Vaccination plays an important part in the health management of the poultry flock. There are numerous diseases that are prevented by vaccinating the birds against them. The purpose in using a vaccine to prevent a particular disease is to trigger or boost the bird’s immune system to produce antibodies that in turn fight the invading causal organisms. A natural invasion that actually causes the disease will have the same result - the bird produces antibodies that fight future invasion. Unfortunately the damage done to the bird suffering such a disease is usually too great and the bird either dies or becomes unthrifty and non-productive. A natural invasion caused infection will be uncontrolled and has the possibility of causing severe damage. Vaccination is a way of obtaining a controlled result with a minimum of harm to the birds. Vaccines are generally fragile products some of which are live but in a state of suspended animation, others are dead. All have a finite life that is governed by the way they are handled and used. Handling and administration procedures also influence the potency of many vaccines and consequently the level of immunity the bird develops.
Objectives of Vaccination
The main objective of vaccination is to increase the specific immunity to infections to which the vaccinated poultry are likely to be exposed so that, when challenged, they either do not suffer the disease, or suffer to a much lesser extent than if they had not been vaccinated. The associated economic objective is to ensure that, on average, the cost of the vaccines purchased, their application, and any loss of productivity caused by their application, is less than the cost of the disease if vaccines are not used. In order to achieve the general objective a series of component objectives may be identified. These may vary to some extent with the particular type of production and disease. The appropriate vaccine should have been tested and confirmed to be efficacious when properly administered. It should be available in the market in the required amounts and of consistent quality. It should be sufficiently stable in normal storage and application. Practical methods of administration should be available, and any required equipment procured and properly maintained. Farmers, farm staff or contractors should have been properly trained in their application. The stock should not be suffering an immuno-suppressive disease capable of blocking the response to vaccination. The timing, dose, repeat administration, should have been reviewed and chosen to avoid adverse interaction with other vaccines and management activities, and optimise the response. A system of monitoring response to vaccination, where practical and appropriate measures should have been implemented. Appropriate biosecurity should have been implemented to reduce the risk of the immunity being overwhelmed by excessive challenge. In poultry production vaccination is most commonly applied in order to protect the stock on the particular farm being vaccinated. However it may be applied for the benefit of the future owner of the stock. It may even be applied for the benefit of a future generation when, for instance, breeding chickens are vaccinated in order to confer immunity to their progeny during the first few weeks of life.
Vaccination Schedule for Broilers
|S. No.||Name of Vaccination||Age||Route of Administration|
|1||Marek’s disease||1 day||Subcutaneous|
|2||Ranikhet disease(F-Strain)||4-10 days||Intra Occular/ Intra Nasal|
|3||Gumboro disease||18-21 days||IntraOccular/Drinking water|
|4||Ranikhet disease (F-Strain, Booster)||30-35 days||Intra Occular/ Intra Nasal/Drinking water|
Vaccination Schedule for Layers
|S. N||Name of Vaccination||Age||Route of Administration|
|1||Marek’s disaese vaccine||1 day old||Intra Nasal / Intra Occular|
|2||Ranikhet disease vaccine (Lasota ‘F’ strain)||4-10 days old||Intra-Nasal/
|3||Gumboro disease vaccine||18-21 days old||Intra Occular/ Drinking water|
|4||Infectious Bronchitis vaccine||24-48 days old||Intra Occular/ drinking water|
|5||Ranikhet disease F- strain(Booster)||5 weeks-6 weeks||Intra Occular/ drinking water|
|6||Ranikhet disease (R2B strain)||8 weeks-9 weeks||Subcutaneous|
|7||Fowl Pox||10 weeks-11 weeks||Scratching|
|8||Infectious Bronchitis (Booster)||14 weeks-16 weeks||Intra Occular/ drinking water|
|9||Fowl pox (Booster)||16 weeks-17 weeks||Scratching/ Intramuscular|
|10||Ranikhet disease (killed)||18 weeks-19 weeks||Intramuscular/ Subcutaneous|
|11||Ranikhet and Bronchitis Combined vaccine||40 weeks and above||Drinking water|
|12||Gumboro disease||45 weeks-50 weeks||Intramuscular/ Subcutaneous|
Disease prevention and control
Following points should be remembered for prevention and control of the disease:
Banerjee G.C., A Text book of Animal Husbandry 2005 edn
Chakrabarti A., A Text book of Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2007 edn.
Joseph M. Maudlin., Small flock vaccination. Poultry Science July 2005,University of Georgia.
Responsible use of vaccines and vaccination in poultry production. A farm health planning initiative in partnership with DEFRA.Supported by the National Office of Animal Health (NOAH), November 2006.
Shukla R.K., Handbook of Poultry Diseases- A bed guide 2006 edn