Latent mastitis in lactating animals is a condition characterized not only by the presence of pathogens in the udder but also by changes in the biochemical profile in the milk. It causes decrease in milk quality and its market value as well as it is responsible for up to 70% of losses in mastitis (Ahmed et al., 2008). Latent mastitis causes great economic losses than clinical mastitis (Joshi and Gokhale, 2006). The prevalence of latent mastitis has increased enormously in India in the recent years (Tiwari and Sisodia, 2000). The latent form of mastitis is more difficult to identify and can only be diagnosed by a variety of direct or indirect laboratory tests. The detection of latent mastitis happens to be first pre-requisite of a modern dairy establishment. If the owner wishes to avoid the economic losses in their herd early detection of latent mastitis has always been a matter of great curiosity since latent mastitis shows no gross signs of inflammation. Even though the treatment of mastitis was undertaken; some cases will end up in failure. This may be due to the late commencement of the treatment, improper antibiotic and resistance of the pathogen to the antibiotic.
Latent mastitis in lactating animals is a condition characterized not only by the presence of pathogens in the udder but also by changes in the biochemical profile in the milk. It causes decrease in milk quality and its market value as well as it is responsible for up to 70% of losses in mastitis (Ahmed et al., 2008). Latent mastitis causes great economic losses than clinical mastitis (Joshi and Gokhale, 2006). The prevalence of latent mastitis has increased enormously in India in the recent years (Tiwari and Sisodia, 2000). The latent form of mastitis is more difficult to identify and can only be diagnosed by a variety of direct or indirect laboratory tests.
Material and Methods
An epidemiological investigation on latent mastitis was made on 300 animals by using Modified California Mastitis Test (MCMT) from different private organized dairy farms and Livestock farm Adhartal, M.P.P.C.V.V., Jabalpur.
The screening for the detection of latent mastitis was done by using Modified California Mastitis Test (MCMT), (Schalm et al., 1971). Milk samples were collected aseptically in a clean environment, thoroughly wiping the teats with 70% Isopropyl alcohol. After discarding the first few milk squirts, each 2 ml of milk sample from each quarter was drown in each of the 4 shallow cups in the CMT paddle then approximately equal volume of 2 ml of the CMT reagent i.e., Sodium lauryl sulphate was added to each cup and mixed together through swirling the paddle in a circular motion for few seconds. According to the visible reaction of the CMT, the results were classified into four scores: 0= negative or traces (no change in consistency), 1= slightly positive (+), 2= positive (++) and 3= highly positive (+++). Scores 1, 2 and 3 depend on the degree of gelatin that were indicated by gelatinous mass (Schuppel and Schwope, 1998).
Results and Discussions
The overall incidence of infected animal was found to be 40% (120/300) on animal basis and 26.63% (301/1130) on quarter basis which is closely similar with the finding of Tiwari et al. (2000b) who reported 42.10% incidence of latent mastitis in Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh. The overall incidence latent mastitis was found to be 26.63% on quarter basis which was closely correlated to 23.08%, 25.12% and 23.10% recorded by Bansal et al. (1995a); Tiwari et al. (2000a) and Tiwari et al. (2000b), respectively.
Age wise incidence of latent mastitis in buffaloes revealed highest 46.19% (5-6 years) group followed by 22.38% (7-8 years), 20.95% (3-4 years), 6.66% (9-10 years) and 3.80% (11-12 years), respectively. These finding were in agreement Lairintlunanga et al. (2003) who reported that buffaloes between 4-6 years age were more prone to infection. During 5-6 years of age, the animals were approximately in 3rd to 4th lactation had a highest milk yield, thus remained under stress and were more prone to infection.
In the present study, the incidence of latent mastitis was higher in the hind quarters (65.45%) when compared to fore quarters (31.56%) which is in agreement with the reports of Joshi and Gokhale, 2006 (56.52% and 43.47%) and Ramprabhu and Rajeswar, 2006 (54.54% and 45.46%). The higher incidence of latent mastitis in hind quarter could be due to greater exposure to dung and urine contamination (Singh and Baxi 1980; Bansal et al. 1995a).
The right side quarters were more susceptible to latent mastitis (54.15%) as compared to left side quarters (41.86%). because the animals adapted to right side sitting posture. This posture caused widening of teat canal due to pressure exerted to right side quarters, provided exposed to organism entrance.
The higher incidence of latent mastitis was noticed during the third lactation in buffaloes (23.33%). It was also higher (50.00%) during the early stage of lactation (Prasad et al., 2000 and Lairintlunanga et al., 2003). This might be confined to higher yielding stress on udder cause the broadening of teat canal due to the pressure on teat sphincters resulting in increased chances of microbes entry and hence increased incidence of latent mastitis during advance lactation.
Ahmed, W.M., I. Sherein, E. Moez and N.M. Ghada (2008). Observations on subclinical mastitis in buffalo-cows with emphasis on measuring of milk electrical resistance for its early detection. Global Veterinaria, 2 (1): 41-45.
Joshi, S. and S. Gokhale (2006). Status of mastitis as an emerging disease in improved and periurban dairy farms in India. BAIF Development Research Foundation and Research Station, Uruli Kanchan, Pune, Maharashtra. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1081: 74-83.
Tiwari, A. and R.S. Sisodia (2000). Therapeutic approach for subclinical mastitis in cows with Amoxicillin and Cloxacillin combination. Intas Polivet, 1(1): 96-100.
Schalm, O.W., E.J. Carrole and N.C. Jain (1971). Bovine Mastitis. 1st Ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, London.
Schuppel, H., and M. Schwope (1998). Diagnosis of mastitis using California mastits test and measurement of electrical conductivity. Archiv Fur Lebensmitter Hygiene, 49: 61.
Tiwari, A., R.S. Sisodia, R.K. Sharma, K.S. Misraulia and U.K. Garg (2000b). Incidence of subclinical mastitis in cows of Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh. Indian J. Dairy Sci., 53(4): 328-331.
Tiwari, A., R.S. Sisodia and G.P. Tiwari (2000a). Present status of subclinical mastitis in cows of Malwa region of madhya Pradesh: “A review”. In : Proceedings of Indian Veterinary Congress, Indian Association for Advancement of Veterinary Research (IAAVR), Round Table Conference on Mastitis, IVRI, Izatnagar 18-19 Feb., 2000. Bareilly (U.P.). pp 23-37.
Bansal, B.K., K.B. Singh, R. Rohan, D.V. Joshi and D.C. Nauriyal (1995a). Incidence of subclinical mastitis in buffalo herds in Punjab. J. Res. PAU, 32(1): 79-81.
Lairintluanga, C., E.L. Ralte and Hmarkunga (2003). Incidence of mastitis, bacteriology and antibiogram in bovines in Aizawl, Mizoram. Indian Vet. J., 80(9): 931-932.
Ramprabhu, R. and J.J. Rajeswar (2006). Comparative efficacy of different indirect tests in the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in bovines. Indian Vet. J., 83(8): 903-904.
Singh, K.B. and K.K Baxi (1980). Studies on incidence and diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in milch animals. Indian Vet. J., 57: 723- 729.