The present study was designed to standardize the energy and protein levels in diet of Swarnadhara female parent stock during growing period. An experiment was conducted using 384 Swarnadhara female parent stock (13–20 weeks age) for 56 days. Four grower mash diets were formulated to inter-relate energy (2500/2400 kcal ME/kg) with protein (16/15% CP) at variable levels (2500kcal ME/kg/16 % CP –T1; 2500kcal ME/kg/15 % CP –T2; 2400kcal ME/kg/16 % CP –T3 and 2400kcal ME/kg/15 % CP –T4). Birds were divided into 32 replicates of 12 birds each and the above said four diets were offered randomly to 8 replicate groups. All the experimental birds were maintained under deep litter system with identical managemental conditions. Serum was separated from the blood collected in two birds of each replication at every 28-day interval. Results revealed that overall mean antibody titers against Newcastle disease ranged significantly (P<0.05) from 103 (T2) to 328 (T4). However, pooled mean ELISA titers varied non-significantly (P<0.05) from as low as 6411 (T3) to as high as 7594 (T4). Results concluded that 2400kcal ME/kg/15 % CP –T4in the diet (T4) tended to enhance the antibody titers against Newcastle disease as well as against infectious Bursal disease.
Poultry production has got a spectacular explosion leading to high profile industry in the recent years. Which is being the fastest growing sector of Indian agriculture having long history of backyard farming. Fewer genetic stocks have been developed recently for promoting rural poultry production and marketed under different names. One among such is Swarnadhara. Optimization of the nutrients’ density of a ration for parent stock in terms of energy as well as protein is of prime importance. Keeping these points in view an experiment was designed to find optimum energy: protein ratio for better immunity in growing Swarnadhara poults.
Materials and Methods
The experimental grower mash diets (T1 to T4) were formulated to inter relate energy with protein at variable levels using yellow maize, deoiled rice bran, soybean meal, sunflower extractions, salt, mineral mixture and additives. Experimental dietary design has been described in Table 1.
Table 1: Dietary description of experimental grower diets
|Treatment||Metabolizable Energy (kcal/kg)||Crude Protein (%)|
|T1||High Energy High Protein||2500||16|
|T2||High Energy Low Protein||2500||15|
|T3||Low Energy High Protein||2400||16|
|T4||Low Energy Low Protein||2400||15|
The ingredient composition of each formulated diet in detail is being given in Table 2 and all these diets were subjected for chemical analysis according to standard procedures (AOAC, 2005).
Table 2: Ingredient composition of experimental diets compounded during feeding trial of growers
|De-oiled rice bran||270||305||330||350|
|Mineral mixture 1||35||35||35||35|
|B complex 3||200||200||200||200|
1Mineral mixture contained: Moisture – 3 %, Ca – 32 %, P – 9 %, Mn – 0.27 %, Zn – 0.26 %, I – 0.01 %, Cu – 0.01 %, Fe – 0.10%, Fl –0.03% (Max).
2Each gram contained: Vitamin A – 82,500 IU, Vitamin B2 – 50 mg, Vitamin D3 – 12,000 IU, Vitamin K – 10 mg, Organic Nutritive Carrier – Q.S.
3Each gram contained: Vitamin B1 – 4 mg, Vitamin B6 – 8 mg, Vitamin B12 – 40 µg, Vitamin E – 40 mg, Calcium-d-pantothenate – 40 mg, Niacin – 60 mg, Organic Nutritive Carrier – Q.S.
4Each gram contained: DL-Methionine – 980 mg.
5Anticoccidial contained Maduramycin Ammonium – 1%
6Antibiotic growth promoter contained Zinc Bacitracin – 15%
Female Swarnadhara birds (384 number) of about 9 weeks age from two different hatches of 10 days difference were selected and were stabilized for 21 days feeding with a practical grower mash diet. At the age of 12 weeks, they were divided into 32 groups of 12 birds each and each of the above mentioned four diets was offered randomly to eight replicate groups. A completely randomized design was used to carry out the experiment. The birds of four replicate groups out of eight from each treatment were housed in adjacent pens and remaining four replicates were housed exactly in opposite of other side of the poultry house. All the birds were reared under deep litter system provided with paddy husk as the litter material. Feed restriction programme was followed throughout the experimental period (13-20 weeks) to maintain the ideal body weight of the breeder flock. Each pen was provided with a tubular type of feeder and a continuous channel type of waterer on both sides of the house for clean and fresh water. By and large, the distribution of replications of treatments was essentially uniform. The experimental birds at the age of 10th week of age were beak trimmed (upper 1/3rd) using electrical debeaker to prevent cannibalism and during 11th week, they were dewormed using levamisole (@ 13 mg/kg BW) through feed. Subsequently, during 12th week, all the birds were vaccinated against New Castle disease using live vaccine through subcutaneous route. Apart from these, all the birds were maintained under uniform standard managemental conditions including lighting programme, preventive or therapeutic disease control schedule, feeding frequency, watering methods and other routine bio-security aspects. The experiment was conducted for 56 days which was divided into four 14-day interval periods.
Two birds from each replication were selected randomly at the start of the experiment (12th week of birds’ age) and they were bled to collect blood of 1 ml each from its wing vein. The blood collected from each bird was transferred into a clean, sterilized and labeled test tube for separation of serum. The test tubes were held in a slanting position to facilitate serum separation as per the standard procedures (Calnek et al., 1992) and the clear non-haemolysed serum was then transferred into a clean, sterilized and labeled vial. The separated serum samples were stored at -200C for further estimation of immunity titers. Further, the same birds (with appropriate random substitution in cases of mortality, if any), were bled to collect the serum at subsequent 28-day intervals. Immunological titers (ND and IBD) were estimated from serum samples thus collected at M/s. Venkateshwara Hatcheries Private Limited Laboratory, Bangalore. The data pertaining to various parameters obtained during the experimental trial were analyzed in completely randomized design according to the procedures described by Snedecor and Cochran (1989).
Results and Discussion
The proximate composition including that of calcium and phosphorus of experimental grower diets were analysed on different occasions of the 56-day experimental period is given in Table 3.
Table 3: Analysed chemical composition of experimental diets compounded during grower phase of the experiment
|Treatment||Proximate Composition (%)1||Minerals (%)||ME 2 (kcal/kg)|
|No.||Description||Dry matter||Crude Protein||Ether Extract||Crude Fiber||Total Ash||NFE||Ca||P|
|T1||High Energy High Protein||91.23||16.42||2.28||10.12||8.84||62.34||1.31||1.14||2534|
|T2||High Energy Low Protein||91.14||15.02||2.33||10.56||9.12||62.97||1.26||1.21||2524|
|T3||Low Energy High Protein||90.79||15.96||2.01||10.87||8.32||62.84||1.27||1.15||2448|
|T4||Low Energy Low Protein||90.54||15.23||1.98||12.11||9.41||61.27||1.3||1.19||2441|
1 Average values of samples on 4 occasions; 2Calculated value
The per cent dry matter (DM) content of experimental diets ranged from 90.54 (T4) to 91.23 (T1) while that of analyzed crude protein (CP) content was 16.42, 15.02, 15.96 and 15.23 per cent, respectively in T1, T2, T3 and T4 diets. The ether extract (EE), crude fiber (CF), total ash (TA) and nitrogen free extractives (NFE) of diets were ranging from 1.98 (T4) to 2.33 (T2); 10.12 (T1) to 12.11 (T4); 8.32 (T3) to 9.41 (T4) and 61.27 (T4) to 62.97 (T2) per cent, respectively. The mineral composition for calcium and phosphorus analysed for the said diets ranged from 1.26 (T2) to 1.31 (T1) and 1.14 (T1) to 1.21 (T2), respectively. The calculated metabolizable energy (ME) values were found to be 2534 (T1), 2524 (T2), 2448 (T3) and 2441 (T4) kcal/kg. The chosen levels of protein in the two test diets (T2 and T4) of the present study were close to the value as recommended by Reddy and Rajendiran (2002). However, the other two diets (T1 and T3) were selected with slightly higher protein values to see the counter effect, if any. Contrarily, the metabolizable energy values were much lower than the values recommended by Reddy and Rajendiran (2002).
The status of antibody titers in birds against Newcastle disease (ND) by HI test as well as against Infectious Bursal disease (IBD) by ELISA at the start of experiment and on two more succeeding 28-day intervals in various dietary groups estimated is presented in Table 4 and 5, respectively.
Table 4: ND titer values of experimental birds fed different diets during different time intervals of grower trial
|No.||Description||1st Day NS||28th Day *||56th Day *||Mean *|
|T1||High Energy High Protein||52±13||216±50ab||116±24b||128±20b|
|T2||High Energy Low Protein||126±62||56±5b||128±30b||103±27b|
|T3||Low Energy High Protein||132±61||170±59b||210±74b||171±26b|
|T4||Low Energy Low Protein||100±25||372±110a||512±158a||328±65a|
* Within column, means bearing at least one common superscript are statistically similar (P≥ 0.05); NS Non-significant
Table 5: IBD titer values of experimental birds fed different diets during different time intervals of grower trial
|No.||Description||1st Day*||28thDay NS||56th Day*||Mean NS|
|T1||High Energy High Protein||5994±325ab||6695±551||6645±562b||6444±353|
|T2||High Energy Low Protein||5893±721ab||7680±636||7231±482ab||6935±466|
|T3||Low Energy High Protein||5301±453b||6661±848||7270±407ab||6411±336|
|T4||Low Energy Low Protein||6732±375a||7793±913||8258±687a||7594±486|
* Within column, means bearing at least one common superscript are statistically similar (P≥ 0.05); NS Non-significant
The mean HI titer values were by and large quite uniform (P ≥ 0.05) at the start, while the effect of diets on HI titer was evident at 28th day and persisted till the end of the experiment (56th day). The mean HI titers ranged from 52 (T1) to 132 (T3) on 1st day; 56 (T2) to 372 (T4) on 28th day and 116 (T1) to 512 (T4) on 56th day. The results reveal that, 2400kcal ME/kg/15 % CP in the diet (T4) tended to enhance the antibody titers against Newcastle disease throughout the experimental period over other diets. The overall mean values ranged significantly (P ≤ 0.05) from 103 (T2) to 328 (T4). Contrarily, In vivo supplementation of tryptophan (0.5%) on 18thday incubation of eggs has showed increased HI titer against ND virus on 4th day of post-hatch in broilers (Nayak et al., 2018). However, inclusion of turmeric at 2.5, 5 and 7.5 g / kg in broiler diets resulted in higher immunity status (Emadi and Kermanshahi, 2007).
The mean values of ELISA titers under different dietary groups varied from 5301 (T3) to 6732 (T4); from 6661 (T3) to 7793 (T4) and from 6645 (T1) to 8258 (T4) on 1st day, 28th day and 56th day, respectively. These mean titers were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different at initial day as well as on 56th day while they were non-significant (P ≥ 0.05) on 28th day. Here also, 2400kcal ME/kg /15 % CP (T4) recorded highest antibody titers from start till the end of the experiment. The pooled mean value varied non-significantly (P ≥ 0.05) from as low as 6411 (T3) to as high as 7594 (T4). The mean ND titers ranged from 52 (T1) to 132 (T3) on 1st day (P ≥ 0.05); 56 (T2) to 372 (T4) on 28th day (P ≤ 0.05) and 116 (T1) to 512 (T4) on 56th day (P ≤ 0.05). The results reveal that, 2400kcal ME/kg/15 % CP in the diet (T4) tended to enhance the antibody titers against Newcastle disease. The mean values of IBD titers under different dietary groups varied from 5301 (T3) to 6732 (T4); from 6661 (T3) to 7793 (T4) and from 6645 (T1) to 8258 (T4) on 1st day (P ≤ 0.05), 28th day (P ≥ 0.05) and 56th day (P ≤ 0.05), respectively. The low 2400kcal ME/kg/15 % CP diet (T4) boosted the immunity status of birds. It had been shown that CP reduction (from 21 % to 19 %) no way influenced immunity against ND and IBD in a trial conducted by Joseph et al. (2017) in Swarnadhara chicks. However, supplementation of lutein at 40 mg / kg DM in the diet of captive golden pheasents has improved antioxidant and cellular immunity levels (Yogi et al., 2018). Similarly, Galal et al. (2016) fed oregano essential oil at 50 ppm and 100 ppm to broilers through drinking water have recorded higher antibody titer against NDV and avian influenza virus.
The suggested optimum level of energy and protein in grower phase of Swarnadhara female parent stock is 2500 kcal ME / kg and 15% CP, respectively for better immunity.