Dystocia due to suspected Schistosomus reflexus in a Jamunapari doe is put on record in present case. The obstructed fetus was removed with the help of gynaecological tools and obstetrical management. The removed foetus was then inspected for gross lesions and organ anomalies with skeletal malformations due to suspected Schistosomus reflexus infection.
Schistosomus reflexus is seen most commonly in cattle, but in rare cases, it may be observed in sheep, goat and swine (Roberts et al., 1971). It is a major congenital anomaly which occurs during embryonic development. The aetiology is unknown but it may be due to genetic factors, mutation, chromosomal anomalies, infectious agents and environmental factors or combination of all the factors (Ozsoy et al., 2009).
Case History and Observations
A three years old full term pregnant Jamunapari doe belonging to a local farmer was presented at the Clinics of Faculty of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata with history of labour pain since last nine hours. Physical examination revealed the water bag and visceral organs of foetus were protruded from vulva. Per-vaginal examination revealed the cervix was fully opened and the head and both forelimbs and hind limbs were in birth canal. Then it was decided to remove the foetus by mutation process.
Treatment and Discussion
All the viscera were returned to the pelvic cavity as much as possible by gloved hand, and then by traction with the help of obstetrical snare at first both hind limbs then rest of the body were expelled out. After proper removal of foetus it was examined and found that the body was fully developed, the vertebral column, sternum, and sacrum fully developed, abnormal curvature of spine, diaphragm was incomplete, and there was herniation of heart, liver, small intestine and large intestine to the outside in environment through a fissure measuring 5 × 3.5 cm located just end of the sternum to the anterior aspect of the pubic bone (Figs. 1 & 2). Gross macroscopic pathological examination revealed that there was necrosis of liver and heart.
Schistosomus reflexus is characterised by defect in skeletal system with an acute angulation of vertebral column of foetus causing a dorsal approximation of its head and tail. The chest and abdominal cavity are incomplete ventrally so that the viscera are exposed (Arthur et al., 1996) as observed in the present case.
It was suspected for Schistosomus reflexus foetus in doe from detailed anatomical, and macroscopic pathological reports of internal organs.
Ozsoy, S. Y., Oto. C. and Haziroglu, R. (2009) Schistosoma reflexum in a dog. Ankara Üniv Vet Fak Derg. 56: 225-226.
Arthur, G. H., Noakes, D. E., Pearson, H. and Parkinson, T. J. (1996) Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics. 7th ed., London: WB Saunders. pp. 119-120.
Roberts, S. J. (1971) Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital Diseases. 2nd ed., New Delhi: CBS publication. pp. 70.