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Performance of Commercial Broiler Chicken under Sex Separate Rearing in Deep Litter System

Sanghamitra Kalita Kula Prasad Kalita Niranjan Kalita Joga Dev Mahanta
Vol 8(5), 129-135
DOI- http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20170605044648

The investigation was undertaken to compare the effect of sex separate rearing on the performance of broiler chicken. Sex separation of the chicks were done at 22nd day by observing the early appearance of comb in males. A total of 180 day old commercial broiler chicks were divided into three treatment groups viz., T0 ( mixed sex i.e. 30 males and 30 females), T1(60 male) and T2(60 female)with three replicates each with 20 chicks. At 6th week T1 showed the highest (2509.17±22.24g) body weight followed by T0 (2322.11±33.38g) and T2 (2226.67±19.64g). At 6th week of age the highest feed intake was observed in T2 (607.166g) followed by T0 (495.33g) and T1 (488 g). At 6th week the overall F.C.R was best in T1 (1.91) followed by T0 (2.11) and T2 (2.15).Gross profit per broiler was higher by Rs. 23.21 in T1 and Rs.14.53 in T0 as compared T2.


Keywords : Body Weight Broiler FCR Feed Intake Gross Profit Sex-Separate Rearing

Introduction

Broiler farming is one of the promising and sustainable businesses in agricultural sector. More and more unemployed educated youths, school dropouts, housewives and many other have chosen broiler based activities on semi-commercial lines or also as fulltime vocation. The factors responsible for such a fast developing phenomena are said to have been due to availability of improved germ-plasm, quick profitable returns and good consumer acceptance without any religious taboo. One of the great economic problems of the broiler production is that all broilers are not the same weight at the market age. It is because broilers are being raised as straight run or mixed sex population. Because of difference in their sex, male and female broiler differs from each other in many respects. The growth pattern of male and female broiler is different from each other. Under similar management condition, compared to females the males grow faster, achieve marketable weight earlier than females. Disparity in growth rate of male and female broiler has been reported by many researchers. No significant difference in body weight gain, between the separated and mixed birds were found (Lang et al., 1960) while there was very little apparent benefit from rearing the sexes separately (Gehle et al., 1974). Male and female broiler have different growth rate, which can be enhanced by measurement, for instance, the female broiler utilize dietary energy more than the males between 5th and 8th weeks of their growing period (Mendonca and De., 1983). Again Meijerhof (1988) reported that bird separated into sexes had significantly lower feed intake than those managed as mixed-sexes. According to Burke and Sharp (1989) the mean body weight of male embryo was significantly greater than that of the female at 11,13 and 18 days of incubation. Male broiler has been reported to grow faster and heavier than the female under various rearing conditions. From this report there appear to be possible growth enhancing prospects in sex separate rearing. Since the beginning of hatching broiler males have 1% body weight higher than the female but along with age the difference become 17% harvest. It is caused by difference in growth curve between male and female. Growth rate is a reflection of metabolic activity, which is strongly influenced by sex, age, nutritional status and homogeneity. It also has been reported that in sex separate growing, the male chicken showed better performance in terms of more production (Beg et al., 2016).

However, there are few reports on the practice of separating broiler chicken into sexes while raising them. Laseinde and Oluyemi (1994) reported significant difference in body weight gain and feed intake between separated and mixed-sex-birds. Verrapen and Driver (2000) also reported significant benefits from rearing the broiler sexes separately. They reported that bodyweight gain and weight of most component carcass parts were significantly heavier in males than the females.

Materials and Methods

The experiment  was  done  in  the  Instructional  Poultry  farm, C.V.Sc, AAU,  Khanapara, Assam from  the  month  of  August  to  October  2015. One hundred eighty numbers of  day-old  commercial  broiler  chicks having  similar  body  weight  from  a single  hatch  was  procured. Wing banding of the chicks were done on the 1st day of arrival. The  straight  run  commercial  broiler  chicks  were  reared  from  day-old  to  21  days under  standard  managemental  practices. Sex  separation  was  done  by  observing  the early  appearance  of  comb  in  case  of  male  birds.  At  22 days  of  age, 180  birds  were randomly  selected  from  the  flock  and  it  was  categorized  into  three  treatment  groups  viz., T0 (60 Straight  run  or  mixed  sex i.e. 30  males  and  30  females),  T1 (60  males)  and  T2 (60 females). Each  group  was  divided  into  3  replicates  with  20  chicks  each. They were provided ad-libitum feed and water. The weight of individual bird was recorded at weekly interval with the help of standard weighing scale. The average feed intake of different treatment groups was calculated on weekly basis. From these records, the average weekly feed consumption and total feed intake of different experimental groups were calculated and recorded. The average weekly and total feed conversion ratio (FCR) of birds under different treatment groups were calculated as a ratio of amount of feed consumed per unit of body weight gain. The cost of production of broilers was compared in terms of the production parameters as well as the current market rates for these items by following standard procedure of analysis. For calculation of economics, data was collected up to 42 days. Data were analyzed by using standard statistical method (Snedecor and Cochran, 1994). The average cost of production per broiler in various treatment groups was calculated by adopting the formula described by Narahari and Kumararaj (2008).

Result and Discussion

At 4th week of age the average body weight of broilers in T1 group were found to be highest (1460.17 ± 11.05 g) followed by T0 (1355.67 ± 18.13 g) and T2 (1310.33 ± 11.67 g). At 5th week of age also the highest body weight was observed in T1 (2254.67 ± 28.13 g) followed by T0 (2087.50 ± 33.81 g) and T2 (1945.17 ± 23.49 g). At 6th week of age, the highest body weight of T1 (2509.17 ± 22.24 g) was followed by T0 (2322.11 ± 33.38 g) and T2 (2226.67 ± 19.64 g). The analysis of variance showed that, at 4th, 5th and 6th week of age the mean body weight of the 3 groups were found to be significantly different (P<0.05) from each other. These results of body weights are not surprising as male broilers can grow faster compared to female because of their genetic capability (Kalita and Sapcota, 2014). Significantly heavier average body weight in male broilers compared to their female counterparts was also reported by Lopez et al. (2011), Amponsah et al. (2012), Hernawan et al.(2012), Sogunle et al.(2013) and Kalita and Sapcota (2014), Beg et al.(2016). Similarly, Narahari and Kumararaj (2008) also reported that male chicks are not only capable of growing at a faster rate, but also grow well for a longer period. The average body weight of male group was significantly higher followed by mixed sex population and the female group. This could be due to the presence of only male bird in T1 group and 50 % male inT0 group. This is indicative of an advantage by rearing broilers sex-separated after the end of the brooding period. The female group of broiler could not grow fast as compared to the other two groups. This could be due to their genetic make-up.

Table: 1: Mean (±SE) weekly body weight (g/bird) of broilers under different treatment groups

Group

Weeks

T0

(Mixed-sex)

T1

(Male)

T2

(Female)

3rd week 855.00b ±9.04 943.16a ±7.17 861.33b ±6.73
4th week 1355.67b ±18.13 1460.17a ±11.05 1310.33c ±11.67
5th week 2087.50b ± 33.81 2254.67a ±28.13 1945.17c ±23.49
6th week 2322.11b ± 33.38 2509.17a ±22.24 2226.67c ±19.64

Means bearing different superscripts within a row differ significantly (P≤0.05)

The average weekly feed intake of broilers in T0 was 888.83, 1410.5 and 495.33 g respectively at 4th, 5th and 6th week of age. In case of broilers raised under T1 group, the average weekly feed intake was 915.66, 1509.55 and 488 g respectively at 4th, 5th and 6th week of age (Table 2).

Table 2: Weekly average feed intake (g/bird) under different treatment groups

Groups

Weeks

T0

(Mixed-sex)

T1

(Male)

T2

(Female)

4th week 888.83 915.66 824.66
5th week 1410.5 1509.55 1234.5
6th week 495.33 488 607.166

The corresponding figures for broilers raised under T2 group were 824.66, 1234.5 and 607.166 respectively. The average feed consumption at 4th week of age was found to be highest in T1 group followed by T0 group and T2 group. Normally males grow fast and require more nutrients for higher rate of growth. For this reason, males consume more feed and thus the highest bodyweight was observed in the male (T1) group followed by mixed-sex (T0) group which also comprised of equal number of males along with equal number of females. Among the 3 groups, lowest feed consumption was observed in T2 group as the group comprised of only female birds. As expected, higher feed consumption at 5th week of age was also observed in T1 group followed by T0 and T2 group respectively. It was due to the presence of male birds in both the groups but not T2 group which was comprised of only female birds. It is because the males are behaviorally more active than the females and hence consume more feed (Fischer, 1975). Similar observation was also made by Azahanet al. (2007) and Beg et al. (2016). Further higher feed intake in T0 group as compared to T2 group was due to the presence of equal number of male bird in T0 group. Similar observation also made by Laseinde and Oluyemi (1994), Veerapan and Driver (1999), Li and Nolan (2002), Rondelli (2003), Sam et al. (2010), Hernawanet al. (2012), Sogunleet al. (2013). At 6th week of age, all the 3 groups of broilers were expected to consume more feed than the previous week but found to have consumed lesser quantity of feed. This was due to very high environmental temperature coupled with high relative humidity particularly during the day and as well as evening period.

The average weekly feed conversion ratios of broilers in T0, T1 and T2 were 1.77, 1.92 and 2.11, 1.77, 1.90 and 1.91 and 1.83, 1.94 and 2.15 respectively at 4th, 5thand 6th week of age (Table 3).

Table 3: Weekly feed conversion ratio under different treatment groups

Groups

Weeks

T0

(Mixed-sex)

T1

(Male)

T2

(Female)

4th week 1.77 1.77 1.83
5th week 1.92 1.90 1.94
6th week 2.11 1.91 2.15

 

The average feed conversion ratio at 4th week of age was numerically better in T1 group and T0 group followed by T2. Male broilers have the inherent ability to grow fast and hence can utilize feed more efficiently as compared to their female counterparts resulting better feed conversion ratio. At 5th and 6th week of age also the T1 group showed the best FCR followed by T0 and T2 group of broilers. It might be due to the better physiological capacity of male in converting feed into body mass more efficiently than the females (Azahanet al., 2007 and Beg et al., 2016). Contrary to the present finding, Lemoreux and Proudfoot (1969) andLaseinde and Oluyemi (1994) found no significant effect of rearing the sexes separately or intermingled on feed conversion efficiency of broiler. However, different feed conversion ratio between male and female broiler also reported by Gehleet al. (1974), Veerapen and Driver (1999) and Almasiet al. (2012).

The cost offered was calculated as Rs. 153.04, Rs. 163.33 and Rs.156.44 respectively for T0, T1 and T2 group (Table 4). The miscellaneous cost was Rs. 27.46, Rs. 29.06 and Rs. 28.03 respectively for T0, T1 and T2 group of broilers and the Cost of production was observed as Rs.210.952, Rs.222.847 and Rs.214.924 respectively for T0, T1 and T2 group. The return amount (Rs. 110/kg) for T0, T1 and T2 group of broilers were Rs.255.42, Rs. 275.99 and Rs. 244.86 respectively. The gross profit was calculated as Rs. 44.47, Rs. 53.15 and Rs. 29.94 respectively for T0, T1 and T2 group. From the table it can be observed that gross profit was highest in T1 group followed by T0 and T2 group. The cost of production was found to be highest (Rs.222.847) in T1group in comparison to T2 (Rs.214.924) and T0 (Rs.210.952) group due to the higher consumption of feed in that order.

Table 4: Cost of production and gross profit (Rs) per broiler under different treatment groups

Group

Parameter

T0

(Mixed-sex)

T1

(Male)

T2

(Female)

I. Expenditure 30.45 30.45 30.45
1. Chick cost(A)=1.05×cost of one day old chick(Rs)
2.Feed cost (B)=Live weight in kg × FCR× cost per kg of feed (Rs) 153.04

 

163.33 156.44
3. Miscellaneous expenditures( C )= add 10 % of (A+B)(Rs) 27.462 29.067 28.034
4. Additional cost  (D) Nil Nil Nil
5. Production of cost per  broiler (A+B+C+D) (Rs) 210.952 222.847 214.924
II. Return

1.Sale of one live broiler @ Rs 110/per kg

 

255.42

 

275.99

 

244.86

III Gross profit(Rs) 44.47 53.15 29.94

However, gross profit per bird was highest (Rs.53.15) in T1 group followed by T0 (Rs. 44.47) and T2(Rs.29.94) group. This is because of better rate of growth of male birds which constituted 100% in T1 group and 50% inT0 group. Lowest gross profit per bird observing T2 group is due to their genetic background as the group comprised of only female birds which had lower rate of growth. Better gross profit observed in the male group of broiler due to male broilers to be more active behaviorally than females; hence consume more feed and gain weight faster than the female (Fischer, 1975).

Conclusion 

The biological trial was conducted with 180 numbers of day old commercial broiler chicks to know the effect of sex separate rearing on their productive performances. Sex separate rearing help in the efficient management of birds more efficiently as compared to traditional straight run rearing practice. It gives better body weight gain with improved FCR of males with highest gross profit per male broiler. Lack of peck order related problem observed in sex separated flock compared to straight run flock. The males grow faster than the female birds so they get the market age 4 to 5 days earlier and it can minimize the feed cost (cost of 4-5 days feed) also. Farmers can exploit the various advantages of sex separate rearing of broilers from 4th week onwards by identifying the males by observing the early appearance of the comb compared to females to the market age and thus can be recommended.

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