The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of enzyme on performance of commercial broiler chicks. Two enzyme levels (without and with enzyme supplementation) were considered for the study. The experiment consisted of two replicates for enzyme groups. The performance of broiler was evaluated in terms of growth and feed efficiency at 6th week of age. Inclusion of enzyme in diet had significant effect in both the sexes. Group of chicks fed with diet E (with enzyme) were significantly heavier than those fed with diet E0 (without enzyme) at second week body weight. Inclusion of enzyme had significant effect at third week age of body weight. The group of chicks fed with enzyme supplemented diet (E) had significantly higher body weight than the group fed without enzyme supplemented diet (E0). Inclusion of enzyme revealed significant effects on body weight. Chicks showed higher body weight with diet having enzyme. The weekly feed efficiency exposed significant effect due to enzyme. The effect of enzyme was also found to have significant effect on over all feed efficiency and the trend remained same as was found for weekly feed efficiency.
The poultry feed consists of raw materials, 2/3 of the phosphorus is present in the form of phytate phosphorus. By incorporation of phytase, phosphorus can be released from phytate which is utilize by birds. Poultry do not produce enzymes like cellulose, hemicellulose and betaglucanase which are required for digestion of cell wall of plant materials. Biotechnology of this nature saves lot of dicalcium phosphate which is otherwise scare and costly. The biotechnological developments in the field of animal production involves following areas:-a) The management of animal health and welfare. B) Improvement of crops and feeds for animal production and upgrading of feed stuffs C) Projection for manipulation of animal biochemistry and physiology.
Dietary additions of enzymes cover reimbursement like: – a) healthier utilization of low quality feeds. b) Making upgrading by better live weight gain, higher feed conversion ratio. c) High fibre diets which the birds can not digest are broken down and offered nutrients. The average live body weight gain increased significantly on using phytase supplementation alone by 7.6% compared to the unsupplemented control for the whole experimental period. Phytase supplementation also has a pronounced effect on the biological responses associated with the performance at the rest of the growth period A-Harthi (2006).
The specificity of an enzyme can easily form an enzyme-substrate complex similar to that of lock and key model. Each enzyme also shows a specific activity. Once the enzyme is bound to the substrate, it can carry out its specific action. Enzymes are involved in all anabolic and catabolic pathways of digestion. On one hand, they enable the pathways to run efficiently and on other hand act as regulators of individual process.
The enzyme with grains contain high crude fibre and polysaccharide significantly improved body weight gain and feed efficiency as reported by numerous personnel like Mathlouthi et al. (2003) and Sundu et al. (2006) in which inclusion of enzyme significantly increased weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, DM digestibility, nutrient digestibility and decreased jejunal content viscosity.
The inclusion of enzyme (xylanase) improved body weight, body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. Apparent digestibility of energy and protein were increased due to supplemental enzyme Pourreza et al. (2007).
Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted to study the influence of Enzyme (E) on the performance of day old sexed eighty commercial broiler chicks. A group of twenty broilers distributed in 2 treatments replicated twice. The chicks were reared in electric battery brooders under same environmental conditions.
The “ABIZYME FORTE” enzymes BIOCON product containing the amylase 9,000-11,000 U/g, Phytase 90-110 U/g, cellulose 3800-4300 U/g, xylanase 2400-3300U/g beta-glucanase 2300-2600U/g and Proteases 900-1100U/g are mixed and added @ 200 mg Kg-1 of feed.
Data pertaining to performance traits such as growth, feed efficiency, conformation traits and per cent mortality, body weights were recorded by weighing individual chicks at weekly interval upto 6 weeks of age. Chicks were fed experimental ration ad-libitum. Difference in initial and final body weight represented the weight gain by chicks over the corresponding period. Weighed amounts of diet were provided to chicks. Feed consumed and weight gain was recorded weekly. The per cent mortality was also regularly recorded for each group. The data collected under study were analyzed as 3x2x2 factorial completely randomized design according to Snedecor and Cochran (1995). The following recording and sampling procedures were adopted during the experimental period.
The biweekly records of the feed offered and residual amounts of weigh backs were maintained for each replicate to calculate the feed consumption per bird.
The biweekly records of the water offered and residual amounts of weigh backs were maintained for each replicate to calculate the water consumption per bird. Within the same house in a specific battery brooder per pen a waterer was placed to measure the daily evaporation loss for knowing the actual water intake of the experimental birds throughout the experiment.
The birds were weighed individually at biweekly intervals and the body weights were recorded to calculate body weight gains.
Feed Conversion Ratio
The feed conversion ratio was calculated as follows:-
Total feed consumed (g)/bird
FCR = –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Total body weight gain (g)
Results and Discussion
The present experiment was designed to study the influence of enzymes on performance of commercial broiler chicks. Two enzymes levels (without and with enzymes supplementation) were considered for the study. The experiment consisted of two replicates for enzymes groups. The performance of broiler was evaluated in terms of growth (weekly body weight from day old to 6 week of age) and feed efficiency. For commercial broiler chicks the data on body weight and feed efficiency due to inclusion of enzymes are presented in Table 1 and 2 respectively.
Table 1: Means for weekly body weights of chicks due to the enzymes effects.
|Factors||Day old||I week||II week||III week||IV week||V week||VI week|
|E0||42.83||103.36||231.12a||341.29a||642.54a||940.54 a||1083.14 a|
*Means having similar super-scripts do not differ significantly, E0 means without enzyme
E means with enzyme
Inclusion of enzyme in diet did not affect the first week body weight when analysis was performed. Inclusion of enzyme in diet had highly significant effect when Group of chicks fed with diet E (with enzyme) were significantly heavier than those fed with diet E0 (without enzyme) at second week body weight. It indicates that the enzyme supplementation had weighty effect on early growth of chicks. Inclusion of enzyme in diet had significant effect at third week of age on body weight; the group of chicks fed with enzyme supplemented diet (E) had significantly higher body weight than the group fed without enzyme supplemented diet (E0). It indicates that inclusion of enzyme in diet had positive effects on chicks. Chicks showed higher body weight with diet having enzyme. Enzyme was found to exert highly significant effect on growth performance. The group of chicks fed diet supplemented with enzyme showed higher body weight than the diet not containing enzyme.
The baby chicks had a well developed proteolytic enzyme system at one day of age and the feeding of enzyme in the earlier stages did not improve the growth. However, enzyme supplementation with the feed ingredients containing high crude fibre and polysaccharides helps to improve the growth significantly.
The results of the present study also revealed non-significant differences for 1st week body weight due to enzyme effect but highly significant differences were observed for weekly body weights from 2nd to 6th weeks of age due to supplementation of enzyme in the diet. This indicated that the supplementation of enzyme had improved the growth of commercial broiler chicks. Chesson (1987) indicted improvement in the performance of broilers fed with low energy diets supplemented with enzyme. Ranade (1992) also reported that the flock receiving enzymes supplemented diet showed 4.79 per cent improvement in live weight over control. They suggest that the enzyme is useful for improvement in commercial broiler farm.
Harthi (2006) showed that, the diet supplementation with a combination of Avizyme, phytase and 2 g/kg of condiments significantly increased the gain of body weight during the first growth period (7-21 days of age). The average live body weight gain increased significantly on using phytase supplementation alone by 7.6% compared to the unsupplemented control for the whole experimental period. Phytase supplementation also has a pronounced effect on the biological responses associated with the performance at the rest of the growth period. The interpretation made by Baker et al. (2007) and Deek et al. (2008) that the body weight gain in the enzyme supplemented groups were better than control groups were also in agreement to the results observed in present experiment.
Table 2: Feed efficiency of chicks due to the enzymes effects.
|Factors||I week||II week||III week||IV week||V week||VI week||Overall FE|
*Means having similar super-scripts do not differ significantly, E0 means without enzyme
E means with enzyme, FE feed efficiency
The weekly feed efficiency exposed significant effect of enzyme for weekly feed efficiency. Averaged overall other effects, the enzyme was also found to have significant effect on over all feed efficiency and the trend remained same as was found for weekly body weight. The findings of Donker’s (1990), Okumura (1993) showed that the enzyme supplementation increased the digestive capacity of birds which improves feed conversion efficiency and digestibility of feed components are in good agreement with the findings of the present study. Mathlouthi et al. (2003) concluded that supplementation of diets based on wheat and barley with xylanase and β-glucanase significantly improved body weight gain and feed efficiency. Sundu et al. (2006) and Waldroup et al. (2006) concluded that the inclusion of enzyme significantly increased weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, Pourreza et al. (2007) Added enzyme (xylanase) improved feed intake and feed conversion ratio. Apparent digestibility of energy and protein were increased due to supplemental enzyme. Superior feed efficiency in enzymes supplemented diet over the control was observed in the present experiment.
In the conclusion we can say that supplementation of diet improves both body weight and feed efficiency of the broiler chicks. The improvement in the efficiency was greater after second week of age.
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