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Influence of Super Dosing of Phytase Enzyme on Performance of Broiler Chicken

S. G. Raut M. V. Dhumal M. G. Nikam K. K. Khose
Vol 8(7), 220-231
DOI- http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20170921044550

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of broiler by super dosing of phytase. 375, one days old Vencobb400 straight run chicks were weighed and distributed randomly into five treatment groups viz, A, B, C, D and E with three replicates of 25 chicks each. The recommended nutritional matrix for 500 FTU was used as per manufacturer guidelines. Treatment group A was control, B was fed with phytase enzyme with @ 500 FTU matrixes/ ton of feed, C was fed with phytase enzyme with @ 1000 FTU with 500 FTU matrix/ ton of feed, D was with phytase enzyme with @ 1500 FTU with 500 FTU matrix/ ton of feed and E was fed with phytase enzyme with @ 2000 FTU with 500 FTU matrix/ ton of feed. The cumulative body weights, feed consumption and FCR up to 6th week of age were non-significant. The performance of Phytase supplemented groups was at par to that of control even by reducing the nutrients as per matrix and best performance was observed for treatment groups D. The serum calcium values at 42 days differ significantly (P<0.05), however serum phosphorus values showed non-significant differences. An enhanced profitability was recorded for super dosing treatment groups using nutritional matrix with increasing the doses level. An increase in profitability was due to lower feed cost, thereby reduced cost of production. It concluded that super dosing of phytase increased the better utilization of nutrients thereby improved performance than non-supplemented group. The diet prepared as per nutritional matrix phytase @ 500 FTU of feed and super dosing with 1500 FTU of feed was more beneficial from bird’s performance and improved profitability.


Keywords : Broiler Performance Calcium and Phosphorus Retention Economics Nutritional Matrix Phytase Supplementation

An antinutritional effect of phytic acid causes deficiency related diseases in monogastrics which might lead to poor quality egg and meat in poultry. Phytate forms a strong complex with some protein and resist their proteolysis (Kumar et al., 2010). Phytate intake was found to reduce the blood glucose response (Lee et al., 2006). Removal or degradation of phytic acid would therefore increase the bioavailability of many cations and improve nutritional value of the meal (Bohn et al., 2008). Phosphorus is the second most abundant mineral in the animal body. As with calcium, the formation and maintenance of bone are quantitatively the most important function. The 20% of Phosphorus not present in the skeletal tissues is widely distributed in the fluids and soft tissue of the body; it serves a range of essential function, dietary additions of feed phosphates not only increase the feed and production cost but may also lead to an increase of soluble P in the excreta. Due to phytate, phosphorus is unavailable or poorly utilized by broiler birds. This unavailability is because of the very low phytase activity found in the digestive tract of the birds.  Therefore, diets of broiler birds are often supplemented with sources of inorganic Phosphorus to meet the Phosphorus requirements of the birds, it increase the cost of the diets and contributes to environmental pollution (Wang et al., 2013).

It may be a more complex strategy involving the use of high doses of phytase to accommodate the replacement of expensive animal protein meals with cheaper vegetable alternatives. The use of super dosing levels of microbial phytase in the diets of poultry results in increase feed intake and commensurate weight gain probably via phosphorus availability mechanism. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) may be improved via inositol liberation and phytate destruction. The use of higher levels of phytase is wide spread and performance enhancement is observed. The mechanisms are still not entirely clear.  Phosphorus availability, inositol liberation and phytase destruction these three components work together and contribute to the overall positive effect reported in the literature. With all this in view, the present experimental design is planned to study the effects of super dosing of phytase enzyme on performance of broiler.

Materials and Methods

Formulation of Experimental Ration

One unit of phytase activity was defined as the quantity of enzyme required to free 1 µmol of inorganic Phosphorus /min. from 5 mol sodium phytate at pH 5.5 at 370c. (PU/ FTU indicate Phytase activity). The rations were prepared as per BIS,2007 and recommended nutritional matrix for 500 FTU was considered as per manufacturer guidelines (phytase was supplied by AB Vista, South Asia, Pune )  and phytase enzyme added in experimental treatment groups B, C, D and E @ 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 FTU, respectively  with use of 500 FTU matrix for each treatment group. The experimental diets A were basal diet without phytase enzyme. The feed was prepared at Feed Mixing Plant, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, MAFSU, Parbhani.  The diet composition and nutritional level in feed during pre-starter, starter and finisher are presented in Table 2 and 3 respectively.  The nutritional matrix values (Table 1) of commercial enzyme product was considered for broiler as per recommended by manufacture for an inclusion of 100 gm phytase/ ton of feed ensuring 500 PU/FTU.

Table 1: Nutrient matrix value of 500 FTU phytase for broiler

  500ftu/kg (100gm/t)
Available P (%) 1500
Ca (%) 1650
Sodium (%) 350
Lysine (%) 170
Methionine (%) 39
Cystine (%) 351
Methionine + Cystine (%) 390
Threonine (%) 330
Tryptophan (%) 190
Glysine + Serine (%) 570
Arginine (%) 130
Valine (%) 230
Isoleusine (%) 255
Crude Protein (%) 4210
ME (MJ/Kg) (%) 2170
ME (Kcal/Kg) (%) 520000

Table 2: Percent ingredients, rate, cost, composition of prestarter rations for control and super dosing phytase enzymes groups

Ingredient   Prestarter
Kg/100 Kg Rates/kg Control Amount 500 FTU Amount 1000FTU Amount 1500FTU Amount 2000 FTU Amount
Corn 15 53.2 798 54.76 821.4 54.76 821.4 54.76 821.4 54.76 821.4
Soy meal 46 41 1886 39.5 1817 39.5 1817 39.5 1817 39.5 1817
Soy oil 75 3 225 2.5 187.5 2.5 187.5 2.5 187.5 2.5 187.5
DCP 38 1.5 57 1.3 49.4 1.3 49.4 1.3 49.4 1.3 49.4
LSP 3 1 3 0.7 2.1 0.7 2.1 0.7 2.1 0.7 2.1
Salt 7 0.3 2.1 0.34 2.38 0.34 2.38 0.34 2.38 0.34 2.38
SBC 40 …. ….. 0.15 6 0.15 6 0.15 6 0.15 6
lysine HCl 200 0.17 34 0.15 30 0.15 30 0.15 30 0.15 30
Methionine 380 0.18 68.4 0.2 76 0.2 76 0.2 76 0.2 76
L-threonine 150 ….. ….. 0.05 7.5 0.05 7.5 0.05 7.5 0.05 7.5
Vitamin 440 0.15 66 0.1 44 0.1 44 0.1 44 0.1 44
Mineral 300 0.3 90 0.1 30 0.1 30 0.1 30 0.1 30
Ch-Ch 90 0.06 5.4 0.1 9 0.1 9 0.1 9 0.1 9
Coccidiostat 200 0.05 10 0.05 10 0.05 10 0.05 10 0.05 10
Total     3244.9 100 3092.28 100 3092.28 100 3092.28 100 3092.28
Cost/Kg     32.44   30.92   30.92   30.92   30.92
Phytase 600 …… ….. 0.01 6 0.02 12 0.03 18 0.04 24
Total     3244.9   3098.28   3104.28   3110.28   3116.28
Cost/Kg     32.44   30.98   31.04   31.1   31.16

The pre-starter ration was offered for first eight days, starter ration was offered from 9th day up to end of 21st day of age and finisher ration was offered thereafter up to 42nd day of age. The cost of rearing the chicks for complete experiment was calculated by taking into consideration the cost of chick, cost of total feed consumed by bird, cost of litter, vaccination, medication expenses.

Table 3: Percent ingredients, rate, cost, composition of starter rations for control and super dosing phytase enzymes groups

Ingredient   Starter
Kg/100 Kg Rates/kg control Amount 500 FTU Amount 1000FTU Amount 1500FTU Amount 2000 FTU Amount
Corn 15 54 810 60.75 911.25 60.75 911.25 60.75 911.25 60.75 911.25
Soy meal 46 39 1794 34.5 1587 34.5 1587 34.5 1587 34.5 1587
Soy oil 75 4.2 315 2.2 165 2.2 165 2.2 165 2.2 165
DCP 38 1.5 57 0.73 27.74 0.73 27.74 0.73 27.74 0.73 27.74
LSP 3 1 3 0.76 2.28 0.76 2.28 0.76 2.28 0.76 2.28
Salt 7 0.3 2.1 0.2 1.4 0.2 1.4 0.2 1.4 0.2 1.4
SBC 40 …… ….. 0.15 6 0.15 6 0.15 6 0.15 6
L-lysine HCl 200 0.13 26 0.15 30 0.15 30 0.15 30 0.15 30
Dl methionine 380 0.19 72.2 0.25 95 0.25 95 0.25 95 0.25 95
L-threonine 150 …… ….. 0.06 9 0.06 9 0.06 9 0.06 9
Vitamin 440 0.15 66 0.05 22 0.05 22 0.05 22 0.05 22
Mineral 300 0.3 90 0.1 30 0.1 30 0.1 30 0.1 30
Choline chloride 90 0.06 5.4 0.05 4.5 0.05 4.5 0.05 4.5 0.05 4.5
Coccidiostat 200 0.05 10 0.05 10 0.05 10 0.05 10 0.05 10
Total   100 3250.7 100 2901.17 100 2901.17 100 2901.17 100 2901.17
Cost/Kg     32.5   29.01   29.01   29.01   29.01
Phytase 600 …… 0.01 6 0.02 12 0.03 18 0.04 24
Total         2907.17   2913.17   2919.17   2925.17
Cost/Kg     32.5   29.07   29.13   29.19   29.25

Experimental Birds and Data Collection      

The experiment was carried out on commercial straight run broilers for a period of 42 days at the Department of Poultry Science, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, MAFSU, Parbhani. Total 375 day old Vencobb400 broiler chicks were obtained from Private Hatchery. On arrival, the chicks were weighed and distributed randomly into five treatment groups viz. A, B, C, D and E with three replicates of 25 chicks each (Table 5).

Table 5: Experimental design used for super dosing of phytase on performance of broilers

Treatment group Treatment group Details birds/pen/ replication Replicate Total birds
A Control –Basal Diet 25 3 75
B Diet with recommended matrix + 500  FTU phytase 25 3 75
C Diet with recommended matrix + 1000 FTU phytase 25 3 75
D Diet with recommended matrix + 1500 FTU phytase 25 3 75
E Diet with recommended matrix + 2000 FTU phytase 25 3 75
  Total number of birds   375

The cumulative weight gain, feed consumption, FCR and mortality were recorded replicate wise at weekly interval. The cost of rearing the chicks for complete experiment was calculated by taking into consideration the cost of chick, cost of total feed consumed by bird, cost of different litter, vaccination, medication expenses. However, gross profit per bird was calculated by subtracting the cost of production per bird from the price fetched per bird after selling it in the local market on live weight basis.

Estimation of Serum Calcium and Phosphorus

At the end of the trial serum was collected from two birds from each group and serum calcium was estimated by Co- CPC method (Berthelot,1973) and phosphorus was estimated by UV Molybdate method in Semi- Auto Analyzer ( ERBA-chem. – 7) at Central Instrumentation and Analytical facility, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Parbhani.

Statistical Analysis

Data, thus collected were subjected to statistical analysis by using F Randomized block design by Snedecor, and Cochran, (2007). The treatment means were compared by Critical Differences (CD) and Analysis of Variance.

Results and Discussion

Cumulative Weight Gain

The mean cumulative weight gains at 6th week of age for treatment A, B, C, D and E were 1753.7, 1717.9, 1784.8, 1889.0 and 1799.0g respectively (Table 6).

Table 6: Influence of super dosing of phytase enzyme on performance of broilers   

  Cumulative body weight gain(gm)
Treatment / Weeks A B C D E SE + CD CV %
I 82.73 82.36 82.29 83.33 78.89 2.0069 6.3135 4.24303
II 245.57 255.15 248.56 251.51 243.68 4.2561 13.389 2.96180
III 447.75 459.35 459.67 462.64 448.91 7.1503 22.494 2.71794
IV 807.60 831.93 860.59 863.91 821.88 14.564 45.818 3.01317
V 1172.8 1199.5 1208.9 1255.7 1211.6 25.332 79.694 3.62715
VI 1753.7 1717.9 1784.8 1889.0 1799.0 35.823 112.70 3.46844
  Cumulative feed consumption (gm)
I 90.77 101.83 90.62 89.72 90.12 2.882 9.0665 5.38987
II 340.87 365.01 345.97 349.03 341.47 6.2512 19.666 3.10712
III 692.93b 746.12a 711.98ab 715.09ab 692.71b 11.027 34.692 2.68349
IV 1303.9 1378.0 1345.6 1360.5 1300.0 20.133 63.336 2.60698
V 2048.6 2119.4 2126.6 2202.8 2083.9 32.496 102.23 2.65966
VI 3062.9 3101.7 3161.8 3261.6 3095.5 53.934 169.67 2.97816
  Cumulative  FCR
I 1.0967b 1.2367a 1.1000b 1.0733b 1.1467ab 0.0299 0.0941 4.58429
II 1.3900 1.4300 1.3933 1.3900 1.4033 0.0230 0.0725 2.84847
III 1.5500 1.6267 1.5500 1.5433 1.5433 0.0302 0.0950 3.34972
IV 1.6167 1.6600 1.5633 1.5733 1.5833 0.0254 0.0801 2.75871
V 1.7500 1.7667 1.7567 1.7567 1.7200 0.0225 0.0708 2.22784
VI 1.7467 1.8100 1.7733 1.7300 1.7233 0.0276 0.0871 2.73007

The analysis of variance for the mean cumulative weight gain at different weeks revealed non-significant differences among the treatment groups (Table 7).

 

 

Table 7: Analysis of variance for weekly cumulative weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio of broilers at different age with super dosing of phytase

Source DF 1st week 2nd week 3rd week
MSS ‘F’ value MSS ‘F’  value MSS ‘F’ value
Treatment 4 9.1149 0.75438 63.218 1.1633 140 0.91279
Error 10 12.083 54.342 153.38
4th week 5th week 6th week
MSS ‘F’ value MSS ‘F’ value MSS ‘F’ value
Treatment 4 1799.6 2.8281 2689 1.3968 12322 3.2008
Error 10 636.34 1925.2 3849.8
Cumulative Feed Consumption
Source DF 1st week 2nd week 3rd week
MSS ‘F’ value MSS ‘F’ value MSS ‘F’ value
Treatment 4 80.105 3.2148 290.31 2.4764 1431.8 3.9246*
Error 10 24.917 117.23 364.82
4th week 5th week 6th week
MSS ‘F’ value MSS ‘F’ value MSS ‘F’ value
Treatment 4 3575.1 2.9401 9913.7 3.1293 18451 2.1144
Error 10 1216 3168 8726.5
Cumulative Feed Conversion Ratio
1st week 2nd week 3rd week
Source DF MSS ‘F’  value MSS ‘F’  value MSS ‘F’  value
Treatment 4 0.01265 4.7109* 0.00086 0.5397 0.00387 1.4136
Error 10 0.0026 0.00159 0.00274
4th week 5th week 6th week
Source DF MSS ‘F’  value MSS ‘F’  value MSS ‘F’  value
Treatment 4 0.00465 2.3921 0.00095 0.625 0.0037 1.6449
Error 10 0.00194 0.00152 0.0023

**P < 0.05

However, the highest mean for weekly cumulative weight gain was recorded for the treatment group D followed by E, C, A and B. An average cumulative body weight at different weeks for all treatment groups were below the standard weight of cobb broilers. The lower average cumulative weights may be due to heat stress as the experiment was carried out during month of May- June2014, when outer environmental temperature was ranging from 44-470c. The results of the present study are in accordance with the result of Akyurek et al. (2005), Junqueira et al. (2012), Amin and Hamidi (2013). However, these authors considered only the availability of the phosphorus, calcium when adding the phytase enzyme and did not consider other nutrition’s that are supposedly complexed in the phytic acid. The non-significant influences of phytase super dosing on cumulative weight gain are not consistent with those revealed by Shirley and Edwards (2003), Ahmed et al. (2004), Kamiri (2005), Baker et al. (2007), Manangi and Coon (2008), Jadhav et al. (2011), Johnson et al. (2014). These authors revealed that the addition of phytase to the diet of poultry improved weight gains. However, the data cannot be comparable with the results of the present study, because these authors did not consider the enzyme nutrition matrix when formulating the experimental diet. Non-significant influence of phytase supplementation in different treatment groups indicated they were at par to that of control and concluded that phytic acid was a factor limiting phosphorus availability from plant derived foodstuffs. The present results concluded that the adverse effect of phytic acid can be effectively overcome by supplementation of phytase. It might have increased AME, digestibility of phosphorus and amino acid in broilers fed on maize soya diet which had reflected in compensative performance in phytase supplemented groups compared to control group A. The findings are in accordance to Cabahug et al. (1999).

Cumulative Feed Consumption

From the data (Table 6) observed that, the birds of treatment group C receiving diet super dosing with phytase @ 500FTU recommended matrix consumed numerically higher feed at the end of 6th week. The birds from group D receiving diet with @1000 FTU phytase consumed the lowest feed compared to all other groups, however, statistically non- significant differences were observed (Table 7). These non-significant findings were contrast to the findings observed by Augspurger et al. (2007), Santos et al. (2008), Saima et al. (2009).  They reported that increase in feed intake by supplementation of phytase at different doses levels compared to the control group, however, these workers did not used nutrient Matrix.  It indicated that the birds fulfilled their nutrient requirement by taking less amount of feed (Wilson et al., 1999), concluding improved availability of nutrients by phytase supplementation.

Cumulative Feed Conversion Ratio

The mean cumulative feed conversion ratio at 6th week of age for treatment groups A, B, C, D and E were 1.74, 1.81, 1.77, 1.73 and 1.72, respectively (Table 6). The analysis of variance (Table 7) for mean cumulative feed conversion ratio at this week showed non-significant differences among the treatment groups. The excellent mean cumulative feed conversion ratio was recorded for E followed by D, A, C and B. The results in the present study were in accordance with the previous report by Ahmed et al. (2004) and Viveros et al. (2002). The better feed conversion ratio was observed for super dosing at 1000, 1500 and 2000 FTU phytase/ Kg of feed.  These results were in agreement with those of Zyla et al. (2000), Bozkurt et al. (2006) and Jadhav et al. (2011)  who reported that feed conversion ratio of broiler fed the low phosphorus diet containing microbial phytase are comparable with or even better than those obtained for broiler fed the standard phosphorus diets. These result supported the concept that phytase was improving phosphorus availability and phosphorus levels can be lowered in soybean meal based broiler starter and finisher diets added phytase. These result also suggest that phytate phosphorus released by phytase was supplemented to meet starter and finisher broiler growth requirement. The non significant influence of super dosing on cumulative feed conversion ratio  are contradicted to the finding of Scheideler and Ferket (2000), Panda et al. (2007), Aureli et al. (2011) and Santos et al. (2013).

 

Serum Calcium and Phosphorus (%)

The highest mean value for serum calcium (Table 8) was observed in group E, followed by group A, group B, group C and group D.

Table 8: Serum calcium and phosphorus levels in broilers supplemented with super dosing of phytase

Traits

 

Treatments

Serum calcium (%) Serum phosphorus (%)
A 10.367ab 5.453
B 10.167ab 6.006
C 9.266 a 5.926
D 9.266a 5.720
E 11.500b 5.570
SE + 0.4825 0.2191
CD 1.5182 0.6894
CV % 8.2649 6.6182

The means bearing similar superscript do not differ significantly from each other.

The highest serum phosphorus values were observed for treatment group B (6.006 %) followed by experiment group C, group D, group E, group A. The mean of serum phosphorus levels at 42 days of experiment showed non-significant difference (Table 9).

Table 9: Analysis of variance for serum calcium and phosphorus of broilers with super dosing of phytase

Source Df Serum Calcium (%) Serum Phosphorus (%)
MSS ‘F’ value MSS ‘F’value
Treatment 4 2.5677 3.6758* 0.16299 1.1313
Error 10 0.6986 0.144

*P < 0.05

The results in the present study indicated significantly improved serum calcium for phytase supplemented group of 2000 FTU/kg diet, however, the value of serum calcium for treatment group C and D were significantly lower. The increase in serum calcium was expected because the diet with low phosphorus result in elevated ionized calcium in the serum which depresses release of parathyroid hormone, thus reabsorption of phosphate and permitting the urinary excretion of additional calcium observed from the gut. The lower values for treatment group C and D for serum calcium was observed, which is not well explanatory. The results in the present study were in accordance with the findings of Edward (1993), Roberton, Edward (1994) and Jadhav et al. (2011). The numerically higher serum phosphorus values revealed better nutrient utilization by broiler chicken fed on corn soya diet. It also indicated that there was improvement in the serum phosphorus at 42 days as compared with control group diet. Similar observations of improved serum phosphorus serum phosphorus with phytase supplementation had been reported by Augspurger et al. (2004), Bhanja et al. (2005), Arabi et al. (2010), Kozlowski and Jeroch (2011), Farzinpour et al. (2011), Jalani et al. (2012), Kuhn et al. (2012), Rutherford et al. (2012), Wang et al. (2013), Beiki et al. (2013) and Arabi et al. (2013). The improvement in serum phosphorus observed in the phytase supplemented group may be due to release of phosphorus from the phytate mineral complex (Saimans et al. 1990) or increase availability of protein as suggested by Sebstian et al. (1996)

Mortality

The mortality in control group A was higher compared to rest of the treatment groups (Table 10). The higher mortality in treatment group was due to heat stress. Significantly lower mortality in phytase supplemented group indicated that there was no detrimental effect on survivability by supplementation of phytase enzyme. On the other hand, the supplementation of phytase protected the birds from heat stress. These results are in agreement with walk et al. (2012), who concluded that experimental mortality was low (3.41 percent). In contrast to these broiler fed with 5000 FTU/kg phytase had an increased (p ≤ 0.05) mortality compared to other experimental groups (Walk et al., 2012).

Table 10: Mortality (%) in broilers supplemented with super dosing of phytase

Treatment groups Mortality per treatment Mortality (%)
A 8/75 10.66
B 2/75 2.66
C 3/75 4.00
D 2/75 2.66
E 2/75 2.66

Economics of Broiler Production

The economics of broiler (Table 11) inferred that supplementation of super dosing of phytase enzyme significantly enhanced the net income per bird.

Table 11: Economics of broiler production supplemented with super dosing of phytase

S.  No. Economics
Particulars A B C D E
1 Cost of day old chick (Rs) 17 17 17 17 17
2 Feed consumption (g)
i) Prestarter 90.77 101.83 90.627 89.72 90.12
ii) Starter 602.16 644.29 621.35 625.38 602.59
ii) Finisher 2369.97 2355.6 2449.85 2546.56 2402.78
Total 3062.9 3101.72 3161.82 3261.66 3095.5
3 Rate of feed (Rs/kg)
i) Prestarter 32.44 30.98 31.04 31.1 31.16
ii) Starter 32.5 29.07 29.13 29.19 29.25
iii) Finisher 31.14 27.22 27.28 27.34 27.4
4 Cost of feed consumed (per bird Rs.)
i) Prestarter 2.94 3.15 2.81 2.79 2.8
ii) Starter 19.57 18.72 18.09 18.25 17.62
iii) Finisher 73.8 64.11 66.83 69.62 65.83
Total cost of feed consumed per bird (Rs.) 96.31 85.98 87.73 90.66 86.25
5 Miscellaneous cost* (Rs) 5 5 5 5 5
6 Total cost of production (1+4+5) 118.31 107.98 109.73 112.66 108.25
7 Average live weight (g) 1794.8 1758.4 1824.8 1929.4 1839.1
8 Return obtained @ Rs. 68 per kg live weight 122.04 119.57 124.08 131.19 125.05
9 Net profit/ bird (Rs) 3.73 11.59 14.35 18.53 16.8
10 Net profit/ kg (Rs) 2.07 6.59 7.86 9.6 9.13

It was observed that as the levels of phytase enzyme increased, the net profit increased due to decreased cost of production. Cost of day old broiler chicks and feed cost were the major inputs considered. The super dosing of phytase could make a reasonable profit. As the feed constitute more than 70 percent of the ration cost for broiler feeding. Further benefits lie within the improvement of digestibility and better utilization of nutrient the net profit/ kg was significantly better in broiler group fed diet supplemented with 1500 FTU/ Kg of feed. The present findings are in close agreement with that reported by Khose et al. (2003), Dhore et al. (2012), Jadhav et al. (2011), Narshima et al. (2013) and Ponnuvel et al. (2013).

Conclusion

The overall results obtained from the present study leads to conclusion that the birds with super dosing of phytase and consideration of nutritional matrix during feed formulation improved the performance and profitability in linear way. It supports the concept that hydrolyzing phytate and consequently reduced the antinutritional effect of phytate and thereby improved bird’s performance. By consideration of nutritional matrix at 500 FTU of feed significantly reduced cost of production, thereby increase profitability. The study concluded importance of proper selection of dose and proper nutritional Matrix to get best result in terms of profitability. However, liner improvement was not noticed beyond 1500 FTU super dosing. Further research will be required to study effect of super dosing with use of respective dose matrix.

Acknowledgement

The authors are highly grateful to Associate Dean, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, MAFSU, Parbhani for providing necessary facilities and for his help at various stages of the experiment. The Authors are also highly grateful to AB Vista, South Asia, Pune for supply of phytase enzyme.

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