A male black headed ibis bird belongs to S.V. Zoological Park, Tirupati was died with the symptoms of sudden dullness, anorexia and gradual weight loss and the dead bird was brought to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, CVSc, Tirupati for necropsy examination. On necropsy, severe enlargement of the proventriculus with the impacted undigested food material was noticed. In addition to this, a sharp fencing wire perforating from the gizzard (Ventriculus) causing ventriculitis was also noticed as a prominent gross lesion. Based on gross findings, the present case was diagnosed as stomach (Proventriculus and ventriculus) impaction and ventriculitis.
Black headed ibis bird’s breeds in India, Bangladesh, Srilanka and Japan. They feed on various fishes, frogs and other water creatures. Proventricular-ventricular impaction along with ventriculitis was not reported in these birds. Impaction due to ingestion of foreign materials was previously reported by many authors and majority of the reports are in ostriches (Sato et al., 1994, Nagarajan et al., 2011 and Zakeri and Kashefi, 2011). Very few reports were noticed in geese (Daoust et al., 1991) and lesser rhea chicks (Reissig and Robles, 2001). To the author’s knowledge, this was the first case report explaining both impaction and foreign body perforation in the stomach (Proventriculus and ventriculus) of a white ibis bird.
A dead male black headed white ibis bird was brought to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, CVSc, Tirupati for post-mortem examination. Detailed clinical history was recorded. The affected birds showed signs of in appetence, gradual emaciation, recumbency and death.
Results and Discussion
Externally the bird was emaciated with loss of feathers. Conjunctival and oral mucous membranes were pale. At Necropsy, three-fourth of the abdominal cavity was occupied with the proventriculus and gizzard. Proventriculus was thrice the normal size and mild enlargement of the ventriculus was noticed (Fig.1). Proventriculus and gizzard were completely packed with the whole crayfishes with lot of macerated bones damaging the mucosa and glands (Fig.2). The eating of crayfish is not a foreign material to the White ibis bird instead it is one of the natural food habitats to it. But the ingestion of excessive solid masses of natural food habits can also lead to impaction like in the present case. It was in accordance with Sato et al. (1994) who explained the impaction in the stomach of ostriches due to indiscriminate eating of lucerne hay and maize. From the gizzard, piercing of fencing wire (foreign body) and macerated bones were noticed and surrounding the perforated area, the blood vessels were more prominent and congested (Fig. 3). During contractions, the gizzard (ventriculus) exerts pressure which might lead to the occurrence of injuries to the gizzard through penetration of the accidentally ingested foreign materials (Musa et al., 2011).
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Fig.1: Severe enlargement of the proventriculus and gizzard occupying three-fourths of the abdominal cavity
Fig.2: Cut section of proventriculus showing impacted food material
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Fig. 3: Note a sharp fencing wire penetrating outwards from the gizzard surrounded by congested blood vessels
In addition, mild thickening of the myometrium and gelatinization of the epicardial fat were recorded. Froth in the trachea and congestion of the lungs were noticed. Dark discoloration of the liver and on cut section oozing of the blood was noticed. Intestinal lumen was filled with the watery contents and there was congestion of mesenteric blood vessels. Impression smears were taken from heart, lungs and liver and are stained with Giemsa stain and Gram stain. Presence of abnormal cells and microorganisms were not detected in the impression smears.
Based on gross findings, the present case was diagnosed as proventricular and ventricular impaction and to the best of our knowledge; it was the first report in black headed ibis bird.
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