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Morphology of Eesophagus of Jamunapari Goats in Chhattishgarh Region

B. Sinha S. P. Ingole D. Chourasia
Vol 2(1), 197-200

The morphology of esophagus of Jamunapari goat was studied in 6 Jamunapari goats of over six months of age of both sex.The organswere collected from slaughter house Supela, Bhilai.The topography, shape, size, esophageal length including cervical and thoracic parts were measured. The esophagus was sampled at six sites – cranial cervical, middle cervical, caudal cervical, at the level of thoracic inlet, at the middle mediastinum and at the level of cardia. The total length of esophagus was 45-50 cm out of thislong, Thecervical part of esophagus was 13-15 cm. The thoracic part was 32-30 cm long. The highest and the lowest diameter was found to be 5.1 cm and 3.5 cm at the cardia and at the cranial cervical part of the esophagus respectively.

Keywords : Morphology esophagus Jamunapari goat


Esophagus is an important organ of the digestive system which helps in digestion by transportation of foodstuffs from mouth to stomach by expelling gases by the process of eructation and also helps in regurgitation of the bolus for rumination in ruminants including goat. There are many clinical problems of esophagus of goat like faulty administration of drugs through stomach tube, choke, and tracheoesophageal fistula andesophagitisetc which are frequently encountered in field conditions. Thus, it is presumed that the present study will carry valuable information for anatomists, veterinary practitioners and goat researchers as well.

Materials and Methods

A total of six goats over 6 months of age of both sex were sacrificed to study the morphology of the esophagus in the Department of Anatomy and Histology, Anjora Durg (C.G.) India. The organs were collected from slaughter house Supela, Bhilai. Prior to killing, the animals were weighed after fasting for 12 hours. The animals were bled to death by dissecting the left common carotid artery, through which the fixing solution containing 10% formalin, 1% phenol and 0.05% glycerin was injected for fixation. Following dissection, length and diameter of esophagus at different levels was measured and recorded.

Results and Discussion

The esophagus of goat consists of two parts – cervical and thoracic parts. This observationwas similar to Getty (1975).Miller et al. (1964) compared the esophagus of dog with goat and found that the esophagus of dog wasdivided into three parts- cervical, thoracic and abdominal parts. Williams et al. (1995) stated that the esophagus ofhuman is divided into three parts cervical, thoracic and abdominal parts .The cranial cervical part of the esophagus was found dorsally to the trachea. At the level of third cervical vertebra the esophagus was inclined to the left surface of the trachea. It maintained its relation until it reached the sixth cervical vertebra where it went to the dorsal surface of the trachea at the thoracic inlet.The cervical part of the esophagus was related to the carotid sheath, the recurrent laryngeal nerve, thymus and the deep cervical lymph node. The lateral surface was covered by the omohyoideus, sternomastoides, cleidomastoides and scalenus muscles. At the junction of the neck and thorax, the esophagus made a slight curvature, convex ventrally and present only when the head was held higher than the thoracic inlet. At the first rib, the esophagus was in contact with the cervicothoracic ganglion, costo-cervical trunk and the thoracic duct. Coursing the mediastinum, the esophagus passed dorsally over the base of the heart and bifurcation of the trachea forming the second curvature which was convex dorsally. It crossed the right face of the aortic arch, and then passed straight back in the caudal mediastinum, ventral to the aorta, through the esophageal hiatus in the plane of the eighth intercostal space. In the caudal mediastinum, the esophagus was accompanied by the dorsal and ventral trunks of the vagus nerve and was related dorsally to the large caudal mediastinallymph nodes.The esophagus of Jamunaparigoat was 45-50 cm long. The cervical part of esophagus was 13-15 cm long and the thoracic part of esophagus was 32-30 cm long. On the other hand, Getty (1975) stated that in bovine the length of esophagus was 90-105 cm long. The length of the cervical esophagus was 42-49 cm and the thoracic esophagus was 48-56 cm in bovine (Getty, 1975; Ghosh, 1998). In sheep, the length of esophagus was 45 cm long and diameter at the pharynx was 1.8 cm and 2.5 cm at the cardia (Getty, 1975). The length of esophagus was 125-150 cm long in horse (Getty, 1975). The cervical part was 75 cm, the thoracic part was 63 cm and abdominal part was 2 cm in horse (Ghosh, 1998). The length of esophagus was about 30 cm and 2 cm in diameter in dog (Miller et al., 1964). The esophagus of human was 25 cm long and 2.54 cm wide (Russell, 1974).


Fig. 1 Showing the different part of esophagus of Jamunapari Goat.

Table 1 – Showing the diameter of esophagus in different animals of Jamunapari Goat.

Part of esophagus Animal


Maximum diameter (mm) Minimum diameter (mm) Mean Standard deviation
Cranial cervical 6 3.30 3.20 3.25 5.47
Middle cervical 6 3.60 3.40 3.53 8.16
Caudal cervical 6 3.80 3.70 3.75 5.47
Thoracic inlet 6 4.20 3.90 4.08 0.11
Middle mediastinum 6 4.20 4.00 4.10 8.94
Cardia 6 5.30 5.30 5.16 8.16



The authors are thankful to the Dean, College of Veterinary Science and AH, Anjora, Durg (C. G) for providing necessary facilities.


Getty R. 1975. Sisson and Grossman’s The Anatomy of the Domestic Animals. Vol. 1 & 2, 5th edn., WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia. pp. 881-884.

Ghosh RK 1998. Primary Veterinary Anatomy. 2nd edn., Current Books International, Kolkata. pp. 123-124.

Lahunta AD.andHabel RE. 1986. Applied Veterinary Anatomy. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia. pp. 187-189.

Miller ME, Christensen GC, and Evans HW. 1964. Anatomy of the Dog.Edn. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, London. pp. 664-667.

PanskyB. 1975. Dynamic Anatomy and Physiology. Macmillan Publisher, New York.

Russell MD. 1974. The Human Organisms. 4th edn., McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Williams PL, BannisterLH, Berry MM, Collins P, Dayson M and Dussek JE. 1995. Gray’s Anatomy. 38th edn., Pearson Professional Limited, Livingstone Churchill. pp. 1751-1753.

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