Stress is an integral part of today’s life and field veterinarians are dwelling under stress many a times due to their job structure and working process. Competitive environment not only increase the expectation but also add stress in routine fashion. In this context, 56 veterinary doctors were interviewed with twenty third structured statements in middle Gujarat. Data were collected and introspected. All data were analyzed through principal component analysis that is a data reduction technique. Five factors have been generated that compiled all expectation and satisfaction of field veterinarians. Salary and welfare of the employees are found to be prime expectation for fulfillment of satisfaction level of the veterinarians in their organization. After that transparent working culture and employee growth meets their satisfaction level. Internal working environment, effective job analysis and proper work load structure improves the satisfaction level of field veterinarian in an organization.
Stress is an integral part of today’s life. Though we categorized stress in to eustress and distress, but only thing is, it is magnitude of stress that makes someone happy and someone unhappy. Besides that stress is resistant after some days. Stress is an individual one. Individual gains stress either through his own personalities or from his own family. Organisation also put stress on individual in the era of competitiveness. Major challenges in stress are to find out the source. After opening of global market, quality aspect is observed not only in product level but also in service boundaries. Job satisfaction is the favorableness or un-favorableness with which the employee views his work. Job satisfaction is a part of life satisfaction. The nature of one’s environment of job is an important part of life’s job satisfaction influences one’s general life satisfaction. Job expectation is defined as the things one wants from a job such as responsibility, satisfaction and good pay. Make all these things at a level, is a daunting task for the organizer.
India is number one in milk production. It is the effort of producers who produces the milk. Not only that policy maker also defines and refines all policies for the betterment of producers. In between this domain, field veterinarians are dwelling routinely, trying to produce best service to the producers and trying to implement government plan and policy at inclusive way. Stress arises on them that prevent many a time to deliver the service. It may be their expectation level or may be their satisfaction threshold which binds them within stress horizon. Most of the veterinarians highlighted inadequate medicines, lack of infrastructure, shortage of human resource, administrative work load, indiscriminate practice by quacks etc. were perceived as major issues for smooth functioning of Livestock Service Delivery (Channappagouda, 2018) and these issues might directly or indirectly add stress among field veterinary officers.
Singh and Pestonjee (1990), in their study confirmed the hypothesis and it was found that job satisfaction of the Bank employees was positively affected by the occupational level, job involvement and participation. Mehra and Mishra (1991) in their study showed that mental health has a moderating effect on the intrinsic job satisfaction-occupational stress relationship. Again, job satisfaction is a multi-dimensional phenomenon where it is not easy to assign one factor as the sole determinant of satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the job (Chaudhury& Banerjee, 2004). Mallaiah (2008) discussed the key issues of organization like job rotation, promotion policy, reward system, employee frustration, leadership qualities and superior and subordinate relations. Nattar (2010) examined the job satisfaction of college library professionals and concludes that the necessary activities were very much needed to improve the job satisfaction of the library professionals. Karim (2010) studied the impact of five work related variables such as role conflict, role clarity, job autonomy, job performance feedback and job involvement on organizational commitment and job satisfaction among Malaysian university librarians.
Day by day, job satisfaction comes to the field level. Ambadekar et al. (2017) studied on Job Perceptions of Public Health Workforce in Rural Area of Yavatmal District, Maharashtra, India. Good working relationships, good income, superior recognizing good work were considered for betterment of job related perception and subsequent satisfaction. Field veterinarians who are known as doctors of dumb animals, farmers’ first call at the time emergency and God’s own representatives for the animals cannot be ignored if they are in stress. Numbers of time, it has been observed that after graduation, veterinary students prefer Banking or any other administrative jobs which is a challenge in coming future (Nukala et al., 2018). So, stress identification and management is very much essential for field veterinarians that pulls best talent in future. In this ground the concept of this study has been derived in middle Gujarat.
Materials and Methods
For accomplishing this study, middle Gujarat has been considered as it is under the domain of Anand Agricultural University, Anand. AMUL (Anand Milk Union Limited) has its presence in this area. IRMA (Institute of Rural Management) and NDDB (National Dairy Development Board) like organization have been showing their positive input in livestock production and management. It is a census study (56 Veterinary Doctors) and data collections have been done through Google data collector (Bifurcation shown in Table 1). Selections of respondents have been carried out through referral methods. It is primary based study. Structured schedules have been prepared consisting 23 numbers of questions/statements. Data have been collected after that, analysis has been done through principal component analysis. It is a data reduction technique and for controlling any bias ness this tool has been used here.
Table 1: Showing bifurcation of field veterinarians in middle Gujarat
|S. No.||District||Taluka||No. of Respondent|
Results and Discussion
Table 2 and Table 3 are two basic tests to understand the validity of factor analysis. What we observed in it that data were adequate and reduced to five major factors.
Table 2: Showing KMO and Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity
|KMO and Bartlett’s Test|
|Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy||0.774|
|Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity||Approx. Chi-Square||891.323|
Table 3: Showing total variance explained by different variables
|Total Variance Explained|
|Component||Initial Eigenvalues||Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings||Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings|
|Total||% of Variance||Cumulative %||Total||% of Variance||Cumulative %||Total||% of Variance||Cumulative %|
|Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis|
All variables and their corresponding factors have been merged that are shown in Table 4. Here all factors are representing a similar group of characteristics. Factor 1 may be salary and welfare. Salary is the basic need which comes in lower hierarchy of Maslow Model. These groups belong to those persons who may be initial entrants in the organization, because they are highlighting those expectations which were clearly basic and essential. Salary is the important factor for satisfaction of personnel in an organization (Lim, 2008). Similarly, second factors may be transparent working culture and growth.
Table 4: Showing reduction of different variables in to different factors
|Rotated Component Matrixa|
|I’m satisfied with the allowances provided by Government||0.785|
|I feel I’m being paid a fair amount||0.767|
|The lighting and other arrangements in the office are satisfactory||0.766|
|My supervisor considers my ideas too while making decision||0.754|
|I’m satisfied with the first aid facilities||0.728|
|I’m satisfied with the support from my co-workers||0.709|
|I have freedom on job||0.705|
|I’m happy with my work place||0.651|
|Opportunity to participate in decision making||0.769|
|Work assignments are explained clearly to me||0.755|
|my work-life is meaningful||0.74|
|Opportunity to participate in decision making||0.714|
|Opportunity to participate in professional seminars and conferences||0.706|
|I have adequate opportunity to use my ability||0.682|
|An opportunity for professional growth||0.665|
|Communication seems good within this organisation||0.605||0.565|
|I’m satisfied with safety measures provided||0.868|
|I’m satisfied with the refreshment facilities||0.812|
|Working hours are convenient for me||0.673|
|i’m satisfied with my chances of promotion||0.504|
|I consider that my work is valuable||0.698|
|My relationship with my supervisor is cordial||0.647|
|I feel i have too much work to do||0.843|
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis; Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization; a. Rotation converged in 6 iterations.
Growth based culture is need of the hour. When any one fulfills its basic need at some part of his life, he may go for esteem need, that is, move to higher hierarchy, according to Maslow Motivational Theory Model. These groups might be covered those respondents who were higher level in their career anchor. Again in one of the studies, Ram and Chaudhury (2010) highlighted that job satisfaction is highly correlated with organization climate. Third factor may be like Internal Working Environment. Internal working environment makes the working culture more healthy and convenient. Workers feel more comfortable and satisfied, but it depends on who are the respondents. If X type personalities are there, they are satisfied in this environment, but Y type personalities are asking more growth and esteem, may not suits to this group. These were the respondents who might belaid on middle hierarchy of Maslow Model, might be dwelling under security and social need. Fourth factor may be like job analysis, as statements like I consider that my work is valuable and my relationship with my supervisor is cordial are clumped in to one due to their similar characteristics. These group respondents are very much pragmatic, analyzed their job and found worth in doing work. They were always being self-content in their life. Organization should try to retain these personalities. Final factor may be work load.
Salary and welfare of the employees are prime expectation for fulfillment of satisfaction level. After that transparent working culture and employee growth meets their satisfaction level. Internal working environment, effective job analysis and proper work load structure improves the satisfaction level of field veterinarian in an organization.