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Prophylactic Calendar for Poultry Birds

Asif Iqbal R. Singh
Vol 2(1), 208-212
DOI-

Vaccination plays an important part in the health management of the poultry flock. There are numerous diseases that are prevented by vaccinating the birds against them. The purpose in using a vaccine to prevent a particular disease is to trigger or boost the bird’s immune system to produce antibodies that in turn fight the invading causal organisms. A natural invasion that actually causes the disease will have the same result - the bird produces antibodies that fight future invasion. Unfortunately the damage done to the bird suffering such a disease is usually too great and the bird either dies or becomes unthrifty and non-productive. A natural invasion caused infection will be uncontrolled and has the possibility of causing severe damage. Vaccination is a way of obtaining a controlled result with a minimum of harm to the birds. Vaccines are generally fragile products some of which are live but in a state of suspended animation, others are dead. All have a finite life that is governed by the way they are handled and used. Handling and administration procedures also influence the potency of many vaccines and consequently the level of immunity the bird develops.


Keywords : Vaccination schedule Poultry

Objectives of Vaccination

The main objective of vaccination is to increase the specific immunity to infections to which the vaccinated poultry are likely to be exposed so that, when challenged, they either do not suffer the disease, or suffer to a much lesser extent than if they had not been vaccinated. The associated economic objective is to ensure that, on average, the cost of the vaccines purchased, their application, and any loss of productivity caused by their application, is less than the cost of the disease if vaccines are not used. In order to achieve the general objective a series of component objectives may be identified. These may vary to some extent with the particular type of production and disease. The appropriate vaccine should have been tested and confirmed to be efficacious when properly administered. It should be available in the market in the required amounts and of consistent quality. It should be sufficiently stable in normal storage and application. Practical methods of administration should be available, and any required equipment procured and properly maintained. Farmers, farm staff or contractors should have been properly trained in their application. The stock should not be suffering an immuno-suppressive disease capable of blocking the response to vaccination. The timing, dose, repeat administration, should have been reviewed and chosen to avoid adverse interaction with other vaccines and management activities, and optimise the response. A system of monitoring response to vaccination, where practical and appropriate measures should have been implemented. Appropriate biosecurity should have been implemented to reduce the risk of the immunity being overwhelmed by excessive challenge. In poultry production vaccination is most commonly applied in order to protect the stock on the particular farm being vaccinated. However it may be applied for the benefit of the future owner of the stock. It may even be applied for the benefit of a future generation when, for instance, breeding chickens are vaccinated in order to confer immunity to their progeny during the first few weeks of life.

           Vaccination Schedule for Broilers

S. No. Name of Vaccination Age Route of Administration
1 Marek’s disease 1 day Subcutaneous
2 Ranikhet disease(F-Strain) 4-10 days Intra Occular/ Intra Nasal
3 Gumboro disease 18-21 days IntraOccular/Drinking water
4 Ranikhet disease (F-Strain, Booster) 30-35 days Intra Occular/ Intra Nasal/Drinking water

 


Vaccination Schedule for Layers

S. N Name of Vaccination Age Route of Administration
1 Marek’s disaese vaccine 1 day old Intra Nasal / Intra Occular
2 Ranikhet disease vaccine (Lasota ‘F’ strain) 4-10 days old Intra-Nasal/
Intra-occular
3 Gumboro disease vaccine 18-21 days old Intra Occular/ Drinking water
4 Infectious Bronchitis vaccine 24-48 days old Intra Occular/ drinking water
5 Ranikhet disease F- strain(Booster) 5 weeks-6 weeks Intra Occular/ drinking water
6 Ranikhet disease (R2B strain) 8 weeks-9 weeks Subcutaneous
7 Fowl Pox 10 weeks-11 weeks Scratching
8 Infectious Bronchitis (Booster) 14 weeks-16 weeks Intra Occular/ drinking water
9 Fowl pox (Booster) 16 weeks-17 weeks Scratching/ Intramuscular
10 Ranikhet disease (killed) 18 weeks-19 weeks Intramuscular/ Subcutaneous
11 Ranikhet and Bronchitis Combined vaccine 40 weeks and above Drinking water
12 Gumboro disease 45 weeks-50 weeks Intramuscular/ Subcutaneous

Disease prevention and control

Following points should be remembered for prevention and control of the disease:

  • Clean sanitary conditions of poultry sheds and equipment, balanced feed, fresh clean water, healthy chicks are essential to prevent diseases.
  • Avoid entry of visitors to farm, especially inside the sheds. If visitors come, ask them to dip their feet in a disinfectant solution wash and clean hands and to wear apron/boots provided by the farm.
  • Use proper vaccination schedule. Use high quality vaccines purchased from reputed manufacturers. Keep vaccines in cool, dry conditions away from sunlight. Any leftover vaccine should be properly disposed off. Vaccines should not be used after their expiry date is over.
  • Any bird showing advanced signs of a disease, should be removed from the shed and culled. It can be sent to laboratory for diagnosis.
  • Birds showing advanced signs of a disease should be shown to a qualified veterinarian and suitable medication/treatment be given as per his/drug manufactures recommendations.
  • Any dead birds should be immediately removed from the shed and sent to laboratory for diagnosis or buried/buried/burnt suitably away from the poultry sheds. The waste of farm should be suitably disposed off.
  • Poultry manure, if infected, can spread disease, from one batch to another. Keep the litter dry, remove it after flock is sold and dispose the manure properly and quickly.
  • Keep proper records on mortality and its causes and the treatment given to birds. Dates of vaccination for each flock should be properly recorded. Rats are important carries of poultry disease. Use suitable rat poisons/rat traps.
  • Many poultry medicines can be given in drinking water. When medication is to be given, remove the waterers in poultry sheds on the previous evening. Next morning give medicine in measured quantity of water, so that entire medicine will be quickly consumed and there will be no wastage of medicines.
  • Mild infection of disease may not cause mortality but it will reduce growth. Keep sample record of body weight and mortality rate. Study the possible causes; if weight is low take steps to improve the management of the subsequent batches. A Constant vigil and analysis of records/results is necessary to keep up the efficiency in farming.

References

Banerjee G.C., A Text book of Animal Husbandry 2005 edn

Chakrabarti A., A Text book of Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2007 edn.

Joseph M. Maudlin., Small flock vaccination. Poultry Science July 2005,University of Georgia.

Responsible use of vaccines and vaccination in poultry production. A farm health planning initiative in partnership with DEFRA.Supported by the National Office of Animal Health (NOAH), November 2006.

Shukla R.K., Handbook of Poultry Diseases- A bed guide 2006 edn

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