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Proventricular – Ventricular Impaction and Traumatic Ventriculitis in a Black Headed Ibis Bird (Threskiornis melanocephalus)

Srinivas Naik H. Jayasree N. Anakali Vamsi Krishna Ch. Srilatha
Vol 7(5), 290-293

A male black headed ibis bird belongs to S.V. Zoological Park, Tirupati was died with the symptoms of sudden dullness, anorexia and gradual weight loss and the dead bird was brought to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, CVSc, Tirupati for necropsy examination. On necropsy, severe enlargement of the proventriculus with the impacted undigested food material was noticed. In addition to this, a sharp fencing wire perforating from the gizzard (Ventriculus) causing ventriculitis was also noticed as a prominent gross lesion. Based on gross findings, the present case was diagnosed as stomach (Proventriculus and ventriculus) impaction and ventriculitis.

Keywords : Proventricular-Ventricular Impaction Foreign Bodies Ibis Bird


Black headed ibis bird’s breeds in India, Bangladesh, Srilanka and Japan. They feed on various fishes, frogs and other water creatures. Proventricular-ventricular impaction along with ventriculitis was not reported in these birds. Impaction due to ingestion of foreign materials was previously reported by many authors and majority of the reports are in ostriches (Sato et al., 1994, Nagarajan et al., 2011 and Zakeri and Kashefi, 2011). Very few reports were noticed in geese (Daoust et al., 1991) and lesser rhea chicks (Reissig and Robles, 2001). To the author’s knowledge, this was the first case report explaining both impaction and foreign body perforation in the stomach (Proventriculus and ventriculus) of a white ibis bird.

Case History

A dead male black headed white ibis bird was brought to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, CVSc, Tirupati for post-mortem examination. Detailed clinical history was recorded. The affected birds showed signs of in appetence, gradual emaciation, recumbency and death.

Results and Discussion

Externally the bird was emaciated with loss of feathers. Conjunctival and oral mucous membranes were pale. At Necropsy, three-fourth of the abdominal cavity was occupied with the proventriculus and gizzard. Proventriculus was thrice the normal size and mild enlargement of the ventriculus was noticed (Fig.1). Proventriculus and gizzard were completely packed with the whole crayfishes with lot of macerated bones damaging the mucosa and glands (Fig.2). The eating of crayfish is not a foreign material to the White ibis bird instead it is one of the natural food habitats to it. But the ingestion of excessive solid masses of natural food habits can also lead to impaction like in the present case. It was in accordance with Sato et al. (1994) who explained the impaction in the stomach of ostriches due to indiscriminate eating of lucerne hay and maize. From the gizzard, piercing of fencing wire (foreign body) and macerated bones were noticed and surrounding the perforated area, the blood vessels were more prominent and congested (Fig. 3). During contractions, the gizzard (ventriculus) exerts pressure which might lead to the occurrence of injuries to the gizzard through penetration of the accidentally ingested foreign materials (Musa et al., 2011).

Description: F:\phd\pm photos\white ibis bird impaction 14-11-2015\IMG_20151114_110632.jpg

Description: F:\phd\pm photos\white ibis bird impaction 14-11-2015\IMG_20151114_111036.jpg

Fig.1: Severe enlargement of the proventriculus and gizzard occupying three-fourths of the abdominal cavity

Fig.2: Cut section of proventriculus showing impacted food material

Description: F:\phd\pm photos\white ibis bird impaction 14-11-2015\IMG_20151114_110944.jpg

Fig. 3: Note a sharp fencing wire penetrating outwards from the gizzard surrounded by congested blood vessels

In addition, mild thickening of the myometrium and gelatinization of the epicardial fat were recorded. Froth in the trachea and congestion of the lungs were noticed. Dark discoloration of the liver and on cut section oozing of the blood was noticed. Intestinal lumen was filled with the watery contents and there was congestion of mesenteric blood vessels. Impression smears were taken from heart, lungs and liver and are stained with Giemsa stain and Gram stain. Presence of abnormal cells and microorganisms were not detected in the impression smears.

Based on gross findings, the present case was diagnosed as proventricular and ventricular impaction and to the best of our knowledge; it was the first report in black headed ibis bird.


Sato Y, Yasuda J, Sinsungwe H, Chimana H and Sato G 1994 An occurrence of stomach impaction in ostriches (Struthio camelus) on a farm in Zambia associated with high mortality. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 56(4): 783-784.
Musa IW, Lawal SL, Yunusa KB and Abdu PA 2011 Common Causes of Traumatic Ventriculitis in Free range and Intensively Managed Poultry in Zaria, Nigeria. Vet. World. 4(11): 511-514.
Zakeri A and Kashefi P 2011 Proventricular-Ventricular Impaction in Ostrich (Struthio Camelus). World Journal of Zoology. 6 (4): 424-426.
Nagarajan K, Selvaraj J, Balakrishnan G, Parimol Roy, Selvan ST, Veeramani P, Balachandran C, Thyagarajan D and Muralimanohar B 2011 Sand impaction in an Ostrich (Struthio Camelus): Pathological and Histopathological study. IJAVMS. 5(2): 64-72.
Daoust PY, Julian RJ, Yason CV, and Artsob H 1991 Proventricular Impaction Associated with Nonsuppurative Encephalomyelitis and Ganglioneuritis in Two Canada Geese. Journal of wild life diseases. 27(3): 513-517.
Reissig EC and Robles CA 2001 Gizzard Impaction in Lesser Rhea Chicks (Pterocnemia pennata) Raised on Farms in Patagonia, Argentina. Avian Diseases. 45: 240-244.

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