The study was conducted to optimize the level of enrichment of calcium in ice cream to counteract the deficiency. Calcium in the form of calcium lactate was enriched at three different levels viz.500mg, 1000mg and 1500mg in one litre of ice cream mix. The enriched ice cream samples were subjected to sensory evaluation for its acceptance, using 9-point hedonic scale. Further, mechanical way of analyzing the sensory attributes with the help of texture profile analyzer was carried out. The recovery percentage of calcium in the enriched ice cream was carried out by Atomic absorption spectrometry. The study concluded that calcium could be enriched in ice cream mix at a level of 500 mg per litre since it had better acceptability and thereby to counteract the calcium deficiency.
Calcium fortified foods are likely to play an increasingly important role in helping consumers achieve newer calcium requirements aimed at reducing the risk of osteoporosis. The fortificant of choice should be well absorbed and beneficial in building peak bone mass during growth and protecting against bone loss later in life. Calcium absorption can be influenced by constituents present in the food and perhaps improved with addition of enhancers. The calcium source must also be compatible with the food being fortified which relates to solubility of the salt, concentration of calcium in the formula, processing stability, and flavour profile (Weaver, 1998).The challenge for food manufacturers is to provide a product having high calcium content but without sacrificing quality for the added health value. Commonly used calcium salts might have negative effects on taste and stability of the final product (Gerstner, 2002).Calcium enrichment of food and dairy products has gained interest with the increased awareness about the importance of higher calcium intake. Dairy products are an excellent source of dietary calcium, which can be further fortified with calcium salts to achieve higher calcium intake per serving (Vyas and Tong, 2004).
Materials and Methods
Calcium in an organic salt form as calcium lactate was used for enrichment in ice cream. The calcium lactate was added at three different levels to contain contain 500mg, 1000mg and 1500mg in one litre of ice cream mix before homogenization. The calcium enriched ice creams were subjected to sensory evaluation by a panel of seven members using 9 point hedonic scale (Singh et al., 2014). Then the enriched product was also subjected to texture profile analysis according to Chansathirapanich et al. (2016). The texture analysis was performed at 15ºC using a TA.XT plus Texture Analyzer (Stable Micro System, United Kingdom). The enriched calcium in ice cream was estimated by Atomic absorption spectrometry to assess the retention (Kazi, 2015). All the statistical analyses were performed by using SPSS. Results were expressed as the mean± S.E., and in all applications (ANOVA) the differences were considered statistically significant at P<0.05 and highly significant at P<0.01.
Results and Discussion
The developed calcium lactate enriched ice cream was assessed by sensory evaluation using 9-point hedonic scale by a semi trained panel of seven members and the scores were presented in Table 1.
Table 1: Calcium enriched ice cream assessed by sensory evaluation using 9-point hedonic scale
|Body & Texture||8.525±0.080d||8.350±0.105c||7.525±0.080b||6.800±0.125a|
|Colour & Appearance||8.100±0.106c||8.025±0.104bc||7.675±0.075b||6.775±0.116a|
Mean± SE with different superscripts in a row differ significantly (P<0.05); C- Control (unfortified); T1Treatment with 500mg/LCalcium lactate; T2 -Treatment with 1000mg/L Calcium lactate; T3- Treatment with 1500mg/L Calcium lactate; n = 42 for each treatment; Sensory scores based on 9-point hedonic scale, where 1: dislike extremely and 9: like extremely.
The statistical analysis revealed that T1 showed better sensory scores than T2 and T3 and hence calcium lactate at 500 mg per litre ice cream mix may be incorporated for enrichment in ice cream. The enriched ice cream samples were also subjected to texture profile analysis and the results were presented in Table 2 and the results revealed that T1 was comparable with that of control ice cream than T2 and T3.
Table 2: Calcium enriched ice cream assessed by texture analysis
|Firmness (g)||363.712 ±154.794a||341.099±91.182b||447.861±42.103c||549.698±23.526d|
|Viscosity index (g/sec)||-243.129±212.824c||-211.959±142.484d||-288.275±239.337b||-368.504±49.715a|
Mean± SE with different superscripts in a row differ significantly (P<0.05); C- Control (unfortified); T1- Treatment with 500mg/L Calcium lactate;T2 – Treatment with 1000mg/L Calcium lactate; T3- Treatment with 1500mg/L Calcium lactate; n = 6 for each treatment
The recovery of calcium lactate in enriched ice cream was assessed by Atomic absorption spectrometry and the results were presented in Table 3.The T1 had better recovery than T2 and T3and hence calcium lactate could be incorporated at 500 mg per litre ice cream mix for enrichment in ice cream. The findings were in accordance with Chansathirapanich et al. (2016).
Table 3: Recovery of calcium from ice cream enriched with calcium lactate by atomic absorption spectrometry
|Quantity of calciumretained in ice cream(mg/L)||2767.500±6.980||3094.667±27.067||3320.667±16.031||3609.167±33.412|
|Recovery percentage in enriched
C- Control (unfortified); T1- Treatment with 500mg/L Calcium lactate; T2 – Treatment with 1000mg/L Calcium lactate; T3- Treatment with 1500mg/L Calcium lactate; n = 6 for each treatment
Calcium deficiency with its diversified effects on health status, levies a huge burden on the healthcare system worldwide. Several advanced nations have launched nationwide fortification programs to improve calcium status in children, elderly persons and post menopause women. Foods are rarely fortified with calcium in India. Hence an attempt has been made to enrich calcium lactate in ice cream at 500mg per litre of mix which evinced better overall sensory acceptability, texture profile and retention in the finished product. Therefore it might be concluded that calcium lactate enriched ice cream could be a mass intervention to address calcium deficiency.