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Improving Dietary Fiber Content of Chicken Meat Sausages Using Cereal Based Extenders

D. Maheswara Reddy A. Jagadeesh Babu S.Vani B. Eswara Rao
Vol 7(5), 203-208
DOI- http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20170406044106

Many trials were conducted for incorporating the appropriate binder at right percentage for the development of value added chicken meat sausages. Three different binders viz. sorghum flour, oat flour and barley flour each at three different levels viz., 3, 6 and 9 percentages were added to prepare the value added chicken meat sausages to select a binder at its optimum desirable level. Among different treatments chicken meat sausages incorporated with oat flour at 9 percent level had significantly (p<0.01) higher percent of moisture as well as crude fiber and lower percent of crude fat. Similarly, the organoleptic scores for flavor, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability were also significantly higher for 9% oat flour incorporated chicken meat sausages compared to rest of the formulations. Dietary fiber supplementations through this product not only provides health benefit effects but also increase the bulk and prevent cooking loss in meat products by enhancing water binding capabilities. Hence incorporation of oat flour at 9 percent level in chicken meat sausages was considered to be optimum with all the desired qualities of value added chicken meat sausages.


Keywords : Chicken Meat Sausages Sorghum Oat and Barley Flours Proximate Analysis Dietary Fiber Value Addition

Introduction

Recently meat technologists are incorporating the non meat binders like sorghum, oat, barley, soya, bengal gram, corn flours, tapioca starch, whole egg liquid etc. in comminuted poultry meat products for value addition. These binders will improve the nutritional and organoleptic quality and reduce the cost of production. Currently, cereals and their ingredients are used as functional foods due to constant promotion of dietary fiber, protein, energy, minerals, vitamins and antioxidants required for human health. Fiber enrichment in meat products is essential as meat is having practically negligible fiber content. Meat products that contain dietary fibers are excellent meat substitutes due to their inherent functional and nutritional effects like solubility, viscosity, gel forming ability, water-binding capacity, oil adsorption capacity and mineral binding capacity (Kumar et al., 2010). Further, dietary fiber intake through meat reduces plasma and LDL-cholesterol; reduce the risk of major dietary problems such as obesity, coronary diseases, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders. Besides health beneficial effects, dietary fiber supplementation increases the bulk, prevent cooking loss, enhance water binding capabilities, retains flavour in meat products with fewer changes in textural parameters. Thus they provide great economical advantages to both the consumers and producers. Hence in the present investigation, an attempt was made to study the effect of three different binders at three different levels on proximate and sensory quality of chicken meat sausages.

Materials and Methods

Six trials were conducted initially to determine the optimum level of inclusion of non meat binders. The optimum level of inclusion of sorghum, oat and barley flours were determined by preparing six batches of chicken meat sausages incorporating three different levels viz., 3, 6 and 9 percentages of each flour and subjected them to proximate analysis and organoleptic evaluation. Proximate composition of the product was estimated as per the procedures outlined by AOAC (1994). Sensory evaluation of the product was carried out on a 9 point hedonic scale by a semi trained five member taste panel. The data thus obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS MAC, version 20.0, SPSS Chicago (US).

Results and Discussion

Percent Moisture

Chicken meat sausages added with oat flour had significantly (P<0.01) higher percent moisture at 9% followed by sorghum and barley flours than the other treatments and control. Flours at higher percentage have more water binding capacity which will retain more moisture during cooking whereas due to lack of flour, the moisture % is very low in control. The results obtained in the present study were in accordance with Yang et al. (2007, 2009) in pork sausages & duck meat sausages respectively, Modi et al. (2008, 2009) in meat and mutton kofta respectively, Obula reddy (2014) in chicken meat patties, Santhi and Kalaikannan (2014) in oat flour added low fat chicken nuggets and Reddy et al. (2017) in mutton nuggets.

Percent Protein

Increased level of extender significantly decreases the % protein. The percent protein was found to be significantly lower in the product at 9% level of each flour than that of 3 and 6%. Among the flours the % crude protein was significantly (P<0.01) lower for chicken meat sausages prepared with 9 % sorghum flour. Control had significantly (P<0.01) higher protein content which might be due to higher moisture losses during processing. The results obtained in the study were in accordance with Yang et al. (2007, 2009) in pork sausages & duck meat sausages respectively, Obula Reddy (2014) in chicken meat patties, Santhi and Kalaikannan (2014) in oat flour added low fat chicken nuggets and Reddy et al., 2017 in mutton nuggets.

Table 1 : Effect of incorporation of different levels of Sorghum flour on the proximate composition and organoleptic properties of chicken meat sausages (Mean ±S.E)

Parameters Control Chicken meat sausages incorporated with Sorghum flour
3 per cent 6 per cent 9per cent
Moisture % 61.86±0.27a 63.12±0.32b 64.80±0.07c 66.52±0.31d
Crude protein % 19.74±0.15d 17.35±0.38c 15.65±0.24b 13.75±0.50a
Crude fat % 14.52±0.11d 13.54±0.11c 12.57±0.11b 11.56±0.11a
Crude fiber % 1.43±0.01a 1.67±0.05b 1.73±0.04c 1.86±0.15d
Colour 7.00±0.24a 7.00±0.24a 7.12± 0.17a 7.33±0.28a
Flavour 6.67±0.39a 6.67±0.39a 6.83±0.16a 6.97±0.12a
Juiciness 6.00±0.24a 6.67±0.39ab 7.33±0.39b 7.58±0.80b
Tenderness 5.67±0.20a 6.67±0.20b 7.35±0.29bc 7.58±0.35c
Over all acceptability 6.42±0.35a 6.58±0.19a 7.42±0.30b 7.76±0.16b

(P<0.01); Means bearing at least one common superscript in the same row do not differ significantly.

Table 2: Effect of incorporation of different levels of barley flour on the proximate composition and organoleptic properties of chicken meat sausages (Mean ±S.E).

Parameters Control Chicken meat sausages incorporated with barley flour
3 per cent 6 per cent 9per cent
Moisture (per cent) 61.86±0.29a 63.51±0.41b 64.58±0.39c 66.34±0.31d
Crude protein (per cent) 19.74±0.15d 17.89±0.22c 16.99±0.31b 15.69±0.35a
Crude fat (percent) 14.52±0.11d 13.47±0.10c 12.69±0.06b 11.42±0.09a
Crude fiber (per cent) 1.43±0.01a 1.79±0.12b 1.97±0.11c 2.15±0.17d
Colour 7.00±0.21a 7.06±0.39a 7.09±0.25a 7.17±0.25a
Flavour 6.17±0.40a 7.67±0.71a 7.75±0.63a 7.83±0.48a
Juiciness 6.75±0.31a 7.67±0.56ab 7.79±0.45ab 8.27±0.31c
Tenderness 6.83±0.17a 7.83±0.17b 7.77±0.25b 8.33±0.33c
Over all acceptability 6.25±0.44a 7.92±0.33b 8.00±0.22b 8.32±0.06c

(P<0.01); Means bearing at least one common superscript in the same row do not differ significantly.

Table 3: Effect of incorporation of different levels of oat flour on the proximate composition and organoleptic properties of chicken meat sausages (Mean ± S.E)

Attributes / Parameters Control Chicken meat sausages incorporated with oat flour
3 per cent 6 per cent 9 per cent
Moisture (per cent) 61.86±0.29a 63.89±0.21b 64.58±0.38c 68.08±0.38d
Crude protein (per cent) 19.74±0.15d 17.53±0.72c 16.07±0.30b 15.75±0.17a
Crude fat (per cent) 14.52±0.11d 13.67±0.14c 12.49±0.10b 9.56±0.17a
Crude fiber (per cent) 1.43±0.01a 1.85±0.11b 2.09±0.28c 2.48±0.13d
Colour 7.08±0.33a 7.33±0.36a 7.42±0.27a 7.42±0.37a
Flavour 6.67±0.21a 7.25±0.31b 7.50±0.43b 8.00±0.26c
Juiciness 6.33±0.49a 7.18±0.40ab 7.23±0.40b 8.33±0.33c
Tenderness 6.75±0.40a 7.38±0.45ab 7.52±0.58ab 8.58±0.20c
Over all acceptability 6.42±0.33a 7.67±0.40b 7.72±0.58b 8.50±0.26c

(P<0.01); Means bearing at least one common superscript in the same row do not differ significantly.

Table 4: Effect of selected levels of flours (sorghum, barley & oat flours each at 9 %) on the proximate composition and sensory quality of chicken meat sausages (Mean ± S.E).

Attributes/ Parameters Control Chicken meat sausages incorporated with
SF 9 per cent BF 9 per cent OF 9 per cent
Moisture (per cent) 61.86±0.29a 66.52±0.31b 66.34±0.31b 68.08±0.38c
Crude protein (per cent) 19.74±0.15c 13.75±0.50a 15.69±0.35b 15.75±0.17b
Crude fat (per cent) 14.52±0.11c 11.56±0.11b 11.42±0.09b 9.56±0.17a
Crude fiber (per cent) 1.43±0.01a 1.86±0.15b 2.15±0.17c 2.48±0.13d
Colour 6.58±0.42a 7.08±0.35a 7.67±0.40a 7.42±0.37a
Flavour 6.67±0.39a 7.00±0.12a 7.17±0.28a 8.67±0.20b
Juiciness 6.00±0.24a 7.00±0.34a 7.33±0.31b 8.50±0.21c
Tenderness 5.67±0.21a 7.50±0.38b 7.20±0.32b 8.58±0.17c
Over all acceptability 6.42±0.35a 7.42±0.19b 7.45±0.23b 8.75±0.16c

(P<0.01); Means bearing at least one common superscript in the same row do not differ significantly.

Percent Crude Fat

The crude fat content was recorded as significantly (P<0.01) low for chicken meat sausages prepared with sorghum, oat and barley flours each at 9%. This might be due to lower moisture losses during processing in 9 percent level. Control had significantly (P<0.01) higher fat content. Among the flours, oat flour at 9% had significantly (P<0.01) lower crude fat content than other treatments at same level. Irrespective of type of flour formulations, increased level of extender had significantly (P<0.01) decreased the fat %. The results obtained in this study are in accordance with Yang et al. (2007, 2009) in pork sausages & duck meat sausages respectively, Modi et al., 2009 in mutton kofta, Prasad et al., 2011 in chicken kofta, Obula Reddy (2014) in chicken meat patties, Santhi and Kalaikannan (2014) in oat flour added low fat chicken nuggets and Reddy et al., 2017 in mutton nuggets.

Percent Crude Fiber

Chicken meat sausages extended with sorghum, oat and barley flours each at 9 % recorded significantly (P<0.01) higher crude fiber content as compared to 3 and 6 % levels of respective flours. Sausages with oat flour at 9% had significantly (P<0.01) higher crude fiber than the flours at same level. Irrespective of type of flour, increased level of extender had significantly (P<0.01) increased the % crude fiber. The results obtained in the study were in accordance with Prasad et al., 2011 in chicken kofta, Devatkal et al., 2011 in gluten-free chicken nuggets, Obula Reddy (2014) in chicken meat patties, Santhi and Kalaikannan (2014) in oat flour added low fat chicken nuggets and Reddy et al., 2017 in mutton nuggets.

Sensory Evaluation

Different flours at various levels showed no significant (P>0.01) effect on the colour of the product. Similar findings were noted by Serdaroglu and Degirmencioglu (2004) in Turkish beef meat sausages. Flavor scores of chicken meat sausages at 9 % oat flour secured significantly (P<0.01) higher than the other flours. Addition of oat flour might have incorporated the flavour precursors like alcohols and esters during cooking which have appreciable odour and taste. On the contrary, sorghum and barley flours masked the meat flavour which reduces flavour. These results were in agreement with findings of Yang et al. (2007, 2009) in pork and duck meat sausages respectively, Obula Reddy (2014) in chicken meat patties and Reddy et al., 2017 in mutton nuggets.

Juiciness and tenderness scores were significantly (P<0.01) higher for sausages incorporated with 9% sorghum, oat and barley flours. Higher juiciness scores might be due to increased moisture retention of the product during cooking. Higher tenderness might be due to breakage of intra and inter molecular cross linkages between the poly peptide chains of collagen during mincing of meat. Among the flours, chicken meat sausages incorporated with oat flour at 9 % level had highest (P<0.01) juiciness and tenderness scores. This might be due to the fact that oat flour at 9 % had higher moisture retention during cooking thus makes the product more juicy and tender. These results were in conformation with that of Yang et al., 2007 in low fat sausages, Modi et al., 2008 in cooked kofta, Devatkal et al., 2011 in gluten-free chicken nuggets, Obula Reddy (2014) in chicken meat patties, Santhi and Kalaikannan (2014) in low fat chicken nuggets and Reddy et al., 2017 in mutton nuggets.

Higher significant difference between different combinations of flours in the product for various parameters like flavour, juiciness and tenderness have influenced the panelists to rate high for the product and increases the overall acceptability of chicken meat sausages at 9% oat flour level.

Conclusion

The results of this study revealed that chicken meat sausages prepared with oat flour at 9 per cent level had recorded significantly (P<0.01) higher per cent moisture, crude fiber and lower per cent crude fat and better organoleptic traits viz., flavour, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability compared to the incorporation of other two flours and control. As the fiber content in raw meat is practically negligible, in the current study fiber content was improved and fat content was reduced without changing sensory parameters which reduces many dietary problems and gives great economical advantages for both the consumers and processors. Hence, incorporation of oat flour at 9 per cent level in chicken meat sausages was considered to be optimum for all the desired qualities.

References

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