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Job Satisfaction of Field Extension Functionaries in Promotion of Public Private Partnership Model of Dairy Farming

Khusboo Raj K. Ponnusamy Raja Yadav C. N. Kishore Mehrunnissa Begum
Vol 9(12), 142-150
DOI- http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20190906061707

The study was undertaken during 2017-18 in Kaithal, Hissar and Mahendragarh districts which represent three different “Agro-climatic zones” of Haryana, where Public Private Partnership (PPP) model is operating and providing service in the field of dairying to assess the job satisfaction of private extension functionaries (Gopal) employed by J. K. Trust Gram Vikash Yojna which is running under Public Private Partnership Model (PPP) with Department of Animal Husbandry, Government of Haryana. A total 225 respondents were interviewed to collect data. Ex post facto research design was used for study. Majority (91.10%) of Gopal were highly satisfied with their Artificial Insemination (AI) performance in cow/buffalo indicating their job satisfaction. Majority (95.55%) of Gopal was highly satisfied with their task of carrying semen in hygienic condition to ensure good success rate of A.I. Majority (64.44%) of Gopal were not satisfied with their task on arranging the semen on the demand of client and one fifth (20%) of Gopal did not get satisfaction on doing A.I based on available semen. Therefore, motivation of private extension functionaries is required to look into the constraints faced by them for carrying out timely veterinary services.


Keywords : Gram Vikash Yojna Field Extension Functionaries Job Satisfaction Public Private Partnership

Although India has highest livestock population of 512.06 million (19th livestock census) in the world, milk productivity is abysmally low. Government has spearheaded many schemes and programmes to enhance the milk productivity but many of them could not achieve the desired level of performance. This could probably due to poor adoption of good management practices, difficulty in accessing appropriate technologies and constraints in extension delivery system (Hegde, 2012) at farm level, apart from developments in other sectors, changing priorities and emerging trends at national and global level (Ponnusamy and Pachaiyappan, 2018). It is essential to bring new insights in the extension programmes to motivate the farmers by ascertaining the push and pull factors of the impact on the ongoing and just completed development programmes in the dairy sector. Operational factors of the PPP linkage tend to differ from field to field based on the capability of partners, budget and time frame. Through PPP approach, impossibilities are made possible with the contribution of both public and private partners resulting in better economic conditions and livelihood of target population (Ponnusamy, 2013).

Job satisfaction can be defined as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences. Success of any programme in an organization highly depends on efficiency and job satisfaction of its employees. Therefore, ensuring job satisfaction of employees is critical in enhancing the organizational productivity. It is equally applicable to any dairy organization, which is playing pivotal role in social and economic upliftment of 70 million farm families in the country. In Haryana, public private partnership model was designed between Haryana government and J. K. Trust Gram Vikas Yojna for providing easy access to veterinary services to people of Haryana. In this background, better job satisfaction of field level functionaries of both organizations would help in transferring potential dairy farming technologies in the state as well as facilitate in achieving the objectives of the department. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the level of job satisfaction of the field level functionaries. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the job satisfaction of field extension functionaries (FEFs) in promotion of public private partnership model of dairy farming.

Materials and Methods

The present study was undertaken during 2017-18 in Kaithal, Hissar and Mahendragarh districts which represent three different “Agro-climatic zones” of Haryana, where PPP model is operating and providing service in the field of dairying. For studying the job satisfaction of private extension functionaries (Gopal) employed by J. K. Trust Gram Vikash Yojna which is running under Public Private Partnership Model (PPP) with Department of Animal Husbandry, Government of Haryana, Primary data were collected by personal interview method. The ex-post facto research design was followed for the study with 225 respondents, comprising 30 respondents from public extension functionaries, 45 respondents from private extension functionaries and 150 beneficiaries who were selected through simple random sampling. Before development of the schedule on job satisfaction, the discussion with few extension officers and researchers and review of the available literature was done. Based on their views on importance of job satisfaction, it was measured by developing schedule on a three-point continuum, that is, highly satisfied, satisfied and less satisfied; and which were scored 3, 2, 1 respectively. Frequency and percentage were used to quantify the major factors responsible for job satisfaction. For rating the performance of private extension functionaries by beneficiary, respondents were requested to indicate the service as: Highly Satisfied (HS), satisfied (S) and Least Satisfied (LS). After the data collection, the frequencies of HS, S and LS were found which were again multiplied by 3, 2 and 1 respectively. Their totals were added and later divided by total number of respondents for ranking in order to identify the importance of the service among respondents.

Results and Discussion

Rating the Performance of Private Extension Functionaries (J. K. Trust Gopals) by Beneficiary Respondents (n=150)

The Table 1 depicts the performance rating of Gopal by beneficiary respondents.

Table 1:  Distribution of respondents according to their rating on the performance of private players (J. K. Trust Gopals)

S. No. Roles Mean score Ranking
Animal breeding
Performing A.I in cow/buffalo 2.92 I
Follow up A.I cases by doing P. D 2.83 III
Use of drugs before doing A. I 2.12 VII
Doing A.I based on available semen 2.17 VI
Examining fertility or sterility cases 2.86 II
Carrying semen in hygienic condition 2.76 IV
Arrangement of semen for A.I to client 1.8 VIII
Ensuring use of disease –free semen 2.73 V
Animal feeding
Advising the farmers to grow fodder crop 1.5 IV
Facilitating purchase of good quality seed and fodder 1.2 V
Educating farmers about balanced ration 1.91 III
Motivating farmers about feeding mineral mixture 2.43 I
Sensitizing farmers about colostrums  feeding 2.04 II
 Herd management
i Dehorning the young calves of cow 1 IV
ii Maintenance records at farm 1.86 II
iii Educating farmers for clean milk production 1.37 III
iv Advising farmers to spray disinfectants in cattle shed 1.93 I
Animal health care
i Performing surgery 1 IV
ii Vaccinating the animals against contagious diseases 1.94 III
iii Educating farmers for ecto-parasite control 2.65 I
iv Educating farmers about deworming 2.34 II
Extension activities
i Establishing rapport with farmers through individual and group contacts 2.12 I
ii Providing information to farmer about development schemes related to disease prevention 1 V
iii Arranging mass vaccination campaign with help of BLDO and panchayat officials 1.73 II
iv Providing information on animal insurance 1.2 IV
v Information about prices of dairy products 1.3 III

In case of animal breeding, AI performance of Gopal was ranked as first followed by examining fertility or sterility on the demand of beneficiary with second rank which would  enhance the chance of  conception; follow up of AI cases by doing pregnancy detection (PD) assigned rank third, carrying semen in hygienic condition to enhance the success rate of AI was fourth; ensuring use of disease free semen was fifth, doing AI based on available semen was assigned rank six; sometimes followed by use of drugs before doing AI if needed  was assigned rank seven and last rank was assigned to arranging of semen for AI on demand of farmers. AI performance of Gopal ranked first because effective AI facility, sterility and fertility examining facility etc. was easily available at farmers door due to PPP model. Arrangement of desired semen for AI was given last rank because Gopal was not providing semen according to farmers demand. They were doing AI based on available semen in stock.

In case of animal feeding, advice by Gopal got better performance scoring about motivating the farmers about feeding the mineral mixture, second rank was assigned to sensitizing the farmers about importance of colostrums feeding, third to educating farmers about balance ration, advising the farmers to grow fodder crops gained fourth rank and Gopal was facilitating purchase of good quality seed and fodder given last rank. In case of herd management, beneficiary perceived the better role performance with respect to advising farmers to spray disinfectants which is primarily aimed at protecting animals from probable diseases in cattle shed. Next better rating was given to motivating farmers for maintenance of records so that they can have full information about the animal they are treating, followed by educating farmers for clean milk production and lastly providing the service of debudding the calves.

In the case of animal health care Gopal was better rated on the role of educating the farmers for ecto-parasite control followed by deworming, and sensitizing farmers for vaccinating the animal against contagious diseases. However, Gopal did not find any role on performing surgery on animals as they are not trained for this purpose. In case of extension activities, Gopal was helpful in establishing rapport with farmers by organizing group meeting of the farmers or through individual and group contact, followed by arranging the mass vaccination campaign with the help of government agencies, and providing information about the price of dairy products and on animal insurance and the role on informing farmers about development scheme related to disease preventionswas rated in least performance order.

Self-Perception of Gopal About Services Provided to the Farmers (n=45)

Animal Breeding

Table 2 (A) depicts that majority (91.10%) of Gopal were highly satisfied with their AI performance in cow/buffalo indicating their job satisfaction. All the Gopal were highly satisfied doing AI after PD. Majority (88.90%) of Gopal were satisfied with using of hormone before doing AI if it is required. Majority (77.77%) of Gopal were satisfied with doing AI based on available seamen whereas 20 per cent were not satisfied. Every Gopal was highly satisfied with examining fertility or sterility cases.

Table 2: Distribution of Gopal as per their self-perception about services provided to the farmers Table 2(A) animal breeding

S. No. Roles Highly Satisfied Satisfied Not Satisfied
i Performing A.I in cow/buffalo 41 (91.1) 4 (8.90) 0 (0.00)
ii Follow up A.I cases by doing P. D 45 (100.00) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00)
iii Use of hormone before doing A. I 5 (11.10) 40 (88.90) 0 (0.00)
iv Doing A.I based on available semen 1 (2.23) 35 (77.77) 9 (20.00)
v Examining fertility or sterility cases 45 (100) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00)
vi Carrying semen in hygienic condition 43 (95.55) 2 (4.45) 0 (0.00)
vii Arrangement of semen for A.I to client 1(2.22) 15 (33.34) 29 (64.44)
viii Ensuring use of disease –free semen 10 (22.22) 35 (77.78) 0 (0.00)

Figures in the parentheses indicates percentages with their respective totals

Majority (95.55%) of Gopal was highly satisfied with their task  of carrying semen in hygienic condition to ensure good success rate of A.I. Majority (64.44%) of Gopal were not satisfied with their task on arranging the semen on the demand of client and 20 per cent of them were not satisfied on doing A.I based on available semen. One third of Gopal (33.34%) were satisfied with their role on arranging the semen on the demand of client. Majority (77.78%) of Gopal were satisfied with their task of using disease free semen for A.I whereas 22.22 per cent was highly satisfied. Majority of Gopal were unsatisfied on the task of arrangement of semen on client demand because Gopal was not getting semen from other stakeholder according to demand so they were doing AI based on available semen only.

Animal Feeding

Table 2(B) depicts that majority (86.70%) of Gopal were satisfied with advising the farmers to grow fodder crop and 11.11 per cent was not satisfied. Cent percent of Gopal respondents was not satisfied about facilitating purchase of good quality seed and fodder to farmers as Gopal was not giving any information to farmers on this aspect. Majority (80.00%) of Gopal was satisfied with their skill to educate farmers about balanced ration followed by 11.11 per cent with dissatisfaction. Majority (82.20%) of Gopal was satisfied with their skill of educating farmer about mineral mixture whereas 13.34 per cent was not satisfied because farmers were not giving much consideration to the advice of Gopal. Cent percent of Gopal was satisfied with creating awareness about colostrum’s feeding for dairy animals. Similar results were reported by Ponnusamy et al. (2017) when they studied the job satisfaction of Pashu Sakhi in delivering their extension service in Rajasthan.

 

Table 2 (B): Animal Feeding

S. No.      Roles Highly Satisfied Satisfied Not Satisfied
i Advising the farmers to grow fodder crop 1 (2.22) 39 (86.67) 5 (11.11)
ii Facilitating purchase of good quality seed and fodder 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 45 (100.00)
iii Educating farmers about balanced ration 4 (8.88) 36 (80.00) 5 (11.12)
iv Sensitizing   farmers about feeding mineral mixture 2 (4.44) 37 (82.22) 6(13.34)
v Educating farmers about colostrum’s feeding 0 (0.00) 45 (100.00) 0 (0.00)

Figures in the parentheses indicates percentages with their respective totals

Herd Management

Table 2 (C): Herd Management

S.No. Roles Highly Satisfied Satisfied Not Satisfied
i Dehorning the young calves of cow 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 45 (100.00)
ii Maintenance of records at farm 0 (0.00) 33 (73.30) 12 (26.70)
iii Educating farmers for clean milk production 4 (8.88) 38 (84.40) 3 (6.67)
iv Advising farmers to spray disinfectants in cattle shed 3 (6.70) 38 (84.40) 4 (8.90)

Figures in the parentheses indicates percentages with their respective totals

Table 2(C) depicts that Gopal was not involved in role of dehorning the young calves. Majority (73.33%) were satisfied with the task of maintaining the record of farm for making it easy to remember the animal treated and 26.70 per cent were not satisfied indicating the need of improving this task. Majority (84.40%) was satisfied with their capacity to educate the farmers about clean milk production and 8.88 per cent were highly satisfied with it. Majority (84.40%) were satisfied with their capacity to create awareness among the farmers about spraying the disinfectant in cattle shed so that they can keep the contagious diseases away from them.

Animal Healthcare

Table 2(D) depicts that Gopal was not satisfied with the service of performing surgery and vaccination because they were not trained in performing surgery and having no input for giving vaccination to animals. Moreover, these tasks are not mandated for them as these tasks need to be performed only by trained veterinarians. Majority (97.80%) was highly satisfied with their skill to educate farmers about ectoparasite control and 2.20 per cent were only satisfied with their service. Majority (77.80%) were highly satisfied with the service of providing deworming to farmers while 22.20 per cent of them were satisfied with their service.

 

 

 

Table 2 (D): Animal Healthcare

S. No.         Role Highly Satisfied Satisfied Not Satisfied
i Performing surgery 0 (0.00) 0(0.00) 45 (100.00)
ii Vaccinating the animals against contagious diseases 0 (0.00) 0(0.00) 45 (100.00)
iii Educating farmers for ecto-parasite control 44 (97.80) 1 (2.20) 0 (0.00)
iv Educating farmers about deworming 35(77.80) 10 (22.20) 0 (0.00)

Figures in the parentheses indicates percentages with their respective totals

Extension Activities

Table 2 (E) disclosed that majority (84.40%) of Gopal were satisfied that on the task of helping the farmers to establish rapport with other farmers through group and individual contact method.

Table 2 (E): Extension activities

S. No.                     Role Highly Satisfied Satisfied Not Satisfied
i Establishing rapport with farmers through individual and group contacts 7 (15.60) 38 (84.40) 0 (0.00)
ii Providing information to farmer about development schemes related to disease prevention 0 (0.00) 6 (13.30) 39 (86.70)
iii Arranging mass vaccination campaign with help of BLDO and Panchayat officials 0 (0.00) 6 (13.33) 39 (86.67)
iv Providing information to animal insurance 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 45 (100.00)
v Information about prices of dairy products 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 45 (100.00)

Figures in the parentheses indicates percentages with their respective totals

Majority (86.70%) of Gopal was not satisfied with providing information about development schemes related to disease prevention while 13.30 per cent of them were only satisfied. Similar finding was observed in the case of arranging mass vaccination campaign. No Gopal was satisfied with providing information about animal insurance and price of dairy products and they were not giving any information about these two aspects to farmers.

Job Satisfaction of Gopal (n=45)

All the Gopal respondents were medium satisfied with their job as it makes them interesting enough to keep them not getting bored as they are locally engaged and have adequate time to look after their farm and family also. Majority (88.90%) felt less satisfied that their colleagues are more interested in their job while 11.10 per cent of them felt medium satisfied which might be due to fact that earning from the job is inadequate to run a decent life. Due to non-availability of job in commensurate with their qualification, Gopal expressed dissatisfaction on this aspect. Cut throat competition is prevailing in the open job market. Majority (95.56%) were less satisfied with their job while only 4.44 per cent was medium satisfied because it was not generating income as per their expectation. Majority (86.70%) were enjoying their work very much while 13.30 per cent of them were medium satisfied with their work as they feel that they are actually using their learnt skills and help their clients effectively. Majority (53.34%) was enthusiastic about their work for most of the days and 2.22 per cent were not enthusiastic about their job. Majority (86.70%) of Gopal were highly satisfied with their job better than average worker does while 13.30 percent of them were medium satisfied.

Table 3: Distribution of Gopal on the basis of their job satisfaction

S. No.   Statement   Highly Satisfied   Medium Satisfied   Less Satisfied
i. My job is interesting enough to keep me from getting bored 0 (0.00) 45 (100.00) 0 (0.00)
ii. It seems that my colleagues are more interested in their job 0 (0.00) 5 (11.10) 40 (88.90)
iii. I consider my job rather unpleasant 0 (0.00) 2 (4.44) 43 (95.56)
iv. I enjoy my work very much 39 (86.70) 6 (13.30) 0 (0.00)
v. Most days I am enthusiastic about my work 20 (44.44) 24 (53.34) 1 (2.22)
 vi. I like my job better than average worker does 39 (86.70) 6 (13.30) 0 (0.00)

Figures in the parentheses indicates percentages with their respective totals

Conclusion

For effective working of any model either Public Private or Public Private Partnership model, assessment of the job satisfaction of extension functionaries is very critical. Extension functionaries play very important role in providing different satisfactory veterinary services like A.I and deworming through PPP model running in Haryana in collaboration with J.K Trust. The measurement of job satisfaction helps to assess the efficiency of employees as well as beneficiary satisfaction. Finding of present study brought out that majority of Gopal were satisfied with job of providing AI services and facility of carrying out semen in hygienic condition but their satisfaction level was low with regard to fulfilling the semen demand of client of their choice. Time to time assessment of job satisfaction of extension functionaries should be done to find out the lacunae in job satisfaction, they should be provided skill training after regular duration of time to upgrade their skills and fulfill the demand of clients, need assessment of Gopal should be done and corrective measure should be taken in respective direction.

Acknowledgement

The authors are thankful to Director ICAR-NDRI, Karnal, J.K Trust and Department of Animal Husbandry, Haryana for providing necessary facilities. The authors are also thankful to all the farmers and field extension functionaries for their kind cooperation during research study.

References

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