The experiment was conducted on one hundred turkey birds to study the influence of sex on the blood biochemical parameters. Turkey birds with the age ranging between 8-10, 11-13, 14-16, 17-19 and above 26 weeks were grouped as Group 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively each containing 20 turkey birds, 10 of either sex. All the serum biochemical estimations were carried on automatic biochemical analyzer following the manufactures protocol and instructions. Serum total proteins and serum albumin values were significantly higher in males than in females. Sex plays a non-significant role in the serum concentrations of the globulin. There was a significant effect of sex on level of glucose in turkeys of all age groups. Serum triglycerides values in males were lower than the values in females except in adult turkeys. The males were having a higher mean serum cholesterol level than that of the female studied in the experiment. In conclusion, there was a significant influence of sex on biochemical parameters like total protein, albumin, glucose, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol except globulin.
Indian poultry sector has made a remarkable progress during the last three decades evolving from backyard venture to a full-fledged commercial agro-industrial business. This poultry sector with well developed broiler and layer industry is one of the important contributors to the economy of rural and semi urban India. Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is a large gallinaceous bird of the family Meleagridae that was native of North America, domesticated in Europe and are now important source of food in many parts of the world (Brant, 1998). Turkey, occupies an important position next to chicken, duck, guinea fowl and quail, which is playing a significant role in augmenting the economic and nutritional status of varied population across the globe. They form almost 2 % of the total poultry population. Turkeys are reared only for their tasty and high-quality meat all over the world. In India, turkey population is mostly concentrated in and around cosmopolitan cities. Serious efforts are being made by Central Poultry Development Organization (CPDO, Southern Region), Hessarghatta, Bangalore and Central Poultry Development Organization (Western Region) Mumbai to promote turkey farming, due to which it is getting popularity in southern region as well as western region of India including Maharashtra. In India, indigenous and non-descript turkeys are found in good numbers in Punjab, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Under this circumstance turkey industry has been gaining momentum in India especially because turkey’s meat while providing all essential substances as other meat, has comparatively low percentage of fat and high percentage of proteins reported by Nixie and Grey (1985). Nutrition, sex, genetics (breed and crossbreeding), reproductive status, starvation, environmental factors, stress and transportation are known to affect biochemical parameters as reported by Balicki et al. (2007). Evaluation of blood chemistry parameters can be used to assess animal health. Similarly, serum biochemical values can be obtained easily and are useful in determining the health and general condition of birds as per Schmidt et al. (2009). A review of the literature by Schmidt et al. (2009) reveals a lack of data on the biochemical composition of turkey blood. Some studies were reported with a small number of birds and give no details concerning the sex, state of reproduction or other conditions. While turkeys are emerging as an important source of animal proteins, the available records of their biochemical profile are very scanty. Hence, considering the above facts, the present study was planned to study the influence of sex on the biochemical parameters of turkey birds.
Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted on hundred turkey birds to study the influence of sex on the blood biochemical parameters. Turkey birds with the age ranging between 8-10, 11-13, 14-16, 17-19 and above 26 weeks were grouped as Group 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively each containing 20 turkey birds, 10 of either sex. Turkey birds were maintained under identical managemental conditions.
Blood Sample Collection
Twenty blood samples, 10 from the birds of either sex were collected from each group in morning hours for sex wise study by wing vain puncture using sterile needle of 23 gauges. The blood samples were collected in sterile test tubes. The serum was separated from these blood samples and was stored at -20oC until analysis.
All the biochemical estimations were carried out on automatic biochemical analyzer using biochemical kits manufactured by Transasia Biochemical’s Ltd., (ERBA), Mumbai, following the manufactures protocol and instructions. The total serum proteins were estimated by Biuret method described by Tietz (1986). Serum Albumin was estimated by BCG Dye Method (Benjamin, 2001). The serum globulin values were derived by subtracting the serum albumin levels from that of serum total proteins level. The serum glucose was estimated by Trinder’s Method. The serum triglycerides were estimated by GPO-Trinder method. The serum cholesterol was estimated by CHOD-PAP method described by Allain et al. (1974).
For Sex wise comparison Student t test was used as a tool for statistical analysis.
Effect of Sex on Serum Total Proteins
The mean ± SE values of total protein (g/dl) in different sex groups of turkey birds are presented in Table 1. The total protein values in male sex turkey ranged from 3.18 ± 0.46 to 4.35 ± 0.32 while it was ranged between 2.71 ± 0.3 to 5.06 ± 0.57 in female sex. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that there was a significant difference (p<0.01) in the value of total protein in males and female sex in the groups viz. group 2, group 4 and group 5 However it was comparable in group 1 and group 3.
Effect of Sex on Albumin
The mean ± SE values of albumin (g/dl) in different sex groups are presented in and is illustrated in Table 1. From the group wise data of mean values of albumin in male and female it was revealed that males were having significantly higher albumin levels in almost all the age groups except Group 4. However, the overall mean albumin values were 1.62 ± 0.09 in males and 1.88 ± 0.12 in females. The overall mean higher value of serum albumin in female sex was due to higher level recorded in group 5.
Table 1: Mean +/- S. E. values of total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride, glucose cholesterol in different age groups of males and females in turkey
Effect of Sex on Globulin (g/dl)
The mean ± SE values of globulin (g/dl) in different sex groups are presented in Table 1. The globulin in different sex groups ranged from 0.65 ± 0.38 to 2.00 ± 0.45 in males and 0.46 ± 0.39 to 1.62 ± 0.58 in females. The overall mean observed was 1.1 ± 0.06 in males and 1.01 ± 0.06 in females. The values of globulin (g/dl) in different age groups in males and females were viz. Group 1 (1.59 ± 0.44 and 1.37 ± 0.31), Group 2 (1.77 ± 0.38 and 1.48 ±0.24), Group 3 (2.00 ± 0.45 and 1.62 ± 0.58), Group 4 (0.65 ± 0.38 and 0.46 ±0.39) and Group 5 (0.80 ± 0.32 and 0.60 ± 0.45), respectively. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that there was no significant difference in the values of serum globulin in males and females.
Effect of Sex on Glucose (mg/dl)
The mean ± SE value of plasma glucose (mg/dl) in different age groups are presented in Table 1. The analysis of variance for age wise comparison is given in Table. The mean ± SE values of serum glucose in different sex groups are presented in Table 1. The serum glucose in different sex groups ranged from 138.93 ± 4.43 to 189.53 ± 5.82 in males and 163.62 ± 5.82 to 202.87 ± 8.63 in females. The overall mean observed was 142.7 ± 0.67 in males and 145.3 ± 6.1 in females.
Effect of Sex on Triglycerides
The mean ± SE values of triglycerides (mg/dl) in different sex are presented in Table 1. The triglycerides levels in different sex groups ranged from 55.35 ± 4.42 to 82.63 ±11.6 in males and 53.42 ±5.94 to 99.81 ± 7.47 in females. The overall mean observed was 62.34 ± 2.91 in males and 64.86 ± 2.98 in females.
Effect of Sex on Cholesterol (g/dl)
The mean ± SE values of cholesterol (mg/dl) in different sex groups are presented in Table 1. The cholesterol level in different sex ranged from 176.33 ± 5.19 to 186.07 ± 6.94 in males and 160.56 ± 9.77 to 186.21 ± 3.53 in females. The overall mean observed was 150.2 ± 0.67 in males and 149 ± 6.04 in females.
Bounous et al. (2000) recorded protein value ranged between 4.85 – 6.01 g/dl in eleven months old wild turkeys and 9.7 ± 0.5 and 4.6 ± 0.5 g/dl in male and female wild turkeys respectively. Aarif and Mahapatra (2013) reported the total protein concentrations in male and female turkey birds in control group as 3.17 g/dl and 3.01 g/dl, respectively. Similarly Ibrahim et al. (2012) observed that the mean total serum protein values in male turkeys were higher than that of the female turkeys. From the data it can be inferred that total protein values were significantly higher in males than in females in all age groups. The value of total protein increased with in age in both male and female.
Priya and Gomathy (2008); Ibrahim et al. (2012); Aarif and Mahapatra (2013) observed the serum albumin (g/dl) values in turkeys and reported that males were having higher values than that of the female in all the age groups, which was in close agreement with our finding. The overall results of our study indicated that the serum albumin values increases as the age of the both male and female sex advances. The serum albumin values were higher in male than in female. Sex has influence on serum albumin in turkey. The globulin in different sex groups ranged from 0.65 ± 0.38 to 2.00 ± 0.45 in males and 0.46 ± 0.39 to 1.62 ± 0.58 in females. The overall mean observed was 1.1 ± 0.06 in males and 1.01 ± 0.06 in females. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that there was no significant difference in the values of serum globulin in males and females. The globulin values in males were higher in all the groups which was in close agreement with the findings recorded by Priya and Gomathy (2008) who reported that the variations in the level of globulin were similar to the variations observed in other species. From the data it was revealed that sex play a non-significant role in the serum concentration of the globulin.
Statistical analysis revealed that there was significant difference (p<0.01) in the level of serum glucose among males and females in all the age groups with higher values in females. These findings are in close agreement with Priya and Gomathy (2008), but in closed arbitrarily age groups and Isidahomen et al. (2013) reported significantly higher values in female turkeys than that of males, which was in close agreement with present study. However, the findings of Arif and Mahapatra (2013) in Broad Breasted Turkeys of male were higher than females, which was not in agreement with our findings. Thus, it can be inferred that there was a significant effect of sex on level of glucose (mg/dl) in turkeys of all age groups which might be associated with difference in endocrine status of birds in males and females of different age.
Statistical analysis revealed that there was significant difference (p<0.01) in the values of the triglycerides in males and females of groups 1, 2 and 3. However, no significant difference was found between groups 4 and 5. Further, it was revealed that the values in males were lower than the values in females in all age groups except in adult turkeys. Present findings with respect to the values of triglycerides in different sexes could not be compared with the previous data since the information available with respect to different sexes is very scanty.
Statistical analysis of the data revealed that there was a significant difference (p<0.01) in the values of cholesterol for male and female among all the age groups except that of group 4. These findings are in close agreement with Priya and Gomathy (2008) who observed an increasing trend in both male and female from the day of hatch to 12-18 weeks, and was fluctuated thereafter. Exogenous estrogen however does increase plasma cholesterol level. Lisano and Quay (1977) estimated mean cholesterol level over 13 months period and reported 159.8 ± 38.1 mg/dl and 123.2 ± 26.7 mg/dl in female and male wild turkeys, respectively and EGU UN (2016) reported the cholesterol level after treatment in the males in normal range which was not in agreement with our studies, since the values for the same in males of all age groups except group 3 where higher in males than that of females. It was inferred that there was an influence of sex on the mean cholesterol levels in males and females. The males were having a higher mean cholesterol value than that of the female in almost all age groups.
There was a significant influence of sex on biochemical parameters like total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol.