The experiment was conducted to know the Performance of Kadaknath and Krishna-J Birds reared as backyard system of farming in Mandla District of M.P. (India) at KVK, Mandla. Day old twenty female with five male chicks of Kadaknath and Krishna-J chicks for each farmers (Total Two hundred and twenty five each breed) were randomly distributed reared as backyard system of farming. The birds were vaccinated against Ranikhet disease (F1 -strain) and Gumboro disease. From the experiment it was concluded that body weight gain was significantly higher in Krishna-J birds as compare to Kadaknath birds, similarly egg production was also significantly higher in the Krishna-J birds but age at 1st laying, hatchability and mortality data were non significant among each other. The egg selling rate was same for both the breeds but meat of Kadaknath bird fetch high price due to its medicinal uses.
Mandla is a tribal district situated in the east-central part of Madhaya Pradesh. The district lies almost entirely in the catchments of river Narmada & its tributaries. A district with a glorious history, Mandla comprises of numerous rivers and endowed with rich forests. Tribal population (50.45%) dominates the district. Main sub-castes of tribes are Baiga, Gond, Kol & Pradhan. Majority of them is depending on forest for their livelihood.
Birds native to our country are very colorful, easy to manage as backyard flocks and are disease resistant. Their meat as well as eggs are in good demand and also fetch good price. Kadaknath, which is reared by most of the tribes as backyard system of farming without any vaccination and hygiene and offered only kitchen waste and small amount of grains, therefore its growth rate is very low and mortality rate is high. It is always in demand due to its unique characteristics like black flesh and very low fat percent, but its availability is very low as compared to its demand (Parmar et. al., 2003). Krishna-J Bird is a replica of indigenous coloured hen developed by Deptt. of poultry Science, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur for rural and tribal poultry keeping. Physical characteristics of the Krishna-J bird is similar to desi bird. The present experiment was conducted to study the performance of Kadaknath and Krishna-J Birds reared as backyard system of farming in Mandla District of M.P.
Materials and Methods
Day old Kadaknath and Krishna-J chicks (Two hundred and twenty five each breed) were randomly distributed into farmers of twenty females with five males reared as backyard system of farming. The experiment was conducted at farmers level at the adopted villages of KVK, Mandla (M.P.) India. The birds were vaccinated against Ranikhet disease (F1 -strain) and Gumboro disease .The data for body weight, mortality and egg production were recorded weekly. Local desi birds was used for hatching (brooding) of Kadaknath as well as Krishna-J birds as they do not tend to brood the eggs. The deworming was done at regular interval to overcome the worm infestation. The data obtained during experiment were statistically analyzed following the procedure described by Snedecor and Cochran (1989).
Results and Discussion
The average weekly body weight and gain in body weight of Kadaknath and Krishna-J birds are shown in Table 1 from 1 to 12th week of age. The data shows that gain in body weight was statistically non significant in 1st to 7th week and in 12th week, however the gain in body weight was significantly higher (P>0.01) in 8th to 11th week in Krishna-J birds as similar to Jain et. al. (2010).
Table 1: Weekly Body weight gain of Kadaknath and Krishna-J birds
|Age (Weeks)||Kadaknath birds||Krishna-J birds|
|Body weight(g)||Gain in Body weight(g)||Body weight(g)||Gain in Body weight(g)|
The production performance (egg production, age at first laying, hatchability and mortality) of Kadaknath and Krishna-J birds are shown in Table 2. From the table it is clear that egg production was significantly higher (P<0.01) in Krishna- J birds as compare to Kadaknath birds (Haunshi et al., 2011 and Thakur et. al., 2003).The eggs were laid between 20-25 days interval. The age at Ist Laying, hatchability and mortality was comparable among each other. The high mortality in both the breeds was due to the wild animals attack (cat, snake and eagle) and severe cold in the month of December and January.
Table 2: Production performance of Kadaknath and Krishna-J birds
|Age at Ist Laying(wk.)||22±0.54||21±0.62|
Economics of Kadaknath Rearing
The eggs of both the breeds were sold @ Rs. 5 per egg. The rate of Krishna- J chicken is 150 per kg and Kadaknath chicken is 200-250 per kg. The high rate of Kadaknath chicken is due to its medicinal uses. Abundant clinical experience has indicated that Kadaknath chicken has a peculiar effectiveness in treating women’s discuss, sterility, monoxenic (abnormal menstruation) , habitual abortion, blood leucorrhoea, pulmonary problems (tuberculosis), heart diseases, asthma and nephritis etc. The eggs of Kadaknath is nutritive especially for old peoples and high blood pressure victims since the cholesterol content is lower and free amino acids are higher then that of other kind of birds.
From the experiment It may be concluded that Krisjna-j breed has high body weight gain, higher egg production as compared to Kadaknath breed and Krishna-j can be popularize in rural areas for backyard rearing however Kadaknath breed has delicious meat and due to its medicinal uses it is still reared under backyard rearing.
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Jain A., I. S.Tomar, R.K. Tripathi and Sandip Kumar (2010). Effect of Different Levels of Protein on Growth Performance in Kadaknath Birds, Ind. J. Anim. Prod. Mgmt.,15: 45-47.
Parmar, S.N.S., Shrivastava, P.N., Tomar,S.S.,Pillai, P.V.A. & Tomar, I.S., Characterization of Kadaknath breed of poultry. JNKVV, Technical Bulletin, DRS/2003/01.
Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1989). Statistical methods, 8th edu. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.
Thakur, M. S., S. N. S. Parmar, M. V. Chaudhari, and J. K. Bhardwaj (2009). Growth hormone gene polymorphism and its association with egg production in Kadaknath chicken. Livest. Res.Rural Dev. 21(8), Article 132. Accessed July 17, 2010. http://www.lrrd.org/llrd21/8/cont2108 .