductive tract, and it plays an important role in several events taking place during fertilization, e.g. capacitation, acrosome reaction, sperm fusion with the oocyte. In our study, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) showed a marked decrease in plasma membrane integrity in samples collected during summer season compared to winter at initial as well as at post-thaw stage. These results were in agreement with those reported by Mandal et al. (2003) and Koonjaenak et al. (2007).

The present findings on sperm quality parameters in terms of live and abnormal sperm observed in semen at different stages of cryopreservation with egg yolk and soybean based semen extenders coincided well with many previous reports (Akhter et al., 2010, Meena et al., 2010, Chaudhari et al., 2015, Kumar et al., 2015) either for one or more of the above quality parameters in buffalo semen. The findings regarding the performance of TFYG and Andromed extenders are supported by Kumar et al. (2015), who found better post-thaw motility, viability and post-thaw longevity in semen extended with egg yolk based extender than Andromed extender. Our findings showed some significantly better sperm quality parameters in semen frozen with Optixcell and TFYG than Andromed. In the present study, Optixcell gave relatively improved performance than the TFYG, but the differences at most instances, except sperm motility, were not significant, as has been reported earlier by many workers in India and abroad (Beran et al., 2012, Orgal et al., 2012, Chaudhari et al., 2015). There might be incorporation of some antioxidant and unknown additives in Optixcell extender, which favoured the performance of this extender apart from its visual transparency in absence of egg yolk. However, the season x extender interaction was not significant for sperm quality parameters studied.


The results discussed above with a hot tropical climate suggest a special management needs to be implemented for buffalo bulls to control THI (temperature humidity index) such as application of foggers, air circulating fens, access to daily baths/wallowing in ponds, providing good quality green fodder, feeding during cooler hours, etc especially during warmer times, so that they can dissipate body heat from metabolism and that caused by the environment. It is very important to protect buffaloes against thermal stress, since their thermoregulatory system is less efficient when compared to cattle. In general, the Optixcell and TFYG extenders were found superior over Andromed extender in both summer and winter seasons, and heat stress depressed the initial semen quality and thereby freezability during peak summer. Therefore, suitable managemental intervention for amelioration of seasonal stress on buffalo bulls especially heat stress should be implemented.


We thank the authorities of Anand Agricultural University, Anand and Dean, College of Veterinary Science for the facilities provided to conduct this research work.


  1. Akhter S, Ansari MS, Rakha BA, Andrabi SMH, Iqbal S and Ullah N. 2010. Cryopreservation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen in Bioxcell® extender. Theriogenology 74: 951-955.
  2. Alam SS, El Makawy AI, Tohamy AA and Abd Elrahman MM. 2015. Effect of seasonal variations on semen quality and fertility of Egyptian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Biological and Chemical Sciences 6: 1059-1069.
  3. Amirat L, Tainturier D, Jeanneau L, Thorin C, Gerard O, Courtens J and Anton M. 2004. Bull semen in vitro fertility after cryopreservation using egg yolk LDL: a comparison with Optidyl a commercial egg yolk extender. Theriogenology 61: 895-907.
  4. Bahga CS and Khokar BS. 1991. Effect of different seasons on concentration of plasma luteinizing hormone and seminal quality vis-a-vis freezability of buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis). International Journal of Biometeorology 35: 222-224.
  5. Beran J, Stadnik L, Bezdicek J, Louda F, Citek J, Duchacek J. 2012. Effect of sire and extender on sperm motility and share of live or dead sperm in bulls’ fresh ejaculate and in AI doses after thawing. Archive Tierz 55: 207-218.
  6. Castro SRS, Morini AC, Silva AS, Neves KA, Minervino AH, Meneses A and Vale WG. 2017. Influence of seasonality on buffalo semen. Animal and Veterinary Sciences 5(3): 45-51.
  7. Celeghini ECC, Arruda RP, Andrade AFC, Nascimento J, Raphael CF and Rodrigues PHM. 2008. Effects that bovine sperm cryopreservation using two different extenders has on sperm membranes and chromatin. Animal Reproduction Science 104: 119-131.
  8. Chaudhari DV, Dhami AJ, Hadiya KK and Patel JA. 2015. Relative efficacy of egg yolk and soya milk-based extenders for cryopreservation (-196 C) of buffalo semen. Veterinary World 8: 239-244.
  9. Jayendran RS, Van der Ven HH, Perez-Pelaez M, Crabo BG and Zaneveld LJD. 1984. Development of an assay to assess the functional integrity of the human sperm membrane & its relationship to other semen characteristics. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 70: 219-228.
  10. Kastelic JP and Thundathil JC. 2008. Breeding soundness evaluation and semen analysis for predicting bull fertility. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 43: 368-373.
  11. Koivisto MB, Costa MTA, Perri SHV and Vicente WRR. 2009. The effect of season on semen characteristics and freezability in Bos indicus and Bos taurus bulls in the southeastern region of Brazil. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 44: 587-592.
  12. Koonjaenak S, Johannisson A, Pongpeng P, Wirojwuthikul S, Kunavongkrit A and Rodriguez-Martinez H. (2007). Seasonal variation in nuclear DNA integrity of frozen-thawed spermatozoa from Thai AI swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Journal of Veterinary Medicine-A: Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine 54: 377-383.
  13. Kumar P, Saini M, Kumar D, Balhara AK, Yadav SP, Singh P and Yadav PS. 2015. Liposome-based semen extender is suitable alternative to egg yolk-based extender for cryopreservation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen. Animal Reproduction Science 159: 38-45.
  14. Mandal DK, Nagpaul PK and Gupta AK. 2003. Motion characteristics of Murrah buffalo bull spermatozoa in various seasons and its relationship with functional integrity of the plasmallema. Theriogenology 60: 349-358.
  15. Meena GS, Raina VS, Gupta AK, Mohanty TK and Bishist R. 2010. Comparative performance of Biociphos and Tris-egg yolk based extenders for buffalo semen preservation. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 80: 414-417.
  16. Orgal S, Zeron Y, Elior N, Biran D, Friedman E, Druker S and Roth Z. 2012. Season-induced changes in bovine sperm motility following a freeze-thaw procedure. Journal of Reproduction and Development 58: 212-218.
  17. Sagdeo LR, Chitnis AB and Kaikini AS. 1991. Effect of seasonal variations on freezibility of Surti buffalo bull semen. Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction 12: 1-3.
  18. Sansone G, Nastri MJF and Fabbrocini A. 2000. Storage of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen. Animal Reproduction Science 62: 55-76.
  19. Smith JF, Parr J, Murray GR, McDonald RM and Lee RSF. 1999. Seasonal changes in the protein content and composition of ram seminal plasma. In: Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 59: 223-225.
  20. Thun R, Hurtado M and Janett F. 2002. Comparison of Biociphos-Plus and Tris egg yolk extender for cryopreservation of bull semen. Theriogenology 57: 1087-1094.
  21. Tiwari R, Mishra GK, Shukla MK, Singh RB, Saxena SK and Siddiqui MU. 2011. Seasonal variations in semen production of Murrah buffalo bulls. Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction 32(2): 5-7.
  22. Vale WG. 2007. Effects of environment on buffalo reproduction, Italian Journal of Animal Science 6 (suppl 2): 130-142.
  23. Watson PF. 1975. Use of Giemsa stain to detect changes in the acrosome of frozen ram spermatozoa. Veterinary Record 97: 12-15.
Full Text Read : 2837 Downloads : 524
Previous Next

Open Access Policy